Sei sulla pagina 1di 50

CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM: RATIONALE AND


BACKGROUND
Chapter 1
• Background of the Study
• Statement of the Problem
• Hypotheses
• Research Paradigm
• Significance of the Study
• Scope and Limitations of the Study
• Definition of Terms
Hypothesis

example:
Ho: There is no significant
difference on the perception of the
teachers and the students on the
causes of bullying.
example:

Statement of the problem:


Is there a significant difference on the extent
of awareness of the respondent when group
according to demographic profile?

Hypothesis:?
RESEARCH PARADIGM
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
Readings and literature survey on:
Preparation of research instruments such as
Domains of Learning-focused Leadership Questionnaires;

learning-focused Validation of Research Instruments


leadership practices:
-Focusing on learning Administration of Survey-Questionnaires
-Investing in
instructional leadership
-Reinventing leadership Gathering and interpretation of data using
practice appropriate statistical treatment Enhanced Learning-focused
-Establishing new
working relationships Leadership Guide for School
-Using evidence as a Administrators
medium for leadership

learning-focused
leadership supports:
-Providing resources
-Supporting leaders’ professional learning
-Brokering leaders relationships with peers
-Responding to leaders’ operational needs
-Sponsoring and legitimizing learning-focused
leadership

Challenges of implementing learning-


focused school community

Implications of learning-focused leadership


SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
What is the importance of your study or how
your study?
How the result of your study help the people
concerned such as the students, teachers,
parents, community, other researcher?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Write introductory statement
Purpose of the study
...it is expected that the results of this study
would benifit people who are concerned
with_____: the students, teachers, school
administrators, parents etc.
Through this study, the students would____
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
it includes the parameter of the
study, covering the participants of the
research, the locale, the time frame
etc.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This investigation will be conducted
to ________________. The focus of
the study is on___________. The
study will be done during
_______________.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
One hundred (100) Senior High School
Students will serve as the respondents of
the study. Fifteen (15) students will be
selected from each section of Grade 11
and Grade 12.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
To evaluate the research instruments, five
(5) Senior High School Teachers will be
selected.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
This part defines the significant
terms that will be encountered in
the research. Include only those
terms which are unique in the study
and usually the variables.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the readers to be guided and to fully
understand the study, the following terms are
defined and presented below:

Acceptability in the study pertains to the


quality of the developed differentiated
instructional materials that satisfactorily conform
to the standard set by the 2010 SEC.
CHAPTER 3
METHODS AND
PROCEDURES
This chapter presents the methodologies
that will be used in this study including the
research design, the research locale, the
respondents who participated in the study and
the sampling procedures employed, the
research instruments to gather data, the data
gathering procedures, and the statistical
treatment done to validate the material and to
come up with the results of this study.
RESEARCH DESIGNS
Descriptive Research is conducted to
illustrate and determine the patterns or
characteristics of variables in particular
instances or events. In the statement of
specific objectives, some of the more
appropriate verbs to use are describe,
determine, analyze, explain, define, and
illustrate.
RESEARCH DESIGNS
Exploratory Research is undertaken to gather initial
data patterns or characteristics of variable in a
situation where studies have not been done or minimal
data are available to establish significant pattern or
relationships of variables in specified scope. In this
particular design, the statement of hypothesis is not
usually present because one of the purposes of an
exploratory study is to recommend possible
hypotheses which can be tested in future studies.
RESEARCH DESIGNS
Causal/Explanatory Research is carried out to
ascertain that the occurrence of, or change in, the
independent variables lead to changes in the
dependent variables. In the statement of specific
objectives, some of the appropriate verbs to use
are analyze, explain, and identify.
RESEARCH DESIGNS
Correlational Research is conducted to establish the
fact that the outcome of certain patterns of
relationship occur together in a specified manner
without suggesting that one variable causes the
other variable to change. In this design, relationship
is also clearly identified as positive or negative
correlation. The most appropriate verb to use in
stating specific objectives is correlate or interrelate.
RESEARCH DESIGNS
Comparative Research is undertaken to confirm if
two or more variables reveals similar or different
patterns of characteristics when compared, using a
set of variables as standard bases. In the statement
of specific objectives, some of the more appropriate
verbs and phrases to use are compared, determined
similarities, find out differences, and contrast.
RESEARCH DESIGNS
Evaluative Research is conducted to assess
performance outcome or impact of a set of variables
on another one. This design considers an adequate
time span to pinpoint the affects accurately. This
kind of research could be a longitudinal study. The
appropriate verbs to use in the statements of
specific objectives are evaluate, assess, appraise,
measure, and quantify.
RESEARCH DESIGNS
Evaluative Research is conducted to assess
performance outcome or impact of a set of variables
on another one. This design considers an adequate
time span to pinpoint the affects accurately. This
kind of research could be a longitudinal study. The
appropriate verbs to use in the statements of
specific objectives are evaluate, assess, appraise,
measure, and quantify.
RESEARCH DESIGN
The descriptive method of research will be used in this study.
Descriptive method of research is a fact-finding study with adequate and
accurate interpretation of the findings. Descriptive research provides data
about the population or universe being studied but it can only describe the
who, what, when, where, and how of a situation, not what caused it
(Calderon & Gonzales, 2010). Since the present study investigated
_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________, descriptive method of
research is the most appropriate.
Research Locale
This study will be conducted at Cotta National
High School, Lucena City. Cotta National High School is
at ______________________________. Itis an
integrated high school which offers basic education to
both Junior and Senior High School.
Research Population
The respondents of this study will be composed of
_________SHS students who will be divided into three
groups of learning levels: fast, average, and slow learners.
They were enrolled in the academic year 2011-2012 in the
four public secondary schools in the Division of Lucena City.
Students were designated to their respective group based
on their mathematics performance during the second
grading period and based on the results of the checklist
showing the mental ability level of the students as evaluated
by their teacher.
Sampling Procedure
In selecting the respondents from each of the section
of SHS, the researcher will use simple random sampling
technique, whereby every member of the population had an
equal chance of being selected. Thirty (30) student-
respondents from each section will be selected to come up
with a sample size of 120 respondents.
Four (4) SHS teachers who will be part of the study will
be purposively selected to represent the teacher-
respondents.
Sampling
According to Kumar (2011), sampling is
the process of selecting a few ( a
sample ) from a bigger group ( the
population ) to become the basis for
estimating or predicting the prevalence
of an unknown piece of information,
situation, or outcome, regarding the
bigger group.
Important statistical terms
Population:
a set which includes all
measurements of interest
to the researcher
(The collection of all responses, measurements,
or counts that are of interest)

Sample:
A subset of the population
Selecting a sample rather than the total
population has advantages and
disadvantages. On the advantage side, it
saves time, financial and human
resources. But on the disadvantage side,
the researcher finds only an estimate or
a prediction of information about the
population’s characteristics or other
data, which are essential to the research
study.
Two factors may influence the degree of certainty about the
inferences drawn from a sample:

•1.Findings based upon larger samples have


more certainty than those based on smaller
ones. As a rule, “the larger the sample size,
the more accurate the findings.”
Two factors may influence the degree of certainty about the
inferences drawn from a sample:

•2.The greater the variation in the study


population with respect to the
characteristics under study for a given
sample size, the greater the uncertainty.
Types of sampling

Non-probability sampling

Probability sampling
Types of Sampling

• Probability (Random) Samples


• Simple random sample
• Lottery Method
• Table of Random Numbers.
• Randomly Generated Numbers
using a computer program
• Systematic random sample
• Stratified random sample
• Cluster sample

33
1.Simple Random/Probability Sampling
Design
- is a sampling design wherein each
element in the population has an equal
and independent chance of selection in the
sample. The concept of independence
means that the choice of one element is
not dependent upon the choice of another
element in the sampling or the selection or
rejection of the element does not affect
the inclusion or exclusion of another.
Techniques in Drawing Random Samples ( Daniel, 2012 )
a. Lottery Method ( also known as
fishbowl technique ). The numbers
representing each element in the target
population are placed on chips, cards,
rolled paper, etc. These are then placed
in a container and thoroughly mixed.
Next, blindly select chips from the
container until the desired sample size
has been obtained.
b. Table of Random Numbers.
The numbers in a table of random
numbers are not arranged in any
particular pattern. In using this technique,
the researcher should blindly select a
starting point and then systematically
proceed in the table. The numbers of
digits that are used should correspond to
the total size of the target population.
c. Randomly Generated Numbers using a computer
program ( i.e., random number generator )

Activate the computer program with random number


generator. Key in a specific range of numbers from
hundreds, thousands, or millions and the random
numbers will appear from which you will pick your
choices.
2. Stratified Sampling
- this is a probability sampling procedure
in which the target population is first
separated into mutually exclusive,
homogenous segments ( strata ), and
then a simple random sample is selected
from each segment ( stratum ). The
samples selected from the various strata
are then combined into a simple sample (
Daniel, 2012 ).
3. Systematic Sampling

- in this sampling procedure, a random


selection is made of the first element for the
sample, then subsequent elements are
selected using a fixed or systematic interval
until the desired sample size is reached.
4.Cluster Sampling
- this is a probability sampling
procedure wherein elements of the
population are randomly selected in
naturally occurring groupings or
clusters. In this kind of sampling, the
selection of population elements is
not individually but in aggregates.
Types of Samples

• Non-Probability Samples
• Availability/Convenience sample
• Purposive sample
• Quota
• Respondent-Assisted Sampling

41
1. Availability,Convenience Sampling
- under this sampling design, the sample
elements are selected from the target
population based on their availability,
on the convenience of the researcher,
and/or voluntary/self-reflection.
- according to Daniel ( 2012 ), it is the
most frequently used sampling
procedure in research.
2. Purposive Sampling
- this is non-probability sampling
procedure in which the elements
are selected from the target
population on the basis of their fir
with the purposes of the study and
specific inclusion and exclusion
criteria.
3. Quota Sampling
- this is a type of non-probability sampling
procedure in which the population is divided into
mutually exclusive subcategories, and the
researcher solicits participation in the study from
members of the subcategories have been met.
4. Respondent-Assisted Sampling
- in this sampling procedure, the
elements are selected from a target
population with the assistance of
previously selected population
elements. This sampling procedure is
often used in studying social networks,
rare populations and hidden populations
such as drug dealers and users and
other criminals or commercial sex
workers, etc.
Research Instrument
A three-part questionnaire will be the main instrument of the
research.
Part I of the questionnaire determined the level of agreement
of the teacher-respondents on the acceptability of the instructional
material in terms of a) learning objectives, b) learning activities, c)
accuracy and clarity of the material, and d) appeal of the material.
Part II dealt with the level of agreement of the teacher-
respondents on the usability of the instructional material.
Part III assessed the level of agreement of the student-
respondents on the usability of the instructional material.
Data Gathering Procedures
With the approval of the researchers' mentor
and upon the validation of the research
instrument, questionnaires will be adminstered to
the groups of respondents.
Survey-questionnaires will then be retrieved
and scored and the results will be tabulated,
analyzed, and interpreted by the researchers.
Statistical Treatment of Data
Statistical Treatment of Data
To answer the level of mastery attained by each group of
students in every activities of the instructional material and in every
formative test given, the mean formula was used.
X=
where: n = total number of respondents in the group
= the sum of scores
To determine the level of acceptability, usability, face validity of the
developed differentiated instructional materials, weighted mean
formula will be used.
Statistical Treatment of Data
To interpret the result of each questionnaire, the following
scales will be applied:

Weighted Point Range of Weighted Verbal Description


Mean
5 4.21 – 5.00 Strongly Agree (SA)
4 3.41 – 4.20 Agree (A)
3 2.61 – 3.40 Uncertain (U)
2 1.81 – 2.60 Disagree (U)
1 1.00 – 1.80 Strongly Disagree (SD)
Statistical Treatment of Data
In determining the significant differences between the
mean scores in the formative assessment obtained by the
group of students with different level of abilities, Analysis
of Variance (ANOVA) was applied.
To verify the significant differences between the
perceptions of the teachers and students on the
acceptability and usability of the developed differentiated
instructional materials, t-test was used.