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Consumer Behavior,

Eighth Edition

SCHIFFMAN & KANUK

Chapter 2

Consumer Research

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Consumer
behavior
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Today’s Topics

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Marketing Research (cont..)
Consumer Market-understanding
the consumer

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Research
Instruments
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– Questionnaires
• Include open-ended and closed-ended
questions
• Phrasing and question order are key
– Mechanical instrument

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Contact Methods

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 Mail questionnaires
 Telephonic Interview
 Personal interview
 Group interview…Focus group interview

 Online Research

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Step-3
Implementing
the Research
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Plan
Collecting the Data

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Analyzing the Data

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 After the data have been collected, the next
 step in the research process is data analysis.
 The purpose of data analysis is to interpret
 and draw conclusions from the data that
 has been collected.

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Key Is the sample representative?
Issues
Is the data reliable?

Is the data valid?

Are the statistical techniques


appropriate?
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Step-4
Interpretation and
Reporting
of Findings
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 After data analysis is completed,
 the researcher must prepare the
 report and communicate the conclusions
 and recommendations to management.
 The research will ordinarily be required
 to present both written and oral reports
 on the project.

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Research Is Useful If:
 We put thought into it before we do it
 We do the right kind of research
 We use judgment in interpreting and using the
results

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Consumer Market

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All individuals and households
who buy or acquire goods and
services for
personal consumption

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Firm needs to know
– Who buys?
– How they buy?
– When and where they buy??
– Why they buy?
– How they respond to marketing stimuli?

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Why do you think
marketers know these
things?

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What is Consumer
Behavior about?

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How, why, where and when
consumers make
purchase decisions?
Considers who influences the
decisions?

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How are purchases made?
What information is needed for those
decisions?
What factors affect these decisions?

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Why is it
Important?
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 Consumers determine the sales and profits of
a firm by their purchase decisions, thus the economic
viability of the firm.
 In late 1990, US consumers were spending
enough dollar bills to stretch from the Earth
to the Sun and back, with enough left over for over 600
lines to the moon!

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Customer vs. Consumer
Behavior

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Customer behavior
Includes both individual consumers who buy
goods and services for their own use and
organizational buyers who purchase business products.

Consumer behavior
Is the process through which the ultimate buyer
makes purchase decisions.

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Consumer Behavior
Defined

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 The study of the processes involved when
individuals or groups select, purchase, use,
or dispose of products, services, ideas, or
experiences to satisfy needs and desires
(Solomon, 1996).

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 Those actions directly involved in
obtaining, consuming and disposing of
products and services, including the
decision processes that precede and follow
those actions (Engel et al. 1995).

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 Examines mental and emotional
processes in addition to the physical
activities (Wilkie 1990).

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Because they study consumer
behavior (CB)

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Consumer Behavior
Deals With …
 Actions in Purchasing and Using Products
 Including Behavior and Thought Processes

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The buying behavior of final
consumers-individuals and
households who buy goods and
services for personal consumption.

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Marketing
Applications

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Positioning

Segmentation

Product development

Market development

International marketing

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Consumer Spending
Patterns

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 Disposable income
 Discretionary income
 Family life cycle:
Young
Teens
Empty nesters
Senior citizens

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Model of Consumer
Behavior
“Stimulus-Response”

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Product Economic
Price Marketing and
Technological
Place Other Stimuli
Political
Promotion
Cultural
Buyer
Buyer’s decision Buyer’s Black Box characteristics
process ”what” & “how”
affecting
consumer
behavior

Product choice Buyer’s Response Purchase timing


Brand choice Purchase
Dealer choice quantity

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Marketing Other Buyer’s Buyer’s decision
stimuli stimuli characteristics process
Product Economic Cultural Problem recognition
Price Technological Social Information search
Place Political Personal Evaluation
Promotion Cultural Psychological Decision
Post-purchase
behavior

Buyer’s decisions
Product choice
Brand choice
Dealer choice
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Purchase timing
Purchase amount
Stimulus Response Model
– Marketing and other stimuli enter the
buyer’s “black box” and produce certain
choice/purchase responses.

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– Marketers must figure out what is inside
of the buyer’s “black box” and how
stimuli are changed to responses.

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Enough for
today. . .

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