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‡ Cultural factors
‡ Economic factors
‡ Political-Regulatory factors
**-
‡ .%./*%0(.%.,(%1
[ Cross-cultural analysis
‡ .
‡ .%"
[ 4oreign Corrupt Practices Act
‡ .%. ")
[ Ôemiotics
‡ .
[ ?ack translation
‡ .%.%$(%(%
[ Consumer ethnocentrism
**- %.
‡ ("('(%
‡ Ôtage of Economic Development
‡ Economic Infrastructure
‡ Consumer Income and Purchasing Power
‡ Currency Exchange Rates
.%.*"%'(%
‡ A ((.%. involves the
study of similarities and differences
among consumers in two or more
nations or societies
‡ The ((.%.creates an
understanding about values, customs,
symbols, & languages of other societies.
.%.*"%
'(%#.
‡ A society¶s *.represent personally
or socially preferable modes of conduct
or states of existence that are enduring.
. influence the behavior of the
consumers.
‡ McDonalds example in India
‡ Visa example in Germany
.%.*"%
'(%# .%"
‡ .%"are the norms and
expectations about the way people
do things in a specific country.
‡ Cosmetics example in 4rance
‡ Japanese Valentines Day example
.%.*"%
'(%# .%"
‡ The ' .2%(%((%
makes it a crime for U.Ô. corporations to
bride an official of a foreign government
or political party to obtain or retain
business in a foreign country.
‡ ?ribes are a tax deductible expense in
4rance & Greece
.%.*"%
'(%# ")
‡ .%.") are things that
represent ideas and concepts. "%(
is the study of these symbols. Improper
use of symbols can be disastrous for
global marketers.
‡ Tiffany & Company example in Japan
‡ Coke example with the Parthenon
.%.*"%'(%#
.3(!
%

‡ The best language to communicate


with consumers in is their own.
‡ Over 3,000 languages spoken world-
wide
‡ Vicks example in Germany
.%.*"%'(%#
.3(!
%

‡ In )(!%%, a translated
word or phrase is retranslated into the
original language by a different
interpreter. (error checking control)
‡ Nike flames example
.%.*"%'(%#
."%$(%"

‡ ."%$(%"is the
tendency to believe that is
inappropriate or immoral to
purchase foreign-made products.
‡ Observed in segments of the U.Ô.,
4rance, Japan, Korea, & Germany
("(*"%
%
‡ ("('(%#
‡ Ôtage of Economic Development
‡ Economic Infrastructure
‡ Consumer Income and Purchasing Power
‡ Currency Exchange Rates
("(*"%'(%#
%,("(/*2"%

‡ /*2 .%#Mixed
economies (Ex: U.Ô., Japan, Canada, &
Western Europe)
‡ /*2 .%#Usually moving
towards an industrialized economy (Ex:
Hungary, Ôouth Africa, & Pakistan)
("(*"%'(%#
("(,%.(%.
‡ ("(,%.(%.is a country¶s
communication, transportation,
financial, & distribution systems.
‡ Critical for determining how, where, &
to whom to market.
‡ Coke example in India
("(*"%'(%#
."("3.($-

‡ Marketers must consider the average


household incomes of the consumers.
4IGURE 7-7 -5
-
2.($
2-
,,
.
%$-
("(*"%'(%#
.(4($%

‡ A (.(4($%is the price


of one country¶s currency expressed in
terms of another country¶s currency.
‡ 4ailure to consider exchange rates can
have severe consequences
‡ Mattel ?arbie example
*-
|)"!%,,(%).(%)
,(%%$%(.#
‡ .%.,(%
‡ Values
‡ Customs
‡ Cultural Ôymbols
‡ Language
‡ Cultural ethnocentricity
‡ ("(,(%
‡ Ôtage of Economic Development
‡ Economic Infrastructure
‡ Consumer Income and Purchasing Power
‡ Currency Exchange Rates
Any Questions or Comments?


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