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WELCOME

TO
QUEST
Steel Making and the next steps
By
G. Venkateswara Rao
Sr. Manager (MP)
Bailadila Iron Ore Mine,
Kirandul complex
NMDC Limited
What is steel ?
---Alloy of Iron, Carbon, manganese, Chromium,
Vanadium, Nickel , tungsten and other elements

Importance of Steel:
High
Hardness
Ductility
Malleability
Toughness
Tensile strength
Cast ability
Low cost
Good Corrosion resistance
Reasons for wide range of
applications of steel
Ø Wide range of Alloy
Compositions
ØGood Mechanical Properties
ØVariety of Product forms available
ØPossibility of changing
Mechanical
Properties (Heat treatment)
Ø Small or large,
Ø High-tech or low-tech,
Steel Applications
Home Domestic appliances such as fridges,
washing machines, ovens and
microwaves, sinks, radiators, cutlery, hi-fi
equipment, razors, pins.

Packaging Food and beverage cans, promotional


materials, aerosols, paint and chemical
containers, bottle tops and caps

Travel and Transport Car bodies, engine components, wheels,


axles, trucks, transmissions, trains, rails,
ships, anchor chains, aircraft
undercarriages, jet engines components.
Steel Applications
Construction Low and high rise buildings, housing, modular
buildings, retail, industrial, education and hospital
buildings, sports stadia, stations, reinforcing bars for
concrete, bridge deck plates, piers and suspension
cables, harbours, cladding and roofing, office, tunnels,
security, coastal and flood defences.

Power and Oil and gas wells and platforms, pipelines, electricity
energy power turbine components, electricity pylons, wind
turbines.
Electrical and Electromagnets, transformer cores, electromagnetic
Magnetic shields.
Yellow goods Earth-moving and quarrying equipment, cranes, fork-
lift trucks.
Agriculture and Farm vehicles and machinery, storage tanks, tools,
Industry structures, walkways, protective equipment.

In short, nothing is manufactured, processed or transported without steel.


Top ten steel producing countries
Million Metric Tonnes

Rank Country/Region 2007 2008 2009*


— World 1,351.3 1326.5 1344.7
1 People's Republic of China
494.9 500.5 567.80

— European Union 209.7 198.0 ----


2 Japan 120.2 118.7 87.50
3 United States 98.1 91.4 58.10
4 Russia 72.4 68.5 59.90
5 India 53.1 55.2 56.0
6 South Korea 51.5 53.6 48.60
7 Germany 48.6 45.8 32.7
8 Ukraine 42.8 37.1 29.80
9 Brazil 33.8 33.7 26.50
10 Italy 31.6 30.6 25.30

* Up to 2009 December
Top 10 Steel Producing Companies (2008)

Company 2007 - 08 Rank 2009 - 10 Rank

Arcellar 103 . 30 1 st 117 . 80 1 st


Mittal
Nippon Steel 37 . 50 2 nd 39 . 60 2 nd
BaoSteel Group 35 . 40 3 rd 34 . 70 3 rd

POSCO 34 . 70 4 th 33 . 90 4 th
Hebei Steel 33 . 30 5 th 32 . 20 5 th
JFE 33 . 00 6 th 32 . 80 6 th
Wuhan Steel 27 . 70 7 th 28 . 90 7 th
Group
Tata Steel 24 . 40 8 th 25 . 10 8 th
Group
Jiangsu 23 . 30 9 th 24 . 30 9 th
Shagang Group

US Steel 23 . 20 10 th 21 . 80 10 th
Categories/ Types of Steel Products
Steel Production - Consumption

Top five steel Consuming countries


Top five steel Producing countries
India’s Steel Production
PRODUCTION OF FINISHED CARBON STEEL (In million tonnes)
Year Main Secondary Grand % of share of
Producers Producers Total Secondary
Producers
1991-1992 7.96 6.37 14.33 14.5%
1992-1993 8.41 6.79 15.20 44.7%
1994-1995 9.57 8.25 17.82 46.3%
1996-1997 10.54 12.18 22.72 53.6 %
1997-1998 10.44 12.93 23.37 55.32 %
1998-1999 9.86 13.24 23.82 57.32 %
2000-2001 12.51 17.19 29.7 57.88 %
2001-2002 13.05 17.58 30.63 57.40 %
2003-2004 15.19 21.00 36.19 58.03 %
2004-2005 15.61 24.44 40.05 61.02 %
2006-2007 17.390 37.756 55.146 68.46 %
2008-2009 17.216 46.229 63.445 72.86%
2009-2010 17.900 46.565 65.465 72.66 %
Various types of Iron and Steels:
Pig Iron
Cast Iron
Ductile Iron
Wrought Iron
Sponge Iron etc.
Low carbon steel
Medium carbon steel
Plain carbon steels
Alloy steels
Tool steels
Special steels
National steel Policy - 2005

Per capita steel Consumption:


India -- 30Kg
Rural --- 2Kg to be increased to 4Kg by 2019-20
Urbane --- 77Kg to be increased to165Kg by 2019-20
World --- 150Kg
Developed world --- 350Kg
Steel production of India (Year wise)
Source: Survey of Indian Industry2010
Steel Making
Steel making routes

Basic Oxygen Steel Making (BOS)Electric Arc Furnace


(EAF)

Integrated route Re-melting Route

75-80% "hot metal" (pig 100% recycled scrap, solid


iron) from the blast furnace pig iron or DRI
20-25% recycled scrap
64% of global steel 33% of global steel
production production
Steel Making
by

Basic Oxygen Furnace Route/

Integrated steel Plant route


Schematic diagram of Iron
and steel Making (BOS)
Different sections of
Integrated steel Plant
Raw Material Handling Plant (RMHP)

Coke ovens and by products handling Plant


Sinter Plant
Pellet Plant
Blast Furnace
Steel Melting Shop (SMS)
Continuous Casting

Rolling Mills ( Slabs/Blooms/Billet)


Heavy and structural Mills

Wire rod Mills/TMT Bars


Light , Medium and Merchant Mills
Area labs and Central lab for quality control
Raw Material handling Plant (RMHP)
Main equipment in RMHP
q Wagon Tripler
q Conveyors
q Vibrating Feeders
q Stackers (Single boom/Twin
Boom)
q Reclaimers
RMHP consists of
ØIron Ore Stock Pile
LUMP Stock pile
CLO Stock Pile
Fines Stock pile
Sinter stock Pile
ØLimestone stock pile
BF Grade
SMS Grade
ØManganese ore stock pile
Low grade Manganese ore
ØAlloying elements
Ferrochrome
Ferro Manganese
Nickel
Chromium
ØCoal
Imported coking coal
Non coking coal
Distant view of a Wagon Tripler
Wagon Tripler in Operation
COKE OVENS
AND
BY PRODUCT
HANDLING PLANT
Lay out of Coke ovens
Process flow of Coke ovens
Photograph of Coke ovens
Cross section of a Coke oven battery

01.) Coal from the mixing and grinding plant 09.) Quenching car
02.) Coal bunker 10.) Coke wharf
03.) Weighing containers 11.) Coke for the blast furnace
04.) Charging car 12.) Dedusting of coke output
05.) Coke oven chamber 13.) Coke pusher
06.) Riser 14.) Gas for the coal by products plant
07.) Regenerator 15.) Chimney
08.) Transfer machine
Cross section of Coke oven Battery
Coke ovens and by Product Handling Plant
Why Coking coal?
vTo remove volatile constituents like Water, Coal

gas, Coal tar


vTo fuse fixed carbon and residual ash
vTo increase permeability of coke
vTo increase physical Properties of coke
What is Coking of coal ?
ü Absence of air
üTemperature around 2000 Centigrade
ü Time Period 16 – 20 Hours
ü Nitrogen Quenching
Functions of coke
q Fuel

q Produces and regenerates


Reducing gases

q Provides open permeable bed


Characteristics of BF Coke

q Size --- 25 - 80mm


q Fixed Carbon --- 80 - 85%
q Ash --- 10 – 15 %
q Volatile Matter --- 2% Max
q Alkalies --- 0.50Max
q Sulphur --- 0.70Max
q Phosphorous --- 0.30 Max
qAbrasion Index --- M10 ---10% Max
M40 --- 75-80 Min
qStrength after reaction- CSR – 55-60
qReactivity --- CRI below 25
q
q
Yield of coke
Categor Size Yield Use
y ( mm ) (%)
BF Coke 25 - 80 85 Blast furnace
Nut Coke 15 – 25 5 Sinter Plant /
Ferro Alloy /
Pig Iron
Industry

Coke 0 - 15 10 Sinter Plant /


Breeze Cement
Industry
Adverse effects of Ash
v Lowers BF Productivity
v Increases Coke rate

An Increase in Ash content by 1.0% over a


critical limit results in increase in coke
consumption by about 5-6% and decrease in
BF Productivity about 3 -6 %
Coke ovens
Incandescent coke in the oven
waiting to be pushed
By products of coke ovens
Coke oven gas
Producer gas (CO +N2)
Coal Tar
Water gas (CO+H2)
Producer gas (CO+H2+N2)
Naphtha
Kerosene
Heating oil and
Hydro carbon Gases etc.
SINTER PLANT
Sinter Plant
What is sintering?
v Process of agglomeration
vFeed Size --- Less than 10mm
vProduct size --- +10mm to -80mm
Need of Sintering:
q To improve the physical Properties of Iron Ore
q To suit the Iron ore for Blast furnace
q To improve the Blast furnace Productivity
q To reduce the Flux consumption
q To reduce production cost
q To increase porosity/ Permeability
q To desulphurise the ore/ burden
Charge Composition of Sinter Mix

Sl.No. Constituent Size Percentage


1. Iron Ore Fines -10mm 50-60
2. Coke breeze -15mm 5-10
3. Lime stone -3mm 10-15
4. Return Sinter -10mm 30-40
5. Water --- 5-10
Schematic diagram of sintering
Rate of Sintering depends on

Rate of Suction

Ø Applied Suction

Ø Permeability of the charge


Sintering Process
Sintering Machine
Sintering Machine in operation
Characteristics of Sinter

v Shatter Index --- 90 (Min)

v Tumbler Index --- 80 (Min)

v Permeability --- 15-20%


Pelletisation
Pelletisation and Pellet Plant
What is Pelletisation?
v Process of agglomeration
v Feed Size ---- 100% Less than 100 Mesh (150Microns)
90% less than 325 mesh (47Microns)
v Product Size --- -20mm +6mm
Need of Pelletisation:
q To improve the physical Properties of Iron Ore

q To suit the Iron ore for Blast furnace

q To improve the Blast furnace Productivity

q To reduce the Flux consumption

q To reduce production cost

q To increase porosity
Process flow of Pelletisation
Process of Pelletisation
v Feed Preparation
v Green ball production and sizing (5-20mm)
v Green ball Induration
--- Drying (400-500C)
--- Pre-heating (850-950C)
--- Firing (1250 – 1350C)
v Cooling of Hardened Pellets
Charge composition of Pellet Mix

Fuel
Constituent
Iron
Lime
Bentonite
Coke
Moisture
Consumption
Ore 12LPT
Percentage
90%Min
2-3%
0.5-1.0%
1-2%
5-10%
Concentrate
Rate of Production of Green balls Depend on

§ Diameter of Disc/Drum
§ Angle of Inclination
§ Speed of Rotation
§ Nature and size of Feed
§ Rate of Feed
§ Rate of moisture addition
§ Rate of Withdrawal of Product
Disc Pelletiser
Top View and Side View of Disc Pelletizer
Characteristics of Pellets
Physical Properties
SizeCompression
Bulk
Tumbler
Abrasion
Cold
Porosity
Green
Dry
Drop Density
Crushing
Index
IndexStrength
Number
Compressive
strength 9-16mm
Below
94.00%
5.00%Max
250Kg/P
20.00%
Strength 4Kg/P
6-7
1Kg/P
2.00 5mm
T/mMin
3Min 5%
85%Max
Min
Characteristics of Pellets

Metallurgical Properties

Low temperature
Reducibility
Swelling
Metallisation
Strength Index
after 60.00%Min
15%
92%
50Kg/P
+6.3mm
-0.50mm
Max
Min 90.00% Min
5.0Max
reduction test
breakdown
Travelling Grate Pelletizing Furnace
Raw Materials
for
Blast furnace
Iron Making
Raw Materials for Iron Making

Iron Ore - CLO


Iron Ore - Lumps Iron Ore - Fines Pellets

Lime stone MN - Ore


Sinter M- Coke
Iron Ore - Specifications
Chemical and Size
Constituent Lump CLO Fines
%Fe (Min) 63.50 63.50 63.00

%SiO2(Max) 1.50 1.50 3.00

%Al2 O3 (Max) 3.00 3.00 4.00

S (Max) 0.05 0.05 0.07

P (Max) 0.05 0.05 0.07

Size (mm) 10-150 10-40 10(Max)


Iron Ore - Specifications
Physical Properties
Sl.No. Property Value
1. Tumbler Index (Min) 88.00%
(%+6.3mm)
2. Abrasion Index (Min) 5.00%
(%-0.5mm)
3. Bulk Density (Min) 2.00
(T/m3)
4. Shatter Index (Min) 85.00
(%+10mm)
Iron Ore - Specifications
Metallurgical Properties
Sl.N Property Value
1.
o. Reduction Degradation 20.00
Index (RDI)
(%-2.8mm) (Min)
2. Thermal Degradation 9.00
Index (TDI)
(%-6.3mm) (Min)
3. Relative reducibility (%) 45.00
(Min)
Characteristics of Sinter
v Shatter Index --- 90 (Min)

v Tumbler Index --- 80 (Min)

v Permeability --- 15-20%

v Size 10-80mm
Characteristics of BF Coke
q Size --- 25 - 80mm
q Fixed Carbon --- 80 - 85%
q Ash --- 10 – 15 %
q Volatile Matter --- 2% Max
q Alkalies --- 0.50Max
q Sulphur --- 0.70Max
q Phosphorous --- 0.30 Max
qAbrasion Index --- M10 ---10% Max
M40 --- 75-80 Min
qStrength after reaction- CSR – 55-60
qReactivity --- CRI below 25
q
q
Characteristics of Pellets
Physical Properties
SizeCompression
Bulk
Tumbler
Abrasion
Cold
Porosity
Green
Dry
Drop Density
Crushing
Index
IndexStrength
Number
Compressive
strength 9-16mm
Below
94.00%
5.00%Max
250Kg/P
20.00%
Strength 4Kg/P
6-7
1Kg/P
2.00 5mm
T/mMin
3Min 5%
85%Max
Min
Characteristics of Pellets

Metallurgical Properties

Low temperature
Reducibility
Swelling
Metallisation
Strength Index
after 60.00%Min
15%
92%
50Kg/P
+6.3mm
-0.50mm
Max
Min 90.00% Min
5.0Max
reduction test
breakdown
Characteristics of Lime Stone
BF Grade

CaCo3 94.00% Min


SiO2 4.0%Max
MgO 3.00%Max
Al2O3 3.00%Max
MgO + Al2O3 5.00%
What is a blast furnace?

ØA counter current reactor lined

with Refractories to with stand

High Temperatures
Modern Blast Furnace Plant and
Process
vBlast Furnace Proper
vHot Blast Supply Equipment
vGas Cleaning System and Gas Storage
Dust Catcher
Scrubber
Electrostatic Precipitator
vRaw material Storage and Handling
vLiquid Products Disposal
vProcess Control Equipments
Process flow of BF Iron Making
Outer view of Blast furnace
BF – Refractory lining
Refractories used in BF
Temperature profile of BF
Cross sectional View of Modern BF
Cross sectional View of Modern BF
Different zones of BF
Based on Shape

vThroat – The burden surface at the top of the BF


vShaft - Tapering portion of the Furnace
vBelly - Short Vertical Section(Bosh Parallel)
vBosh - Where the Ore reduction Completes
vHearth - Where the molten materials( Slag and
Hot Metal) are collected and Tapped
Different zones of BF
Based on internal state of the Feed Materials

Ø Primary reduction Zone (400- 1000C)

Ø Thermal Reserve Zone (1000 – 1200C)

Ø Cohesive zone (1200- 1400C)

Ø Active coke zone/ Dripping Zone (1400-1750)

Ø Dead man (1500 – 1600C)


Different zones of BF
Temperature profile and
Chemical reactions in BF
Different sections of BF
BF – Pictorial View
Reactions in BF and Hot Metal Tapping
Chemical Reactions in BF

Direct Reduction

Reduction of Iron Ore by Solid coke

Indirect Reduction

Reduction of Iron Ore by CO and CO2

Smelting Reduction

Melting and Reduction of Iron Ore by CO


and CO2
Direct reduction

Due to CO and H2 gas and Solid Coke Particles


Temperature --- 1100C

FeO + CO = Fe + CO2

CO2 + C = 2CO

Total FeO + C = Fe + CO
Indirect reduction
Hematite : Fe2 O3 + CO = 2Fe3O4 +CO2

at 500oC

Magnetite : Fe2O3+ CO = 2FeO +CO2

at 600 to 900 o C

Wustite : 2FeO + CO = 2FeO0.5 +CO2

at 1100 to 1150 o C
Zones – Reactions
Removal of Gangue/ Impurities

Gangue + Flux = Slag


Slag --- Molten oxide product of smelting

vGangue elements are Silica, Alumina,


Lime, Magnesia

ØFlux --- Lime stone/ Dolomite


Functions of Flux

v To bring down the softening the point of


gangue materials

v To reduce the viscosity of the slag

v To decrease the activity of slag


components to make them stable or
unstable
Hot metal Taping from Blast furnace
Hot metal Taping from Blast furnace
Photograph of a Torpedo Ladle
Cross section of a torpedo ladle car
Hot Metal Composition

Carbon --- 3.50 to 4.50%


Silicon --- 0.50 to 2.50%
Manganese --- 0.50 to 1.50%
Phosporus --- 0.04 to 2.00%
Sulphur --- 0.04 to 0.15%
Temperature --- Around 1500C
Slag Composition

Cao --- 34 – 42%


MgO --- 6 – 12%
SiO2 --- 28 – 38%
Al2O3 --- 8 – 20%
Sulfur --- around 1%
Raw materials required for
production of one Tonne of Hot Metal

Iron Ore --- 1.60 to 1.70T


Coke --- 0.70 – 0.80T
Lime Stone --- 0.40 to 0.50T
Manganese Ore --- About 50Kg
Air --- 4.50T
Standard indices for Production efficiency evolution
BF Techno Economic Parameters
Parameter World SAIL RINL TISCO
(Avg)
Productivity 2-3 1.11-1.72 1.95 1.82
T/m3/Day 1.51
Coke rate 350-400 498- 611 474 528
Kg/THM 538
Energy 4-5 6.84- 8.88 6.32 5.28
Consumption 7.5
GCal/TCS
Power 400-500 430 – 602 540 430
Consumption 498
(Kwh/T
Sal Steel
Refractory 15 14.9 – 18.5 13.6
Consumption 20.0
Kg/TCS 18.2
Dimensions of Largest in the world
Volume --- 5500 cu.m
Height --- 60m
Hearth Diameter--- 15.6m
Bosh Dia --- 13.5m
Throat dia --- 7.50m
No. Of Tuyers --- 32
No. of Sinder notches--- 12
Productivity --- 13,500 TPD
Productivity --- 2.00- 2.50 T/m3/D
Irregularities in BF practice
v Hanging
v Scaffolding
v Slip
v Chilled Hearth
v Pillaring
v Breakout
v Choking of Gas off take
v Flooding and Coke ejection through tap holes
v Leaking Tuyeres, Tap holes and coolers
v Channeling
Modern trends in BF Practice
Ø Large Capacity Furnaces
Ø Better prepared burden (Ore/Coke)
Ø Better Charge distribution
Ø High Top Pressure
Ø Higher blast rate and temperature
Ø Oxygen enrichment of blast
Ø Humidification of blast
Ø Auxiliary fuel injection through tuyeres
ØBlast furnace gas injection in the stack
ØLime dust injection through the tuyeres
Ø
Steel Making by
LD Converter
Process
LD Converter
§ Oxygen steel making Process
§ Modification of Bessemer Process
§ Named after two cities in Austria,
LINZ
and DONAWITZ
§ Steel is produces by oxygen lancing

and removes impurites like C, Si, Mn,


Ca and Mg
§ Oxygen lancing time 30 - 50minutes
§ More than 60% of steel is made in
this
Chemical Analysis of Hot metal and Steel

Percentage 0.06
Fe
C
Si
Mn
P
S Hot Metal
94.00Min
0.70-1.50
0.30-
0.20 -0.40
-0.12
-0.70
0.13 0.01
Steel–0.03
99.40Min
0.30
0.01-
0.05 0.60
0.10
0.03
Si + O2 =
Reactions in the LD Converter
SiO 2
S + O2 = SO 2
C + O2 = Co 2
2C + O2 =
CO
4P + 5O 2 =
2P O
Main control parameters

q Conduct of oxygen blowing (slag


formation for good
dephosphorization, avoid slopping,

spitting, iron losses, etc.)


q Accurate determination of end point

(C,T)
q Good management of charging,
tapping and of the equipment.
Slag/Metal Reactions
Slag/metal reactions concern:

Si removal
This reaction is very fast and the total amount of silicon
is transferred to the slag in the first one third of the
blow

P and S removal
These reactions require a very accurate control of slag
formation and of the final slag composition in order to
guarantee the low contents sought for the liquid steel.
Of the two, dephosphorization is the most crucial and is analyzed here. To be
successful and cost efficient, the steelmaker has to consider both
thermodynamic and kinetic aspects.
Slag Treatment
ØBOF slag is generated at a rate of 60 to 100 kg per
tonne
of steel. After steel tapping, it is poured in a slag pot by
tilting the converter and dumped in the slag yard from
which it can be reclaimed.
ØCurrently, about half of this quantity gets
recycled internally, either in the sinter plant or
else used directly in the blast furnace. The
valuable elements thus recovered are Fe and
CaO.
Such in-plant slag recycling has been declining

because of higher steel quality demands, e.g.


lower phosphorus.
Other uses such as landfill, aggregate and
agricultural purposes are being explored.
LD Converter- Accessories
LD Converter Steel Making
LD Converter – Cross section and reactions
LD Converter --- Advantages

1. Long Life in Heats.


2. Easy to charge.
3. Controlled Tapping Time.
4. Improved Quality of Tapped Steel.
5. Much less down time for Tap hole
Maintenance.
6. Reduction in Specific Cost.
Typical physical properties of steel slag.

Property Value
Specific Gravity > 3.2 - 3.6
Unit Weight, kg/m3 1600 - 1920
(lb/ft3) (100 - 120)

Absorption up to 3%
Typical steel slag chemical composition.
CaO
SiO
FeO
MnO
MgO
Al
P
S
Metallic
2O
2O
25 3 Fe
Constituent 40
1510
0.5
< -0.1
-310
8-40
52
19
1
10
Composition (%)
(70 - 80% FeO, 20 - 30%
Fe2O3)
Secondary steel Making

Route --- Electric Arc Furnace


Capacity --- 1T to 400T
Feed --- Iron Ore, Pellets and
Steel Scrap
Temperature--- 1800C
EAF Steel Making
Steel Making - Electric Arc Furnace
Steel making
Next steps
Continuous
casting of
Steel
Steel making next steps

Continuous casting
Blooms/Slabs
Billets
Hot rolling
Cold Rolling
Forging
Casting
Heat treatment
Finished/Semi finished goods
Principle of Continuous Casting
Continuous Casting
Principle of Continuous Casting
Photograph of Continuous casting in VSP
Photograph of Continuous casting
Photograph of Continuous casting
Photograph of Continuous casting
Photograph of slab casting
Photograph of Slab casting
Photograph of Slab casting
Rolling Mills
Rolling

Hot rolling Cold Rolling

Room temperature
Above recrystalisation and in some special
temperature (1100C) cases up to 300C
Process of Hot rolling
Process of Hot rolling
Various rolling configurations

A. 2-high B. 3-high C. 4-high D. 6-high E&F. Cluster


Rolling Mills strand arrangement
Rolling Blooms to Billet
Rolling Process
Hot Rolled Product (Billet)
Photograph of wire rod drawing
Drawing of Rails
Finished products ready for dispatch
Finished products ready for dispatch
Finished products ready for dispatch
Finished products ready for dispatch
Finished products ready for dispatch
Finished products ready for dispatch
Finished products ready for dispatch
Finished products ready for dispatch
Finished products ready for dispatch
Finished products ready for dispatch
Any Questions ?

WELCOME
TAN Q