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•The Teacher

As the Master
Teacher
Attributes :
 patient
Effective
Efficient Toassume:
Confident a. Responsibility to
Firm society
True b. Cultivation of
Dedicated mind, the heart
and the soul of
the youth
c. Tolove the
beauty
,goodness and
truth
The Teacher

“If you plan is for one year…..plant rice; if your


plan is for ten years…. Plant a tree; but if your plan
is for eternity….. Then EDUCATEchildren.
• Pleasing personal appearance
• Sense of humor,cheerfulness, enthusiasm
PERSONAL
QUALITIES • Good physical health and personal hygiene

• Emotional stability, sound mental health and selfcontrol


• Superior intelligence
PERSONAL
QUALITIES • Flexibility, creativity, resourcefulness

• Integrity, trustworthiness, honesty, sincerity


• Promptness, efficiency
PERSONAL
QUALITIES • Refinement in words, tact and courtesy,civility

• Pleasant modulated voice


PERSONAL • Sympathy, kindness helpfulness, patience, anddiligence
QUALITIES

• Fairness, impartiality, tolerance, patience


PERSONAL • Sociability, friendliness , cooperativeness
QUALITIES
• Positive outlook,encouraging attitude
Professional Qualities
• 1. MASTERYOFTHESUBJECTMATTER

Subject
• First essential requisite
matter

Subject
• Thorough grasp of the subject
matter

• Keep abreast and keep up with


Subject
matter
new and updated trends
Professional qualities
• 2. UNDERSTANDINGTHELEARNER

• Knowledge on the nature ofchildren.


understand

• Know the different levels of


understand intellectual and emotional maturity.

• Genuine concern and sincerelove


understand for the children.
Professional qualities
• 3. UNDERSTANDINGTHEPRINCIPLESAND
METHODS OFTEACHING

Principles and
• Know what to teach(Subjectmatter).
methods

Principles and
• Know how to teach(Method).
methods

• Psychology of learning and how to sustain


Principles and
methods
interest and individual differences.
Professional qualities
• 4.GENERALUNDERSTANDINGOFOTHER
BRANCHES/FIELD OFKNOWLEDGE

• Know how to relate the


General
understanding
subject to othersubjects.

• Broad understanding of
General
understanding
all field of interests.
Professional qualities
• 5. TAKING PRIDEOFTEACHINGASAPROFESSION

• Positive outlook in life


Teaching as
aprofession
and good attitude.

• Understand your task


Teaching as
aprofession
and responsibility.
The Learner

The learner is an embodied spirit. He is a union of a


sentient body and a rational soul. Hisbody
experiences sensations and feels pleasure and
pain. His soul is the principle of spiritual acts,the
source of intellectual abstraction, self reflection,
and free rational volition.
Body and soul exist in mutual dependence. Letus
feed the body as well as his spirit. “ Man does
not live by breadalone”.
The Learner

Equipped with cognitive as well as appetitive faculties.


a. cognitive- five senses- able to
see, smell, hear, touch and taste.
b. Imagination- able to form representations of
material objects which are not present to their
senses.
c. Memory- able to retain, recall and recognize past
mental acts.
d. Intellect-can form concept or ideas, andmakes
judgment
The Learner
Appetitive – are his feelings, emotions andrational
will.
The pain and joy of an object or an activity . It is
indicated through the character ofan individual.
Five elements:
1. Ability- it determines their capacity to understand
and assimilate information for their own use and
application.
Categorized into:
a. Physical-fast, average and slow achievers.
b. Mental- superior, above average and below
average.
The Learner

2. Aptitude- refers to the student’s innate talent or gift.


A natural capacity to learn certainskills.
3. Interest- refers to attraction or strong appeal for
something. Lessons that give them the chanceto
express their deep feelings for objects or actions
will be more meaningful and easilyabsorbed.
4. Family and Cultural Background- student s who
come from different socioeconomicbackground
manifest a wide range of behaviour due to
differences in upbringing practices.
The Learner

5. Attitudes – students have a unique way of thinking


and reacting.
Positive attitudes are:
a. Curiosity- students are all times eager to learn.
b. Responsibility- they pursue assigned task to
completion despite personal constraints.
Accountable to their actionsand decisions.
c. Creativity- being imaginative they can think of new
ways of arriving at solutions to their problems.
They can innovate procedures and techniques.
The Learner

d. Persistence- students sustain interest in a


learning activity not mindful of the extra time
and effort being spent.
Basic example to this is:
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory
Intelligence asDisposition
Dispositionintelligence Sensitiveto:

Verbal linguistic Sounds, meanings,


structures and styles o f
language
Logical- Mathematical Patterns, numbers and
numerical data, causesand
effects, objective and
quantitative reasoning
Spatial Intelligence Colors, shapes, visual,
puzzles, symmetry, lines,
images
Bodily -Kenisthetic Touch, movement, physical
self, athleticism
Musical Intelligence Tone, beat, tempo, melody,
pitch, sound
The Learning Environment
• It consists of the physical, as well as the
psychological environment, that surroundsthe
learner and that influences his/her learning.
• It is the classroom and all the instructional
features and the non-threatening classroom
climate needed in planning and implementing
all teaching and learning activities.
The Learning Environment
1. Arrangement of Furniture
The furniture, like the table for demonstrations located in front of the room and the
chairs facing it are neatly arranged with sufficient spaces in- between for ease in
moving around. Display shelves for safekeeping of projects, collections, and
outstanding outwork are located at the sides.
Attached to the wall is a bulletin board and in front is the white board or blackboard
used for discussion and illustrations related to the lessons.

2. Physical Condition of the Classroom


1) it must be clean andorderly
2) one or two frames , create a pleasant and inviting aura.
3) Natural light and flowing fresh air add to their comfort and ease as they tackle
the learning tasks.
4) Free from noise coming from the surroundings, students’ concentration and interest
are easily sustained.
5) The doors and windows could be opened and closed with less difficulty and noise
with light fixtures that could easily be found.
The Learning Environment
3. Classroom proceedings
The clear and enthusiastic voice of the teacher that elicits equally eager and keen
responses from the students help create a conducive and beneficial ambiance
for learning.
Supplies and materials must be prepared earlier . A system of distribution and
retrieval must be observed.
Positive mood set by both parties, the teacher and thelearner, could keep the
activities lively and flawless.
4.Interactions
Diverse situation may exist in the classroom at any given time. Teachers must be
sensitive to positive and negative interactions and must immediatelyundertake
an instant revision or adjustment in the methodologywhen necessary.
The Learning Environment
A FACILITATIVELEARNING ENVIRONMENT
PINEAND HORNE (1990)
It is anenvironment:
a. which encourages people to be active.
b. which promotes and facilitates the individual’s discovery of thepersonal
meaning of idea.
c. which emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning,in
which difference is good and desirable.
d. which consistently recognizes people’s right to makemistakes.
e. which tolerates ambiguity.
f. in which evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasis on self- evaluation.
g. which encourages openness of self rather than concealment ofself.
h. in which people are encouraged to trust themselves as well as in external
sources.
i. in which people feel they arerespected.
j. in which people feel they areaccepted.
k. which permits confrontation.
a place therefore where people feel they are respected and accepted for who they
are and for what they say and do is a conducive atmosphere of learning.
The Learning Environment
Aplace
therefore, where people feel theyare
respected and accepted for who
they are and for what theysay and
do is a conducive atmosphere of
Learning.
EFFECTIVEBULLETINBOARDS
• Don’t be afraid to express yourself when it comes
to your bulletin boards. Spice up your room by
trying a different approach to look.
 Take pictures of the students and schoolactivities
and post them.
 Use wrapping paper, cloth, or lace for the
background.
 Use it as a “message center” for yourstudents.
 Post assignments.
EFFECTIVEBULLETINBOARDS
 Use 3-D items such as cornstalks or toy
spaceships to accent atheme.
 Color,color,color
 Make your own cut-outs using copies from a
book or the computer. You can trace themonto
the bulletin board with the help of an overhead
projector.
 Use twisted brown butcher paper to make avine-
like border.
 Be creative and have fun!
TEACHINGPRINCIPLES
• They are guides to make teaching and learning
effective, wholesome and meaningful.
• Webster, says a principle is a comprehensive
law or doctrine which an accepted or
professed rule of action orconduct is derived.
• Latin word princeps- which meansthe
beginning or the end of all
facts, circumstances or state of affairs.
TEACHINGPRINCIPLES
It has Five Areas to consider:
1. Respect for individual
2. Democracy, as a way of life
3. Providing suitable condition for the
development and maintenance of asound
personality
4. Improving group living in the classroom
5. Improving the classroom environment
TEACHINGPRINCIPLES
Respect for the individual
It explains the respect for self –confidence and
intellectual, and emotional integrity of the
individual.
Expressions such as:
a. Learning by doing
b. Understanding before memorizing.
Have become a principle as well as theory of today.
TEACHINGPRINCIPLES
Democracy as a way of life.
One of the major goals of education in the Philippines is
to foster, promote and develop democracy as a wayof
life.
It implies:
a. Respect for potentialities of individual
b. Obligation of each individual to contribute to the
welfare of the group of which he is a member.
c. Participation in experience which will foster social,
economic, intellectual, and physicalgrowth
d. Right of every individual to make a choice
commensurate with his intellectual capacityand
maturity.
TEACHINGPRINCIPLES
Providing suitable conditions
It means that school life is of great importance
in determining the present and thefuture
mental health and strength of personalityof
the learner. It includes therefore, the
objectives of education and the learning
materials and various methods being
utilized.
TEACHINGPRINCIPLES
Improving group living
It means that, a teacher should understand
what group dynamics is all about andwhat
techniques must be used intelligently for
group leadership.
Lastly , in Improving the Classroom
Environment.
Teacher should see to it that the physical
environment of his classroom will providea
maximum degree of best condition
conducive to learning.
PRINCIPLESOFLEARNING

Learning is an experience which occurs inside


the learner and is activated by the learner.

The process of learning is primarily


controlled by the learner and not by the
teacher.
PRINCIPLESOFLEARNING

It is a discovery of the personal meaningand


relevance of ideas.

Students more readily internalize and


implement concepts and ideas which are
relevant to their needs and problems.
PRINCIPLESOFLEARNING

Learning (Behavioral Change) is a consequence


of experience.

If experience is the best teacher, then


teacher should make use of experiential
learning
PRINCIPLESOFLEARNING

Learning is a cooperative and collaborative


process.

“Two heads are better than one” and


cooperation fosters learning.
PRINCIPLESOFLEARNING

Learning is an evolutionary process.

Behavioral change requires time and


patience. Things that are worthwhile in
life take time.
PRINCIPLESOFLEARNING

One of the richest resources forlearning is the


learner himself.

Asa teacher, you must draw these


learners’ ideas, feelings and experiences,
you midwife the birth of ideas.
PRINCIPLESOFLEARNING

The process of learning is emotional as well as


intellectual.

People are feeling beings as well as


thinking beings and when their feelings
and thoughts are in harmony learning is
maximized.
PRINCIPLESOFLEARNING

The process of problem solving and learning are


highly unique and individual.

Aspeople become more aware of how


they learn and solve problems and
become exposed to alternative models
used by other people.
Instructional planning
Commonly known as Lesson planning
- A guarantee of 100% learning and a guide for
teachers in presenting the lessons
systematically.
- A written instructional plan is an antidote to
aimlessness.
- Types
a. Yearly instructional plan for BasicEducation
1. Philippine Elementary Learning
Competencies (PELCs)
2. Philippine Secondary Learning Competencies
(PSLCs)
3. For tertiary level, it is called as course
syllabus other term for this is the course plan
or course of study.
-
- Lesson plan could be done weekly or daily.
Elements of lesson plan
a. Objective
b. Topic or subject matter
c. Materials
d. Procedure or lesson development
e. Evaluation
f. Assignment
-
Objectives
It maybe a statement or question innature.
Like ,”To explain the causes of the thinning
down of the ozonelayer.
Maybe converted into, What are the causesof
the thinning down of theozone layer?
1. COGNITIVE -mind
2. AFFECTIVE–feeling and appreciation
3. PSYCHOMOTOR-action or to do things.
objectives can be coined in the acronym
SMART
S- specific
M- measurable
A- attainable
R-result – oriented or reliable
T- time bound and terminal
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

Cognitive domain Affective domain Psychomotor


Start with infinitives
To define, to distinguish, to acquire To separate, to positively respond To distinguish by touching

Toidentify, to recall, to recognize Tocommend, to follow Toendure, toimprove

To interpret, to differentiate To approve, topractice To play thepiano

To read, to make, to determine To appreciate, tofeel To dance skillfully, to explore

To conclude, to extend To avoid, to resolve To write , to balance

Todraw, to explain Tobalance, to help Tostrengthen, toreach


Levels of cognitive domain

1. Knowledge
2. Comprehension
3. Application
4. Analysis
5. Synthesis
6. Evaluation
Levels of affective domain
by: Kratwohl Taxonomy

1. Receiving
2. Responding
3. Valuing
4. Organization
5. Characterization
Levels of Psychomotor Domain

1. Observing
2. Imitating
3. Practicing
4. Adapting but Simpson (1972)added another
three from Blooms Domain and these are:
5. Precision
6. Speed
7. Distance and Technique
basic parts of lessonplan
a. Objectives
b. Subject matter
c. Materials
d. Procedure or lessondevelopment
e. Evaluation
f. assignment
b.topic or subject matter
Main course of the lesson
The center of the discussion
c. Materials
instructional materials and media and
to make the abstract concrete.
c. procedure
-It starts with motivation
e.g. prayer
-Then checking of attendance and I.D. plus the
uniform
-Review the past lesson
-Apply a method
in a procedure,
Five major elements
a.motivation
b. Teaching procedure( use of pivotal questions
c. Formative check( evaluation or assessment
d. Student participation
e. closure
Homework or Assignment
They are the synapse strengtheners
They enforce the retention of concepts.
It will serve as the preparation for the next
lesson.
Role of the Teacher In Doing Activities
as Part of the Lesson.
1. Develop a list of study questions that focus on the objectives of
the lesson.
2. Develop the anticipated answers to the question, it is important
that the teacher have a firm idea of what are correct or
incorrect answers.
3. Establish time frame for completing the activity. Students need
to feel a sense of urgency, so don’t give them more time than
you think they will need.
4. Supervise during this activity, NOT A TIME TO GRADE
PAPERS, MAKE PHONE CALLS, PLAN FOR THE NEXT LESSON, OR
LOCATE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS IN THIS LESSON.
5. Assist students in locating information, but do not find it for
them
6. Keep students on task and eliminatedistractions.
7. Plan for reporting of answers.
SELECTIONAND USEOFTEACHING
STRATEGIES
1. LEARNING IS AN ACTIVEPROCESS.
It means that we have toactively engage the
learners in learning activities if we want
them to learn what we intend to teach.
As the saying goes:
What I hear, I forget
What I see, I remember.
What I do, I understand
SELECTIONAND USEOFTEACHING
STRATEGIES
2. THE MORE SENSES THAT ARE INVOLVED IN
LEARNING, THE MORE AND THE BETTERTHE
LEARNING.
Humans are intensely visual animals.
Senses of Learning
750%
5.5
4
3 3

sight hearing touch taste smell


SELECTIONAND USEOFTEACHING
STRATEGIES
3. A NON –THREATENINGATMOSPHERE
ENHANCES LEARNING
It deals with physical and psychologicalclimate
of the classroom
Physical – the board, ventilation, proper lighting
condition, order and tidiness and painting of
the room.
Psychological- is an offshoot of our personality
as a teacher.
SELECTIONAND USEOFTEACHING
STRATEGIES
4. EMOTIONS HAS THE POWER TOINCREASE
RETENTION AND LEARNING
We tend to remember and learn morethose
that strike our hearts! Let us add an
emotional touch to learning.
5. LEARNING IS MEANINGFUL WHEN IT IS
CONNECTEDTO STUDENTS’EVERYDAYLIFE.
SELECTIONAND USEOFTEACHING
STRATEGIES
6. GOOD TEACHING GOES BEYOND RECALLOF
INFORMATION.
It is to develop creative and critical thinking. It
should reach the levels of
application, analysis, synthesis and
evaluation to hone our students’thinking
skills.
7. AN INTEGRATED TEACHING APPROACHIS
FAR MORE EFFECTIVE THAN TEACHING
ISOLATED BITS OFINFORMATION.
INTELLIGENCE EXAMPLES OFCLASSROOM
ACTIVITIES
Verbal Linguistic Discussion, debates, journal
writing, conferences, essays, stories, poems, storytellin
g, listening activities, reading

Logical- Mathematical Calculations, experiments, comparisons, number


games, using evidence, formulating and testing
hypothesis deductive and inductive reasoning

Spatial Concept maps, graphs, charts, art projects,


metaphorical thinking, visualization , videos, slides,
visual presentations

Bodily- Kenisthetic Role- playing, dance, athletic activities, manipulative,


hands-on demonstrations conceptmiming

Musical Playing, music, singing, rapping, whistling, clapping,


analysing sounds andmusic

Interpersonal Community- involvement projects, discussions,


cooperative learning, team games, peer tutoring,
conferences, social activities, sharing

Intrapersonal Student choice, journal writing, self evaluation,


personal instruction, independent study, discussing
feelings, reflecting

Naturalist Ecological fieldtrips , environmental study, caring for


plants and animals, outdoor work, patternrecognition
RESEARCHAND BRAIN- BASED
INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

concrete

symbolic abstract

Research-
based
BRAIN-BASEDINSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
1. Authentic Problem Solving –
Example-comparing the mini polls at school result to national
elections result. In tabulating the result, discuss the reasons for
the differences.
2. Project- based multi-media
example – class will work on the memories of World War II and
produce a song from that era and display a collage of photographs
and other memorabilia.
3.Role plays as Meaning Makers-
Example- A sari-sari store to give elementary pupils experience in
making a budget, stay within the budget and counting changefor
bills.
4.Visuals are powerful aids in retention as well asunderstanding. To
help students organize their thinking, teachers usegraphics.
BRAIN-BASEDINSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
Examples of Graphics
1. Graphic Organizers for Classification
BRAIN-BASEDINSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES

2. Descriptive Pattern Organizer

FACT

FACT FACT
TOPIC

FACT FACT
BRAIN-BASEDINSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
3. Time Sequence Pattern Organizer

• Date/time
event • Venue
• Date/time
event • Venue
• Date/ time
event • Venue
BRAIN-BASEDINSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
4. Episode Pattern Organizer
duration

place

time

cause episode effect

persons person
person
person
BRAIN-BASEDINSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES
Concept Pattern Organizer example

characteristic

concept
characteristic
characteristic

Example
Example Example

Example
Example
CLASSROOMMANAGEMENT

1. Assertive Discipline (Canter 1976) – teaches


students to accept the consequences of their
actions
- More on positive and praisesthan
punishments.
- Be responsible of the actions you areacted
upon.
CLASSROOMMANAGEMENT

2. Theory Xand Theory Y(McGregor 1967). Theory X


is Newtonian and Yis post- Newtonian
- X suggests that people will do the minimum
possible amount of work necessary to accomplish
a task.
- Y-suggests that all people want to succeed,but
there are obstacles in their path which inhibit
their progress.. If these obstacles areremoved,
then they can succeed as well as anyone else.
CLASSROOMMANAGEMENT

3. Control Theory (William Glasser,1984)- called asReality


Therapy-is a series of steps to help children understand
their choices they aremaking.
- he suggests that there are fourbasic needs
a. Love
b. Control
c. Freedom
d. Fun
These are necessary for healthy psychological balance
CLASSROOMMANAGEMENT

4. Behaviorism ( Skinner)- molding all children to


conform by use of standard punishments and
rewards.
- The initial condition are individuals and the
equations are those behavioristic techniques
set out to modify theindividuals.
CLASSROOMMANAGEMENT

5. Transactional Analysis( Harris,1967) studies the


interactions of behavior between teachers and
students. He even suggests three stage of
development called ego-states, Child, s and
Adult. Parent,
In order for teachers to be successful in this theory, they
need to remain in the Adult ego and be able to
recognize the ego- state of students aroundthem.
Teachers can recognize the games that students may play in
a child ego- state
And teach students tobehave in an Adult ego- state.
CLASSROOMMANAGEMENT

6. Ginott Model- concentrates on the


communication between teacher and student.
It concentrates on avoiding criticism and trying
to understand the student’sfeelings.
7. Kay Model- students are intrinsically motivated
to behave properly if they are taught how to
do it. Role of the teacher is to teach students
how to monitor themselves.
CLASSROOMMANAGEMENT

8. Jones Model- assumption of this model is a


child needs to be controlled and that teachers
can achieve this control through body
language, administration, and parental
support.
According to Edwards,1993, Stopping
Instruction, Staring, Sitting close to the student
are all powerful intimidation techniques which
should stop students from misbehaving.
DIFFERENTAPPROACHESANDMETHODS
Steps to follow:
a. Provide the rationale.
b. Demonstrate the skill.
c. Provide guided practice.
d. Check for understanding and provide
feedback.
e. Provide extended practice and transfer.
DIFFERENTAPPROACHESANDMETHODS
How to do it?
1. Explain the rationale and objectives of the lesson. Inform them of
how long the lesson will take.
2. Provide motivation and draw commitments from them.
3. Conduct the demonstration
4. Assign practice for short periods of time. Continue practice to the
point of over learning forcomplete mastery.
5. Provide feedback, videotaping of performance, tests or written
comments.
6. Focus on performance evaluation rather than on pencil-and-
paper test. The student should exhibit the skillmastered.
DIFFERENTAPPROACHESANDMETHODS
Example:
a. Deductive method- is a teacher- dominated. It
begins with the abstract rule, generalization,
principle and ends with specific examplesand
concrete details.
Advantages and disadvantages:
A. Coverage of a wider scope by stating at once therule
or the principle at the beginning of the class, we
cover more subject matter over a period oftime.
- No bother on the part of a teacher to lead the learners
to the formulation of the generalization or rule.
D. It in not supportive of the principle that learning is an
active process. Less involvement on the part of the
learner.
- Lesson appears uninteresting at first. Due to abstract
presentation at start then it will look irrelevant and
uninteresting.
b. Inductive method
Is less teacher directed than the deductive
method. It begins with specific
details, concrete data and examples and ends
with an abstract generalization , rule or
principle.
Reflect on ………..
1. Socratic,
on which the image is a wise, somewhat crusty
teacher who purposely gets into arguments
with students over the subjectmatter
through artful questioning.
Reflect on ………..
2. )Town –Meeting
on which the teachers whom adapt thisstyle
use a great deal of discussion and play a
moderate role that enables students to work
out answers to problem bythemselves.
Reflect on ………..
3.Compulsive type
on which the teacher is fussy(choosy),teaches
things over and over, and is concerned with
functional order and structure.
Reflect on ………..
4. Boomer
on which the teacher shouts in a strong
voice, “You’re going to learn, thereis no
nonsense in the classroom.
Reflect on ………..
5. ) Maverick
on which everybody loves the teacher,except
perhaps the principal. She raises difficult
questions and presents ideas that disturb.
Reflect on ………..
6. ) Quiet one
on which the teacher is calm, sincere but
definite. The teacher commands both respect
and attention.
Reflect on ………..
7. ) Entertainer
on which the teacher is free enough to joke and
laugh with the students.
Reflect on ………..
8. Explanatory
on which the teacher is in command of the
subject matter and explains particular subjects
of the lesson.
Reflect on ………..
9. Interactive
on which through dialogue and questioning, the
teacher facilitates the development of student
ideas.
Reflect on ………..
10. Pragmatic
on which the teacher guides the students’
activities and facilitates self- instruction and
independent learning.
Kinds of Test and Evaluation
1.Matching type- matching column A to the
other column.
2.Fill in the Blanks- formulating questions by
writing a statement with a blank portion onit.
3.Multiple choice- it is with a complete
statement and giving three or morechoices
below the statement.
Kinds of Test and Evaluation
4.Completion form- completing the sentence
by adding phrase or words quite related tofill
in the blanks.
5.enumeration- it is to ask for multiple answers
by putting the numbers depending on the
item being asked.
Kinds of Test and Evaluation
6.True or False- it isby giving a statement and
then analyze it if it is true or not based on the
lesson previously discussed.
7.Objective essay- it is to answer the question
verbatim. It means that the answers will be based
on the words and phrases coming from thelesson
and not your own ideas andopinions.
Kinds of Test and Evaluation
8. Subjective essay- it could be answeredeither
by your own opinion or based onthe
statement and explanation from the book.
9. Puzzle type- the most artistic and uniquekind
of test on which you will consider the
horizontal and vertical items.
Evaluation could be written or in verbal way
depending on the strategy applied bythe
teacher.
Alternative assessment can be one of the
evaluations.
Ex: Field trips, Thesis defense, exhibits, field
demonstration and inside competitions.