Sei sulla pagina 1di 32

ASSESSING

WRITING
Outline
1. Introduction
2. Genre of written Language
3. Micro and Macro Skills of Writing
4. Designing Assessment Task: Imitative Writing
5. Designing Assessment Task: Intensive Writing
6. Issues in Assessing Responsive and Extensive
Writing
7. Designing Assessment Task: Responsive and
Extensive Writing
8. Test of Written English (TWE)
9. Scoring Methods For Responsive and Extensive
Writing
10. Beyond Scoring: Responding to Extensive Writing
GENRE OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE

JOB-RELATED
ACADEMIC WRITING PERSONAL WRITING
WRITING

 Letters/e-mails  Greeting Cards


 Papers  Invitations,
 Memos
 General Subject  Messages
 Job Evaluations  Notes
Reports
 Project Report  Shopping Lists
 Journals Articles 
 Schedules, Reminders,
 Lab Reports  Diaries,
 Advertisements,
 Theses  Personal journals,
 Announcements,  Fiction (Short Stories,
 Dissertations
 Manuals. Poetry)

3
Imitative Intensive

It refers to skills in producing appropriate


It is a level at which learner are trying to vocabulary within a context, collocations and
master the mechanics of writing. idioms, and correct grammatical features up
to the length of a sentence

TYPE OF TEXT
Responsive PERFORMANCE Extensive

Extensive writing implies successful


Assessment tasks require learners to
management of all the processes and
perform at a limited discourse level,
connecting sentences into a paragraph and
Responsive
strategies of writing for all purposes, up to the
length of an essay, a term paper, a major
creating a logically connected sequence of
research project report, or even a thesis.
two or three paragraphs

4
MICRO AND MICRO SKILLS OF
WRITING

Micro skills apply more Macro skills are essential for


appropriately to imitative and the successful mastery of
intensive types of writing task responsive and extensive
writing.

5
MICRO SKILL OF WRITING

1. Produce writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose.


2. Produce an acceptable core if words and use appropriate word order
patterns
3. Use acceptable grammatical system (e.g., tense, agreement,
pluralization), patterns, and rules
4. Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms
5. Use cohesive devices in written discourse

6
MACRO SKILL OF WRITING

1. Use rhetorical forms and conventions of written discourse


2. Appropriately accomplish the communicative functions of written texts
according to form and purpose.
3. Convey links and connections between events, and communicate
such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given
information, generalization, and exemplification
4. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings when writing
5. Correctly convey culturally specific references in the context of the
written text
6. Develop and use a battery of writing strategies

7
Designing Assessment Task: Imitative Writing
A. Task in (Hand) Writing Letters, Words, and Punctuation
Copying Picture-cued tasks

Listening cloze selection tasks Form completion tasks

Converting numbers and abbreviation to words

B. Spelling Tasks and Detecting Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences


Spelling tests

Picture-cued tasks

Multiple-choice techniques
8
A. Task in (Hand) Writing Letters, Words, and Punctuation

1. Copying

2. Listening cloze
selection tasks

9
A. Task in (Hand) Writing Letters, Words, and Punctuation

3. Picture-cued
tasks

A variation of task which uses a simple


form (registration, application, etc.) that 4. Form completion
asks for name, address, phone number, tasks
other data.

10
A. Task in (Hand) Writing Letters, Words, and Punctuation

5. Converting
numbers and
abbreviation to
words

11
B. Spelling Tasks and Detecting Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences

1. Spelling tests 2. Picture-cued tasks 3. Multiple-choice techniques

• Dictation
• Displaying picture
• A simple word • Familiar words whose
• One word at a time spelling may be
• Repetition in unpredictable
sentence • Appropriate to teach
• Pause time word pairs
• Focus on Correct • Cat/Hat,
Mouth/Mouse, etc.
spelling

12
Designing Assessment Task: Intensive Writing
A. Dictation and Dicto-Comp

B. Grammatical Transformation Tasks

C. Picture-Cued Tasks

D. Vocabulary Assessment Tasks

E. Ordering Tasks

F. Short-Answer and Sentence Completion Tasks


13
B. Grammatical Transformation
A. Dictation and Dicto-Comp
Tasks

• Dictation
- Writing what one hear aurally. - Change the tenses in a paragraph
- Focuses on correct spelling of given - Change statements to yes/no or wh-
words. questions
- Change questions into statements
• Dicto-Comp - Combine two sentences into one using
- Re-writing paragraph based on tes- a relative pronoun
taker’s comprehension. - Change direct speech into indirect
- Teacher may give some keyword speech
lists - Change from active to passive voice
- Listening, comprehending,
remembering some important
points, recreate

14
C. Picture-Cued Tasks
1. Short Sentences 2. Picture Description

15
3. Picture sequence description

16
D. Vocabulary
Assessment
Tasks

E. Ordering
Tasks

17
F. Short-Answer and Sentence Completion Tasks

18
Issues in Assessing Responsive and Extensive Writing

Responsive Writing
The learner is responsible for
accomplishing a purpose in writing, for Authenticity
developing a sequence of connected
ideas, and empathizing with an audience.

Scoring
Extensive Writing
The writer has been given even more
freedom to choose: topics, length, style,
and perhaps even conventions of
formatting are less constrained than in the Time
typical responsive writing exercise.

19
Designing Assessment Tasks: Responsive and Extensive
Writing

Paraphrasing

Guided
Question and
Answer Paragraph
Construction
Tasks
Strategic
Options

20
Designing Assessment Tasks:
Responsive and Extensive Writing

PARAPHRASING GUIDED QUESTION


AND ANSWER
Paraphrasing is more
often a part of informal Guided writing prompts
21
and formative assessment like these are less likely
than of formal, summative to appear on a formal
assessment, and therefore test and more likely to
student responses should serve as a way to
be viewed as opportunities prompt initial drafts of
for teachers and students writing.
to gain positive wash back
on the art of paraphrasing.
Paragraph Construction Tasks

Assessment thereof consists of: (1) specifying the writing of a


topic sentence; (2) scoring points for its presence or absence;
Topic sentence writing and (3) scoring and/ or commenting on its effectiveness in
stating the topic.

• There are four criteria in assessing the quality of a


paragraph, such as: (1) The clarity of expression of ideas;
Topic development within a (2) The logic of the sequence and connections; (3) The
paragraph cohesiveness or unity of the paragraph; and (4) The overall
effectiveness or impact of the paragraph as a whole.

• These are some elements that can be considered in


Development of main and evaluating multi-paragraph essay: (1) Addressing the topic,
supporting ideas across main idea, or principal purpose; (2) Organizing and
developing supporting ideas; (3) Using appropriate details to
paragraphs undergird supporting ideas; (4) Showing facility and fluency
in the use of a language; (5) Demonstrating syntactic variety
22
Strategic Options

▹ Attending to Task ▹ Attending to Genre


Four types of tasks are Assessment of the more
commonly addressed in common genres may
academic writing courses: include the following criteria,
compare/ contrast, such as: (1) Reports; (2)
problem/ solution, Summaries of readings/ 23

pros/cons, and cause/ lectures/ videos; (3)


effect. Assessment of the Responses to reading/
fulfillment of tasks could lectures/ videos; (4)
be formative and informal, Narration, description,
but the product might also persuasion/ argument, and
be assigned a holistic or exposition; (5) Interpreting
analytic score. statistical, graphic, or
tabular data; (6) Library
research paper
One of internationally available standardized tests of writing ability

A timed impromptu test in that test-takers are under a 30 minute time limit
and are not able to prepare ahead of time for the topic that will appear

The scoring guide follows a widely accepted set of specifications for a


holistic evaluation of an essay
Test of Each point on the scoring system is defined by a set of statements that
Written address topic, organizations and development, supporting ideas, facility in
English writing, and grammatical and lexical correctness and choice
(TWE) Tests like the TWE are administrative necessities in a world where
hundreds or thousands of applicants must be evaluated by some means
short of calculating their performance across years of instruction in
academic writing.

While timed impromptu tests suffer from a lack of authenticity and put
test-takers into an artificially time-constrained context, they nevertheless
offer interesting, relevant information for an important but narrow range of
administrative purposes.
24
SCORING METHODS FOR RESPONSIVE AND EXTENSIVE WRITING

At responsive and extensive levels of writing, three major approaches to scoring writing
performance are commonly used by test designers: holistic, primary trait, and analytical.

1 • Holistic Scoring
2 • Primary Trait Scoring
3 • Analytic Scoring

25
Holistic Scoring

Each point on holistic Advantages of holistic scoring are:


scale is given a • fast evaluation,
systematic set of • relatively high inter-rater reliability,
descriptors, and the • the fact that scores represent “standards” that are easily
reader-evaluator interpreted by lay persons
matches an overall • the fact that scores tend to emphasize the writer’s
impression with the strengths (Cohen, 1994)
descriptors to arrive • applicability to writing across many different disciplines.
at a score.

26
Holistic Scoring

The disadvantages of holistic scoring


are:
• One score masks differences across
the subskills within each score.
27
• No diagnostic information is
available (no washback potential).
• The scale may not apply equality
well to all genres of writing.
• Raters need to be extensively
trained to use scale accurately.
Primary Trait Scoring

A primary trait score would assess:


• the accuracy of the account of the original (summary),
• the clarity of the steps of the procedure and the final result (lab report),
• the description of the main features of the graph (graph description), and
• the expression of the writer’s opinion (response to an article).

28
Analytic Scoring

Classroom evaluation of learning is best


served through analytic scoring, in which
as many as six major elements of writing
are scored, thus enabling learners to
home in on weaknesses and to capitalize
strengths.

29
BEYOND SCORING: RESPONDING TO EXTENSIVE WRITING

Assessing Initial Stages of the Process of Composing

Assessment of initial stages in composing:


• Focus your efforts primarily on meaning, main idea, and organization.
• Comment on the introductory paragraph.
• Make general comments about the clarity of the main idea and logic or appropriateness
of the organization.
• As a rule of thumb, ignore minor (local) grammatical and lexical errors.
• Indicate what appear to be major (global) errors (e.g., by underlying the text in
question), but allow the writer to make corrections.
• Do not rewrite questionable, ungrammatical, or awkward sentences; rather, probe with
a question about meaning.
• Comment on features that appear to be irrelevant to the topic.

30
BEYOND SCORING: RESPONDING TO EXTENSIVE WRITING

Assessing Later Stages of the Process of Composing

Assessment of later stages in composing:


• Comment on the specific clarity and strength of all main ideas and supporting ideas,
and on argument and logic.
• Call attention to minor (local) grammatical and mechanical (spelling, punctuation)
errors, but direct the writer to self-correct.
• Comment on any further word choices and expressions that may not be awkward but
are not as clear or direct as they could be.
• Point out any problems with cohesive devices within and across paragraphs.
• If appropriate, comment on documentation, citation of sources, evidence, and other
support.
• Comment on the adequacy and strength of the conclusion.

31
THANK YOU

32