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LEARNING

a. Involves the acquisition of new


elements of knowledge, skills , beliefs and
specific behavior , may mean one or more
of all these things.
i. The act of gaining knowledge (to
learn something), the knowledge
gained by virtue of that act (that
which is known) the process of
gaining knowledge (learning how)
–Banner and Cannon ,1997

ii. It is an ongoing process of


continued adaptation to our
environment assimilation of new
information and accommodation of
new input to fit prior knowledge

LEARNING
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
• Learning by doing is more effective than
just sitting and listening
• Concepts should be presented in varied or
different ways
• Learning is aided by formulating and asking
questions
• Effort is put forth when tasks are
challenging
• The principle of readiness is related to the
learners’ stage of development.
LEARNING THEORIES
They are sets of conjectures and
hypothesis that explain the process
of learning or how learning takes
place
BEE – E + HAT – T + VIOLIN – LIN + CORAL - CO

BEHAVIORAL
CIALSCALS
CLASSICAL
Ivan Pavlov’s Classical
Conditioning
• Classical means “in the
established manner”
• Individual learns when a
previously neutral stimulus
is repeatedly paired with
an unconditioned
stimulus until a neutral
stimulus evokes a
conditioned response.
v
Features of Classical
Conditioning
• Stimulus – Generalization –
responding the same way to
a similar stimuli.
• Discrimination – responding
differently to similar but not
identical stimuli
• Extinction - a process by
which a conditioned
response is lost
Generalization A student may generalize her fear to
physics tests although she had
performed poorly on math test. In this
case, the physics tests were similar
stimuli to the math test and they
produced the CR by themselves.

Discrimination A student may feel fear during math


test but not during physics tests. This
shows that the student is able to
discriminate between appropriate and
in appropriate situations for a response

Extinction In the example metioned above, if the


student repeatedly passes the math
tests, his fear of math tests will
disappear.
NOCCENOITSINM
CONNECTIONISM
Edward Lee Thorndike’s
Connectionism
• Connectionism means
learning by selecting
and connecting.
• It puts more emphasis
on the organism not
limiting himself to the
association between the
stimulus and the
response.
• These associations are
strengthened/weakened by
the nature and frequency of
the S-R pairings.
• Trial and error learning-
certain responses come to
dominate others due to
rewards.
• Law of effect- responses to a
situation which are followed
by a rewarding state of affairs
will be strengthened and
become habitual responses to
that situation
• Law of readiness- a series of
responses can e chained
together to satisfy some goal
which will result in annoyance
if blocked
• Law of exercise- connections
become strengthened with
practice and weakened
when practice discontinues
Principles
• Learning requires both practice and
rewards (laws of effect /exercise)
• A series of S-R connections can be
chained together if they belong to the
same action sequence (law of
readiness).
• Transfer of learning occurs because of
previously encountered situations.
• Intelligence is a function of the number of
connections learned.
OPERANT
OPERANT
B.F Skinner’s Operant
and Reinforcement
• Operant Conditioning
– Using pleasant or
unpleasant
consequences to
control the
occurrence of
behavior.
Shaping

• A procedure in Operant
Conditioning in which
reinforcers guide behavior
closer and closer towards a
goal.
REINFORCEMENT
• Any event that
STRENGTHENS the
behavior it
follows.
• 2 types of
Reinforcement
– POSITIVE
– NEGATIVE
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
• Strengthens a
response by
presenting a
stimulus after a
response.
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
• Strengthens a response by reducing or
removing an aversive stimulus.
A Reinforcer Increases the
Probability
of the Behavior It Follows
• Primary reinforcers:
innately reinforcing—
satisfy biological needs.
• Secondary reinforcers:
learned and become
reinforcing when
associated with a
primary reinforcer
SCHEDULED REINFORCEMENTS
Continuous Reinforcement
• Reinforcing the desired response every
time it occurs.

Quick Acquisition
Quick Extinction
Partial Reinforcement
• Reinforcing a
response only part
of the time.
• The acquisition
process is slower.
• Greater resistance
to extinction.
Fixed-ratio Schedules
• A schedule that reinforces a response
only after a specified number of
responses.

Example: I give cookie monster a cookie every


FIVE times he sings “C is for cookie”.
Variable-ratio Schedule
• A schedule of
reinforcement
that reinforces a
response after an
unpredictable
number of
responses. Example: I give Homer
a donut at random
times when he says
“DOH!!!”
Fixed-interval Schedule
• A schedule of
reinforcement
that reinforces a
response only
after a specified
time has
elapsed. Example: I give Bart a
Butterfinger every ten
minutes after he
moons someone.
Variable-interval Schedule
• A schedule of
reinforcement that
reinforces a
response at
unpredictable
time intervals.

Pop Quizzes
Punishment
• An event that
DECREASES the
behavior that it
follows.
BANDURA
AAUNDBR
Albert Bandura’s Social
Learning Theory

• Is called observational
learning theory
• States that learning
takes place when one
person observes then
imitates the behavior
of others.
• Stresses the
importance of Models
Bobo doll Experiment
• Bobo doll studies: the first
set of experiments
demonstrating the power
of observational learning
in eliciting aggression.
• Research demonstrates
that children are less likely
to imitate the actions of
punished aggressors.
Children Can Learn Aggressive
Behavior through Observation
Bandura believes children
observe and learn
aggression through many
avenues, but the three
principal ones are:
• Families: where adults use
violence
• Communities: where
aggression is considered to
be a sign of manhood,
especially among males
• Media: principally television
and the movies
Bobo Doll Experiments
Models are classified as:
• Real life –exemplified by teachers, parents
and significant others
• Symbolic- presented trough oral and written
• Representational – presented through audio-
visual measures
Conditions for Effective
Modelling
• Attention
• Retention
• Motor Reproduction
Process
• Motivational Process
Cognitive Learning
Theories

Prefer to concentrate on
analyzing cognitive process
Believe in the non-observable
behavior
David Ausubel’s Meanigful
Learning theory
LEARNING MAY OCCUR THROUGH:

RECEPTION
ROTE LEARNING
DISCOVERY
LEARNING

Two Dimensions of Learning Process


The first dimension related to the two The second dimension relates to the two
ways by which knowledge to be ways by which the learner incorporated
learned is made available to the new information into his existing
learner cognitive structure
1. meaningful reception learning 1. meaningful discovery learning
2. role reception learning 2. role discovery learning
Jerome Bruner’s
Discovery Learning
Theory or Inquiry
Method / Theory of
Instruction

• Posits that learning is more meaningful


to learners when they have the
opportunity to discover on their own the
relationships among the concepts or to
actively search for a solution to a
problem.
• An approach to
instruction through
which students interact
with their environment
by exploring and
manipulating objects,
wrestling with questions
and controversies or
performing experiments.
• The idea is that students
are more likely to
remember concepts
they discover on their
own.
Bruner’s 3 Modes of Representation
• Enactive Representation =
information is represented
through action
– “I can’t tell you, but I can show
you.”

• Iconic Representation =
information is represented
through images and
perceptions
– E.g., maps, flow-charts, diagrams

• Symbolic Representation =
information is represented in
more abstract form
– Language, mathematics, symbols
Wolfgang Kohler’s
Insight Learning/
Problem Solving Theory
• Insight – the capacity to
discern the true nature of
situation – imaginative
power to see into and
understand immediately,
• Gaining insight is a
gradual process of
exploring, analyzing and
structuring perception
until a solution is arrived
at.
• Wolfgang
Kohler and his
Chimpanzees.
• Some animals
learn through
the ah ha
experience
Insightful Learning depends on
certain factor
• Experience
• Intelligence
• Learning Situation
• Initial efforts
• Repetition
• Generalization
Richard Atkinson’s and
Richard Shiffrin’s
Information Processing
Theory

• The individual learns when the human


mind takes in information (encoding),
performs operation in it, stores the
information (storage), and retrieves it
when needed (retrieval).
• Memory- the ability to store information
so that it can be used at a later time.
Forgetting
• The inability to recall
something
• Causes of Forgetting
– Retrieval failure – forgetting
is due to inability to recall
information
– Decay theory – information
stored in LTM gradually
fades when it is not used
– Interfere theory – forgetting
in LTM is due to the
influence of other learning
• Retention
– The ability to recall
or recognize what
has been learned
or experienced
• Interference
– The act or an
instance of
hindering,
obstructing or
impeding
Teaching for Transfer
(Gagne)

• Transfer – when
something previous
learned influence the
new material
Transfer of Learning
Types:
– Lateral transfer- occurs when the
individual is able to perform a new task
about the same level (e.g solving word
problems given in text and later solving a
similar problem on the board)
– Vertical transfer – occurs when the
individual is able to learn more
advanced/complex skills (e.g being able
to add and multiply; being able to read
and write)
– Specific transfer – when a specific skill ,
fact or rule is applied to a similar situation
– General transfer – applying principles
previously leaned to dissimilar situations
Conditions of
Learning
• Gagne’s theory defines
five major categories of
learning:
• verbal information,
• intellectual skills,
• cognitive strategies,
• motor skills, and
• attitudes.
• Major Principles of Gagne’s
Theory (Kearsley, 1998)
1. Different instruction is needed
for different learning outcomes.
2. Events of learning operate on
the learner in ways that
constitute conditions of
learning.
3. The specific operations that
constitute instructional events
are different for each type of
learning outcome.
4. Learning hierarchies define
what intellectual skills are to be
learned and a sequence of
instruction.
Howard Gardner’s
Multiple Intelligences
• Intelligence – refers to general
mental ability of a person –
capacity to resolve problems
or to fashion – products that
are valued in more cultural
setting.
• Achievements- refers to the
previous learning of a person in
a certain subject area
• Multiple Intelligence –
capacity of a person to
possess and adapt two or
more intelligences.
MI in the Classroom
• Delivery of
instruction via
multiple mediums
• Student-centered
classroom
• Authentic
Assessment
• Self-directed
learning
Brain-Based Learning (BBL)
• Grew out of Neuroscience & Constructivism
• D. Souza, N. Caine & G. Caine, E. Jensen (1980’s
to present)
• 12 governing principles

1. Brain is a parallel processor 7. Focused attention & peripheral perception


2. Whole body learning 8. Conscious & unconscious processes
3. A search for meaning 9. Several types of memory
4. Patterning 10. Embedded learning sticks
5. Emotions are critical 11. Challenge & threat
6. Processing of parts and wholes 12. Every brain is unique
BBL in the Classroom
• Opportunities for group
learning
• Regular environmental
changes
• A multi-sensory
environment
• Opportunities for self-
expression and making
personal connections
to content
• Community-based
learning
Kurt Lewin’s Field
Theory
• According to Lewin’s field
theory, learning is a relativistic
process by which a learner
develops new insight or
changes old ones. Learning is
not a mechanistic atomistic
process insight, concisely
defined is a basic sense of
feeling for relationship. Field
psychology explains
development of insight as
change in cognitive structure
of a life space.
Urie Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Systems
Theory / Environmental Contexts
• Learning is greatly
affected by the kind of
environment we are in
• Learners are understood
within the context of
their environment. These
environmental context
are interrelated.
Lev Vygotsky’s
Social
Constructivism
• It emphasizes how
meaning and
understanding grow
out of social
encounters.
• Zone of Proximal
Development (ZPD) –
gap between actual
and potential
development
– Actual Development –
what children can do
on their own
– Potential
Development- what
children can do with
help.
• Scaffolding
– Competent
assistance or support
through mediation
of the environment
(significant other) in
which cognitive,
socio-emotional and
behavioral
development can
occur
David Kolb’s
Learning Styles
Learning Styles- are
tools utilized by
learners to cope and
adjust to the learning
environment.
“Learning is the process
whereby knowledge is created
through the transformation of
experience”
David Kolb
The Experiential Learning Cycle
Concrete Experience

Participates in an
experience
(Feeling /”Gut”)

Active Reflective
Experimentation Observation
Implements new action Makes sense of the
Experiments with new ways experience
(Doing/”Then What”) (Watching /”What”)

Abstract
Conceptualization
Makes generalizations,
develops theories
(Thinking/”So What”) Lewin, K.
1947
Retention of Learning

• 20% AC
• 50% AC + RO
• 70% AC + RO + CE
• 90% AC + RO + CE + AE

Source: 2006 Hay Group


Learning Styles (Kolb, 1976)
CE

ACCOMMODATING DIVERGING

AE RO
CONVERGING ASSIMILATING

AC
Accommodator
• Learn primarily by “hands-on”
• Act on “gut” rather than logical
analysis (intuitive)
• Rely more heavily on people for
information than technical analysis
• Like getting involved in new
experiences
• Task oriented
Diverger
• View concrete solutions from many
different points of view
• Like brainstorming, idea generation
• Observe rather than take action
• Imaginative, creative
Assimilator
• Focus more on abstract ideas and
concepts than people
• More important that theory is sound
rather than have practical value
• Can take a wide range of information
and put it into concise, logical form
Converger
• Practical application of ideas
• Solution focused – decision maker
• Prefer dealing with technical problems
rather than social or interpersonal
issues
• Does best when there is a single right
answer
Kolb's learning styles Concrete
Experience
Feeling

Accommodating Diverging
(feel and do) Percep (feel and watch)
CE/AE tion CE/RO
Contin
uum
Active Processing how weContinuum Reflective
Experimentation think Observation
Doing how we do things Watching
about
things

Converging Assimilating
(think and do) (think and watch)
AC/AE AC/RO

Abstract
Conceptualisation
Thinking

© concept david kolb, adaptation and design alan chapman 2005-06, based on Kolb's learning styles, 1984
END OF PART I