Sei sulla pagina 1di 72

Basic Elements of

Reciprocating
Compressors
Reciprocating Compressor
Condition Monitoring

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Topics

We will be discussing the following reciprocating


compressor concepts:

• Components & Nomenclature


• Capacity Control
• Lubrication Systems
• Compressors Types

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Components & Nomenclature
Crosshead Guide
/ Distance Piece
Cylinde
r

Cylinde Fram
r e

Cylinde
r

Cylinde
r

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Driver
Distance Piece
Frame

Cylinder

Crosshead
Guide

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Frame
Components & Nomenclature

Spacer Blocks Main Bearing Cap


Tie Rods

Crosshead Guide
Crankshaft

Main Bearing
Support Web

Oil Sump
Soleplate Mounts

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Main Bearing
Components & Nomenclature
Thermocoupl
e
Bearing
Cap

Bearing
Nuovo Pignone S.p.A.
Insert

Bearing
Support

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Running Gear
Components & Nomenclature

Describes the moving


parts of the compressor
including:

•Crankshaft

•Connecting Rod

•Crosshead

•Piston Assembly
8-Throw_080406.wmv

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crankshaft
Components & Nomenclature

Primary Function of Crankshaft:


• Convey power from driver to
connecting rod

Secondary
Function:
• Provide passages
for lubricating other
components

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crankshaft
Components & Nomenclature
Crankshaft Flange

Web
Web
Assembly

Main Bearing Journal

Crank Pin

Main Bearing Journal

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crankshaft
Components & Nomenclature

Fixed Angle
Crankshaft
Web
Drive Flange
Crank Pin

Journal Journal

Crank Pin

Web Web

Fixed Angle Crankshaft:


• Adjacent crank pins exactly 180
degrees apart,
•Not separated by a main journal
bearing.

10

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crankshaft
Components & Nomenclature

• Fixed Angle Crankshaft

• Four (4) throw


• Horizontal,
Balanced & Opposed

11

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crankshaft
Components & Nomenclature

• Fixed Angle
Crankshaft

• Six throw
• Horizontal, Balanced
& Opposed

12

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crankshaft
Components & Nomenclature

Variable Angle Crankshaft

120 degrees 120 degrees


Crank Pin

Journal Journal
Crank Pin

Crank Pin
Variable Angle Variable Angle
Crankshaft (end view) Crankshaft (side view)
Variable Angle Crankshaft:
• Main bearing between each web assembly,
• Angles between any throws can be whatever
is required by design.

13

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crankshaft
Components & Nomenclature

• Variable Angle Crankshaft

• Three (3) Throw


• Not balanced & Opposed

14

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crankshaft
Components & Nomenclature

• Variable Angle Crankshaft

• Five (5) Throw


• Not Balanced &
Opposed

15

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crankshaft Main Bearing
Cap
Components & Nomenclature

Thrust Shoe

16

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Main Bearing
Crankshaft Cap
Components & Nomenclature

Thrust Shoe

17

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Flywheel
Components & Nomenclature

Flywheel

18

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Reciprocating Compressor Throw
Components & Nomenclature

• The term “throw” is often used to • This example shows two throws
refer to a connecting rod, driven by a single crankpin & web
crosshead, piston rod & piston assembly.
assembly.

Single Throw

WebAssembly_Angle.wmv

19

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Connecting Rod
Components & Nomenclature

Crank Pin Bearing

Crosshead Pin Bushing

Connecting Rod
Bolts

Crosshead
Pin

20

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Connecting Rod
Components & Nomenclature

Oil Passage to
Lubricate Crosshead
Pin

21

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Connecting Rod
Components & Nomenclature

• Rod load reversal is the periodic shifting of piston rod load


between tension and compression during a complete
stroke.
– Important for adequate crosshead pin & bushing lubrication.

Crosshead

Crosshead Pin Bushing

Lubricating Oil
Crosshead Pin

Crosshead Assembly
Cross-Section
22

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Connecting Rod
Components & Nomenclature

Nuovo Pignone S.p.A.

Connecting rod big end


bearing insert (bearing cap
removed)

Small end bushing


Nuovo Pignone S.p.A. (with oil distribution
grooves)
23

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crosshead
Components & Nomenclature

Shoe

Piston
Rod

Shoe
Crosshead
Shoe Pin

Piston
Rod

Shoe Nuovo Pignone S.p.A.


Nuovo Pignone S.p.A.

24

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crosshead Assembly
Components & Nomenclature

Nuovo Pignone, S.p.A.

Crosshead extension
with crosshead and
connecting rod

Nuovo Pignone, S.p.A.

Installing crosshead extension on compressor frame

25

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Crosshead Assembly
Components & Nomenclature

Upper Crosshead
Guide
Upper Crosshead Pin
Shoe (hidden from
view)
Locknut

Crosshea
Piston Rod d

Lower
Shoe Lower Crosshead
Guide

26

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


© 2007 General Electric Company. All rights reserved. Nuovo Pignone S.p.A.
Cylinder Components
Components & Nomenclature

Suction Port

Pressure
Tap (crank- Suction
end) Valve (head-
end)

Discharge
Valve (crank- Unloade
end) r

Discharge 28
Port
© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.
Cylinder Assembly
Components & Nomenclature

Distance
Piece
Suction
Valve
Cooling Water

Cylinde
r
Piston
Rod
Buffer Gas Purge

Pressure Packing
Case
Chambe
r Piston

Discharge 29

Valve
© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.
Cylinder Assembly (Tandem)
Components & Nomenclature

Distance
Piece

Distance
Piece

Piston
Rod
Pressure Packing
Case
Inner Cylinder

Outer Cylinder
30

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Cylinder Assembly (Tandem)
Components & Nomenclature

Distance
Piece

Distance
Piece
Piston
Rod
Pressure Packing
Case

Inner Cylinder

Outer Cylinder
31

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Cylinder Assembly (Tail Rod)
Components & Nomenclature

Distance
Suction
Piece
Valve
Cylinder

Crank End Pressure


Packing Case

Head End Pressure


Packing Case Tail Rod
32

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Piston Assembly (Compound)
Components & Nomenclature
Piston Rod Locknut
(Crosshead nut)
Piston Rod

Piston Washer

Frame End Piston Half

Piston Rings
Ring Carrier

Wear Bands
(Rider Bands)
Head End Piston Half

Piston Nut Washer

Piston Nut

Exploded View
Compound Piston

Assembled View
Compound Piston
33

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Piston Assembly (Integral)
Components & Nomenclature

Piston Rod Locknut


(Crosshead nut)

Piston Rod

Piston Rings

Wear Bands
(Rider Bands)

Assembled View
Cross Sectional View
Integral Piston
Integral Piston

34

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Valve
Components & Nomenclature

Plate Valve Concentric Ring Valve

PlateValveDescription.wmv ConcRingValveDescription.wmv

Seat
Gas Flow

Plate

Buttons

Spring
s
Guard
35

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Suction Valve Assembly
Components & Nomenclature

Suction valve
with finger-
type unloader

Nuovo Pignone S.p.A.


Nuovo Pignone S.p.A.

36

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Packing Sets
Components & Nomenclature

Oil Wiper
Oil Wiper Packing
•Prevents frame oil from
Packing
migrating into the distance pieces
Intermediate •Sometimes referred to as
Partition Packing “scraper packing.”

•Intermediate Partition
Packing
•Prevents process gas that
leaked through the pressure
packing case from entering
Piston frame.
Rod •Sometimes referred to as
Pressure “intermediate packing.”
Packing
•Pressure Packing
•Prevents process gas from
entering the distance piece.
37

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Pressure Packing – Assembled
Components & Nomenclature
Nose Cup Gasket
Packing
Rings

Packing assembly installed


Tie in crank-end cylinder head.
Bolts Packing
Cups

Packing
Case
Flange
38

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Pressure Packing – Components
Components & Nomenclature
Nose Cup Gasket Packing case flange
includes ports for coolant,
lubricating oil, vent, and
buffer gas purge lines – as
appropriate.

Tie Bolts
Packing
Cup
Packing
Rings

Packing Case
Flange 39

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Packing Rings
Components & Nomenclature

Radial Tangentia
Packing l Packing
Ring Ring

Radial and tangential rings are most


effective when used together in a packing
set.

40

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Purged Pressure Packing
Components & Nomenclature

Cylinder Head
Buffer Gas Purge

Process
Buffer Gas
Gas Leakage
Leakage Piston
Rod

Vent to Disposal Packing


System (flare) Cups &
Packing Rings
Case
Flange

41

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Capacity Control
• Starting and Stopping Compressors
• Clearance Pockets
• Suction Valve Unloaders
• Variable Speed Drivers
• Recirculation or Bypass

42

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Starting and Stopping
Compressors
Capacity Control
In general, the procedure is the following:
• Clear compressor and process lines
• Start compressor
• Open the gas cut-off valve on the final stage discharge line.
• Gradually load the various stages, starting from the last one
and working back to the first.
• Gradually close the overall by-pass (if there is one).
• Reverse procedure to shutdown

43

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Capacity Control
• Starting and stopping compressors
• Clearance pockets
• Suction valve unloaders
• Variable speed drivers
• Recirculation or Bypass

44

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Clearance Pocket
Capacity Control

Suction
Valve
Fixed-
Volume
Pocket

Piston PV Curve - Loaded

Plug
PV Curve – Reduced
Capacity
Discharge Actuator
Valve

45

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Clearance Pocket Actuators
Capacity Control

Example: Head-end clearance pockets with hydraulic actuators.

46

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Variable Clearance Pocket
Unloader Head End
Head
Capacity Control

Control
Piston
Control Piston Motion

Additional Clearance
Hydraulic Cylinder Volume
(Actuator)

47

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Variable Clearance Pocket
Unloader Process Gas Line
Capacity ControlControl Unit Electrical Line
Mechanical Link
Pressure Transducer
PT Hydraulic Line

Position Discharge
Transducer

Directional Valve With


Manual Override
Suction

Hydraulic
Cylinder
Hydraulic Console 48

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Plug-Type Valve Unloader
Capacity Control

Actuator

Plug

PV Curve - Unloaded PV Curve - Loaded

Suction Piston
Valve
49

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Finger-Type Valve Unloader
Capacity Control

Actuator

Finger
Assembly

PV Curve - Unloaded PV Curve - Loaded

Suction Piston
Valve
50

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Active Valve Control
Capacity Control

Electroni
c
Circuitry
High-
Speed
Hydraulic
Actuator

Finger
Assembly
PV Curve - Unloaded PV Curve - Loaded

Suction Piston
Valve
51

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Active Valve Control
Capacity Control

High-speed Actuator
Electronics

Unloader Finger
Assembly PV Curve - Unloaded

Suction Valve

(Hoerbiger Corporation)
PV Curve - Loaded
52

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Valve Unloader Actuators
Capacity Control

Example: Suction valve unloaders with hydraulic actuators.

53

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Capacity Control
• Starting and stopping compressors
• Clearance pockets
• Suction valve unloaders
• Variable speed drivers
• Recirculation or Bypass

54

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


How does the BY-PASS operate?
Recirculation or Bypass

Compress
or Control system in operation

Capacity 100 %

55

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Compressor Lubrication
Main functions of lubrication:
• Minimize wear, avoid contact between parts in relative
motion
• Remove heat induced by friction
• Remove impurities from the outside or produced internally
by wear
• Protect metal parts from corrosion
Components that require lubrication in a reciprocating
compressor:
• The crank-gear (bearings and crosshead shoes)
• The cylinders (piston, piston rings, valves and packing) if
lubricated type
Large machines always have separate systems for crank-gear and cylind
56

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Frame lubrication
Compressor Lubrication

Nuovo Pignone Type HG


57

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Frame and Cylinder Lube Systems
Compressor Lubrication

Frame
lubrication

Cylinder
lubrication

58

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Frame and Cylinder Lube Systems
Compressor Lubrication

59

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Cylinder Lubrication
Compressor Lubrication

60

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Lubrication System Monitoring
Compressor Lubrication
4-20 mA signal to data acquisition
/ monitoring system to monitor
decrease of lubrication frequency
Lubrication to cylinder/packing
gland usually with a “divider Main line
block” system Lubrication
Proximity switch

monitor

Flow monitor and shutdown


devices are used, usually thisTo control panel
goes to PLC directly, it is alsoshutdown relay
possible to have measurement
to monitoring system
To cylinder and
packing glands
injection points

61

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Compressor Types

• Separable (typical)
• Integral
• Overhung
• Vertical
• Hyper

62

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Separable Compressor
Compressor Types

Outboard
Bearing

Motor Rotor

Rigid Coupling
Main Bearing

Crankshaft
63

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Integral Compressor
Compressor Types

Integral Compressor: Driven by


internal combustion engine that
shares a common crankshaft
with the compressor.

With vertical power cylinders

With vee power cylinders and articulated connecting rods

64
WebAssembly_Angle.wmv
© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.
Overhung Motor-Compressor
Compressor Types

Auxiliary Motor
Support Bearing

Clark Compressor With Overhung Motor

Motor Rotor

Main Bearing

Crankshaft 65

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Vertical Compressor
Compressor Types

Valve Cover

Cylinder

Frame

Vertical Sulzer Compressor


(Oil Pump End) 66

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Hyper Compressors
Compressor Types

Crossheads and
guide tracks inside
frame

“Packed-plunger”
cylinders

Nuovo Pignone S.p.A.

67

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Single-Acting Design
Compressor Types-Hyper
Plunger
Connecting Rod
• Smaller machine size than
double-acting design
Journal Bearing
• Permanent factory
alignment of compressor
components
Crankshaft
• Simplified maintenance
compared to double-acting Crosshead
design. Crosshead Pin

Guide Tracks

Plunger
Nuovo Pignone
S.p.A.
68

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Double-Acting Design
Compressor Types-Hyper

Main
Crosshead
Crank- Guide
End
Cylinder Fram
Tie Rods e
(stationary) Auxiliary
Crosshea
Plunger d Guide

Crankshaft &
Connecting
Main Rods
Crosshea Double-Acting design
d
uses traditional
Auxiliary Push crankshaft, frame,
Head- Crosshea Rods
End connecting rods & main
d (moving)
Cylinder crossheads.
69

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Double-Acting Design
Compressor Types-Hyper

Plungers

Pushrods

Cylinder Cylinder

Main
Auxiliary Crosshead
Crosshea
d
Hyper_Compressor_Animation.gif Crankshaft

70

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


Summary

• Components & Nomenclature


• Capacity Control
• Lubrication Systems
• Compressors Types

71

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


72

© 2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.