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• Posture is the ATTITUDE assumed by the body
either with support during MUSCULAR
INACTIVITY, or by means of the co-ordinated
action of many muscles working to maintain
stability or to form an essential basis which is
being adapted constantly to the movement,
which is superimposed upon it.
• From committee of the American Academy of
Orthopedic Surgeons posture is usually defined as
the relative arrangement of the body parts for a
specific activity or a characteristics manner of
bearing one’s body.

• Posture can be said to be:

• Static posture
• Dynamic posture
These postures are mainly adopted for resting or
sleeping, in which all the essential muscular
activities required to maintain life is reduced to a
minimum i.e. vital function of respiration and
These postures are mainly used for training general
relaxation procedures.
Here integrated action of group of muscles are
required to maintain the active postures.
Static postures
The constant pattern of posture is achieved,
which is maintained by interaction of group of
muscles, work statically in opposition to
gravity to maintain equilibrium.
Dynamic postures
These kind of postures form an essential basis
for movement, which can be modified
depending on the demand of required
A reflex is generally an efferent response to
any afferent stimuli. The reflex mechanisms
that will help to maintain body’s erect
postures are called as POSTURAL REFLEXES.
In this reflex are, efferent response will be
motor one, given mainly to the anti gravity
The afferent stimuli arises from variety of sources
all over the body, given by receptors in eye, ear,
muscles, etc.
• Muscles spindle and golgi tendon organs situated
in the muscles record change in tension and length.
Increased in tension causes stimulation of receptors
and causes contraction of these muscles.
• This manifestation is known as stretch or myotactic
stretch reflex.
• Sensation i.e. visual sensation records any change in
position of body with respect to surrounding.

• Receptors situated in semicircular canal of internal
ear will get stimulated by movement of fluid inside
it. Thus we can come to know about movement and
its direction.
• In the weight bearing position the approximation of
bones stimulate proprioceptors in joint and elicit
reflex to maintain erect postures.
• Impulses are taken from CNS, then evaluated and
co-ordinated and chief centres involved are cerebral
cortex, cerebellum, red nucleus and vestibular
Posture is said to be good when it fulfills the
purpose for which it is designed with maximum
efficiency and minimum effort.
Good posture is that state of muscular & skeletal
balance which protects the supporting structures of
the body against injury or progressive deformity,
irrespective of attitude [erect, lying, squatting,
stooping] in which these structures are working or
resting, in which muscles will work most efficiently.
Pattern of good posture will vary with each
Dynamic postures are much more difficult to assess,
because here postures are constantly modified as
essential basis with every change in the reqd movt.
Here the alignment of different segment are same
as in erect position but in dynamic postures the line
of alignment of segments will be inclined. Rather
than verticle as in erect position.
Posture is poor when it is inefficient, that is, when it
fails to serve purpose, for which it was designed, or
if unnecessary amount of muscular effort is used to
maintain it.

The POOR POSTURE is a faulty relationship of the

various parts of the body which produces increased
strain on the supporting structures and in which
there is less efficient balance of the body over its
base of support.
Faulty alignment of various body segments leads to
necessity for additional muscle work. On the other
hand, if no additional effort is required then it will
put more strain on ligaments, which are
disadvantages which can not be ignored.
Change in any of the curves of the spine leads to
compensatory change in other structures. so the
patient will have physiological disturbance.
This is also true for dynamic posture. So the
efficiency of person and additional wastage of
 Many factors have been given that alter or change
patient’s posture. The factor that lead to good
posture or poor posture will be different for each
 We can enumerate about the factor in 2 ways;
[a] factors leads to development of good posture.
[b] factors that predispose to poor posture.
 Various common factors like occupational, hygienic,
psychological and much more common factor that
leads to development of altered posture or good
Good, effective & efficient posture develops quite
naturally, with necessities that the mechanisms for
its maintainance & adjustment are intact & healthy.
The main factors that are responsible for
development of good posture & facilitation of
postural reflex are :
• A stable psychological background
• Good hygienic conditions
• Opportunity for plenty of natural free movement

Psychological conditions of subject have first effect

upon the physical status of individual.
Emotional & mental attitude of person have good
effect on posture & reflected in posture of the
Emotional excitement, happiness & joy are
stimulatimg & reflected by an alert posture, in
which extension predominate.
Exactly opposite to it, that is conflict, unhappiness
& feeling of inferiority have just the opposite effect
& reflected in posture in which flexion is
There is always presence of dependency between
mental and physical attitude.
i.e. the mental attitude affects the physical status,
temporarily or permanently.
This can also happen in reverse way.
Good hygiene condition in term of nutrition & sleep
are essential part for growth & development of
body tissue, which is ultimately reflected in posture.
The opportunities for performing plenty of free
movements also encourages development of
skeletal muscles.
Activity that are enjoyable or performing by
children such as running, jumping, & climbing,
in which active extension movement
predominates & there by leads to development
of good posture.
 Many factors are related & also interrelated with
development of poor posture.
 Even if the reason for developing poor posture are known
they are very much difficult to remove.
 The factor that is most commonly associated for
establishment of an inefficient postural pattern are poor
mental attitude & hygiene conditions of individuals.
 Prolonged illness due to serious diseases, general debility
after a constitutional illness & prolonged fatigue are causes
& they reduce overly efficiency of individual.
Occupational workload & type which require to
assume particular posture for prolonged period of
time leads to alteration in posture.
Any localized pain muscular weakness or localized
tension leads to muscular imbalance & alter
postural patterns.
A faculty idea of what constitutes good posture may
also lead to establishment of inefficient pattern by
repeated voluntary effort.
So, as a whole, various environmental factor along
with person’s individual factor are altimately certain
postural patterns in individuals.
• Hip joint: not adducted or abducted
• Lower extremities: straight not bowed or knock
• Feet: parallel or slight toe outing. Outer malleolus
and outer margin of the the sole of foot in same
vertical plane, so that the foot is not pronated or
supinated. Tendo achilis should be vertical when
seen in posterior view.
• Laterally the following muscles work together in
stabilizing trunk, pelvis & lower extermities