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Marine Processes
 As the winds blow over the surface of the
sea, waves are produced.
 As waves approach the coast, it enters into
shallower water.
 The fiction with the sea bed causes the wave
to trip forward that facilities eventual breaks.
 The SWASH, which is resulting forward
movement of water, runs up the beach until
its energy end. It is also stronger than
backwash in constructive waves.
 The BACKWASH is the water at that point runs
back down the beach under gravity. It is
stronger when it comes to destructive waves
 The balance between those two of waves
produces the variance between constructive
and destructive waves.
Two types of waves

Small in height Large in height

Gentle angle Steep

Less energy Lots of energy

Strong swash and weak Weak swash and strong backwash (beach
backwash(material is moved up the beach is scoured and degraded as the strong
by the strong swash) backwash pulls sand and back down the
 Much of the erosion along a coast is because of
destructive waves. In a number of different ways,
they cut away at the coastline.

 HYDRAULIC ACTION – this outcomes from the

force of the waves striking the cliffs and
forcing pockets of air into cracks and
 ABRASION – this is produced by waves
collecting stones and tossing them at cliffs,
thus draining the cliff away
 CORROSION – the melting of rocks by sea
 LONGSHORE DRIFT – the process that waves can
move rocks and sand along the coasting for fairly
long distances when it is separated from the cliff.

There are three main processes at work on the
landward side of the coastline;
 Weathering – the collapse of rocks resulting
from freeze-thaw and the growth of salt crystals
by acid rain and by development of
vegetation roots
 EROSION – the erosion of rocks by wind and
 MASS MOVEMENT - the elimination of cliff-face
material beneath the effect of gravity in the
form of rock falls, slumping and landslides

 Is the wearing away of land and the removal
of beach or dune sediments by wave action,
tidal currents, wave currents, drainage or high
 There are 6 main types of erosion processes in
action at the coast;

 ABRASION – when waves pick up beach

material and hurl them at the base of a cliff.
 HYDRAULIC PRESSURE – air may become
trapped in joints and cracks on a cliff face,
when a wave breaks, the trapped air is
compressed which weakens the cliff and
causes erosion.
 SOLUTION (corrosion) - acids contained in sea
water will dissolve some types of rock such as
chalk or limestone.
 ATTRITION – when rocks carried by seawater
collide, gradually making them smaller and
 WAVE SCOURING – waves breaking at the base
of the cliffs swirl around the base and cause the
elimination of movable rock.
 WAVE POUNDING – collapse of the cliff face
because of the absolute force of the wave which
can wield up of 30 tonnes/m² when crashing on
the cliffs.
Weathering Processes
 Weathering processes and human action
can also responsible for affecting the
wearing away of the rock along with the
action of the sea triggering the erosion of
 FREEZE-THAW PROCESSES happen as water
freezes and thaws in cracks in cliffs, the growth
and contraction force the rock open, making
them more vulnerable to the action of waves.
 CHEMICAL WEATHERING water running down
the surface of cliffs, either an overflow from
above or from rainfall. It can result in solution to
facilitate enlarged rock cracks, leaving the
remaining rock loosened.
 BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING digging organisms
and roots of vegetation forces open cracks,
making them more vulnerable to wave erosion.
Coastal Process
 Coastal processes occur where waves
break on a shore, not only on ocean or
sea coasts but also on lakes or ponds.
The different hazards caused by
coastal processes
 Waves
 Tides
 Sea-level changes
 Storm surges
 WAVES – are usually caused by wind and
controlled by wind speed.
 TIDES – due to the combination of
gravitational and centrifugal forces, results
in a twice daily rise an fall of sea-level.
 SEA-LEVEL CHANGES – it changes due to:
 Subsidence as underlying sediments compact
 Cooling-driven subsidence
 Influx of ice from melting glaciers
 Expansion or contraction of mid-ocean ridges
 Filling in of oceans with sediments
 Movement of fault
 STORM SURGES – is an abnormal rise of
water generated by a storm, over and
above the predicted astronomical tides.
Hazards that may happen in the wake
of tropical cyclones, monsoons,
floods, or tornado
 Deaths
 Lost of habitats
 Destruction of property
 Injuries and trauma
 Landslides
 Damaging marine life in coastal
Ways of coping with
 Have emergency kits and survival packs
prepared. These should contain
medicine, cash, important documents,
whistles, and extra clothes.
 Store food and clean water enough for
three days. That’s two gallons of water
per person per day.
 Prepare candles, flashlights and extra
batteries in case the power goes out.
 Listen to the radio or watch TV for news
 Stay indoors and listen to the news for
weather updates and flood warnings.
 If you need to evacuate, stay calm. Close
the windows, turn off the main electricity
switch and bring your survival kit.
 Return home only after authorities
have deemed the area safe.
 Check your surroundings for damaged
electrical cables and fallen posts.
Report these to the authorities.
 Do not turn on electricity switches
unless you are sure it is dry and safe to
do so.
Coastal erosion,
submersion, and salt
water intrusion
 Coastal erosion is the wearing away of
material from a coastal profile
including the removal of beach, sand
dunes, or sediment by wave action,
tidal currents, wave currents, drainage
or high winds
 Is the act of being completely held
underwater (or liquid) for a long
 Is the movement of saline water
 Into fresh water aquifers consequences. Salt
water intrusion occurs naturally to some
degree in most coastal aquifers, owing to the
hydraulic connection between ground water
and seawater.
Ways of coping with coastal
erosion, submersion and saltwater
 Possible solutions to coastal erosion and
submersion are: Breakwaters - to stop waves from
taking more sand away from beaches; Jetties -
to prevent sand from flowing into shipping
channels, and Groins - that slow down waves
before they reach the shore, reducing the
amount of sand removed from the beaches. Salt
water intrusion on the other hand is harder to
deal with, in most cases, salt water intrusion is
caused by well drilling sites that are too near to
the ocean, discontinuing these wells would be a
possible way of coping with salt water intrusion.
Ways to prevent/mitigate the
impact of land development,
waste disposal, and
construction of structures...