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Indicator :

 Students will be able to explain the characteristics


of Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
 Students will be able to differs the characteristics
of Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
 Students will be able to explain the reproduction
of Bacteria
 Students will be able to explain adventages
and disadventages role of Bacteria
Objectives :
Student will be able :
To explain general characteristics of Monera,
characteristcs of Bacteria, and the role of
Bacteria in everyday live.
BACTERIA
• Comes from latin word, Bacterion : small
sticks
• Group of microorganism that has one
procaryotic cell
• Has no chlorophyll (Heterotrophic)
• Found in all habitats, in air, soil, and water,
even in our body (it’s have high
metabolism diversity)
EUKARYOT AND PROCARYOT
• According to their basic genetic and
several structure Bacteria is classified in
two, they are :
Archaebacteria
– From greek word, archaio = ancient
– Does not contain peptidoglycan in their
cell wall, but its plasm membrane
contains fat.
– Lives in extreme surrounding that is
similar to the original surrounding on
earth
According to its extreme surrounding, it is divided into 3
groups;
• Methanogen Bacteria; produce methane from
hydrogen and CO2 or acetate acid.live in swamps as
decomposer. Ex : Metanobacterium

• Halophile Bacteria
From Greek words (halo=salt, philos=like)=bacteria
that live in surrounding of high salinity. Ex ;
Halobacterium

• Thermicydophile Bacteria
It’s live in extremely hot and sour surroudning.
Optimum condition for thermocidopile is in
temperature 60-80 0C of pH 2-4. It’s found in the
regions containing sulfuric acid, for instance in
vulcanic crater. Ex ; Sulfalobus and Thermoplasma
Eubacteria
• Cause disease in organisms, but in
general they are not harmless
• Commonly found in soil, water, and air.
• Some eubacteria produce antibiotic used
in medical profession
Ex : Escherichia coli
The dimension and shape of
Bacteria
• Coccus ( monococcus, diplococcus,
streptococcus, tetracoccus, sarsina,
staphilococcus)

• Bacillus ( monobacillus, diplobacillus,


streptobacillus),

• Spiral (comma or vibrio, spiral, spirochete)


The dimension and shape of
Bacteria
Movement in Bacteria
Flagel is wavy, its length reaches 70
milimicron, its thickness is only 20
milimicron.
Movement in Bacteria
According to the number and location of flagella in its cell
surface, bacteria is divided into five, that is :
Atric have no flagella
Monotric have one flagellum
in one end of their cell

lopotric flagella in one end


of their cell

amphytric one flagellum in


both end of their cell

peritric flagella on all of their


cell surface
Bacteria cell wall
• Bacteria that have thin peptidoglycan layer
( Thickness of about 10 nm, called negative
gram, cannot retain the purple dye or violet
crystal when washed by using alcohol or
acetone) Ex ; Escherichia coli

• Bacteria that have thick pepidoglycan layer


(have thickness of 156-180 nm, caled positive
Gram, they can retain the purple dye or violet
crystal when washed by using alcohol or
acetone) Ex; Staphilococus aureus
Bacteria reproduction
By dividing themselves, using binary division
Bacteria reproduction
The sexual reproduction in bacteria when
exchange of material genetic happen called
parasexual reproduction. There are 3 method,
they are ;

• Transformation, no direct contact between DNA


donor and DNA receptor
• Conjugation, DNA donor and DNA receptor
through direct contact
• Transduction, DNA transfer from donor cell to
receptor cell by virus vector
The growth of Bacteria
Influence by several factor, namely ;
• Temperature, each species has different temperature
range for its optimum live. According to the optimum
live ability in environment temperature, bacteria can
be grouped into ;
• Mesophyl bacteria (30oC-45oC), psychrophyl
bacteria (10oC until -2oC)
• Humidity, bacteria will grow well in humid
environment
• Acidity degree (pH), in general bacteria grow in
neutral pH
• Sunlight , bacteria in general prefer dark condition
Classification of Bacteria
According their method to get food,bacteria
can be divided into;
• Parasite bacteria, they take their food from
the body of another organism
• Saprophyte bacteria, they take their food
from dead organic material
• Chemosyntetic bacteria, they take their food
from oxidation of various chemical
compound
• Photosyntetic bacteria, they take their food
from photosynthesis.
Classification of Bacteria

According to their ability to take oxigen,


bacteria can be divided into;
• Aerob Bacteria, that is bacteria that bond
free oxigen from air for respiration
• Anaerob Bacteria, that is bacteria that do not
require free oxigen from air in respiration
process
The Role Of Bacteria for Human
Bacteria that are beneficial
Bacteria that are harmful for human and animal