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# GB PANT ENGINEERING COLLEGE

## ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT

Information Technology
A Seminar Presentation

Branch- ECE 7th Sem
Roll No.- 03420902815
What is Steganography?
Steganography – The Greek translation of the
word is Secret Writing. It is the term applied
to any number of processes that will hide a
message within an object , where the hidden
object will not be apparent to an observer.
History of Steganography
In earlier days Steganography was used in
Physical forms as following-
 Human Skin
 Animal Skin
 Invisible Ink
 Writing on wax
Human Skin
Invisible Ink
Writing on Wax
Steganography/ Cryptography
same or different?
Tell me what is this “ PKVKP”
If the key=2
P- 2 alphabets=N
K-2 alphabets=I
V-2 alphabets=T
K-2 alphabets=I
P-2alphabets=N
Its my name “NITIN”
If something hidden in image.
Difference in Steganography and
Cryptography

## • Cryptography- Scrambling of message in

systematic way using ciphers.
• Steganography- Keeps message secret by
hiding the fact.
With the introduction of information technology
data encryption had to be updated .So
techniques were developed to enhance the
data security. Now we are having many
methods.
Secure Data Transmission

## • Compression /Decompression Techniques

• Encryption/Decryption Algorithms
• Embedding/Erasing Process
Block Diagram of Data Transmission
Compression/Decompression
Techniques

## It is used for compressing the message bits who

are recurring at the transmitter end.

## Similarly decompression is used so that original

message can be retrieved at the receiver end.
HUFFMAN COMPRESSION
These days Huffman Compression Technique is most
widely used technique. For ex- MISSISSIPPI RIVER
There are 17 words 17*8=136 bits.
Now frequency of letters
Letter Frequency
M---------->1
I------------>5
S----------->4
P----------->2
R----------->2
V----------->1
E------------>1
_------------>1
Letter Frequency Codes Total Bits
M 1 1100 1*4bits=4
I 5 00 5*2bits=10
S 4 01 4*2bits=8
P 2 100 2*3bits=6
R 2 101 2*3bits=6
V 1 1101 1*4bits=4
E 1 1110 1*4bits=4
_ 1 1111 1*4bits=4
Total=46

So now when we try to send the word “MISSISSIPI RIVER” it needs only 46 bits
instead of 136 bits , after Huffman coding . Similarly we can decompress the
message .
Encryption/Decompression
Algorithms

## • Private Key Algorithm

• Public Key Algorithm
• HASH functions
Private Key Algorithm
Step1

Step2

Step3

Step4

Step5
Public Key Algorithm
Step1

Step2

Step3

Step4

Step5

Step6

Step7
HASH Functions
Hashing is used with a database to enable items to be
retrieved more quickly. Hashing can also be used in the
encryption and decryption of digital signatures.

## The primary application of hash functions in cryptography is

message integrity. The hash value provides a digital
fingerprint of a message's contents, which ensures that the
message has not been altered by an intruder, virus, or by
other means. Hash algorithms are effective because of the
extremely low probability that two different plaintext
messages will yield the same hash value.
Embedding Process
For the embedding 4 type of processes are used-
 Text Steganography
 Image Steganography
 Audio Steganography
 Video Steganography
Steps to be followed for Embedding
Steps to be followed for Erasing
Present Uses of Steganography

## • For Secure Communication

• For Secure banking
• For Military Applications etc
Future Scope of Steganography

## • Steganography in World Wide Web

• Steganography in printed media
• Anti-steganography measures
List of References
• A.Al- Juaid, Nouf, A Gutub, Adnan, and Esam A Khan. "Enhancing PC data Security via combining RSA
Cryptography and Video based Steganography." Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, 2018

• Darshana Patil, Prof. P.M. Chawan. "A secure data communication using enhanced Cryptography and
Steganography." International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication
Engineering , June 2017.

## • Epuru Madhavarao, ChikkalaJayaRaju, Pedasanaganti Divya,A.S.K. Ratnam. "Data Security using

Cryptography and Steganography." International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering &
Technology, July 2012: Volume 1, Issue 5.

• Mamta Juneja, Parvinder Singh Sandhu. "A new approach for Information Security using an Improved
Steganography Technique." J Inf Process Syst, September 2013: Vol.9, No.3.

• Mandy Douglas, Karen Bailey,Mark Leaney,Kevin Curran. "An overview of steganography techniques
applied for the protection of biometric data." Multimedia tools and applications, July 2018: 17333–17373.

• Sarita Nain, Sunil Kumar. "Steganography and its various techniques." International Journal of Enhanced
Research in Science Technology & Engineering, June-2014: Vol. 3 Issue 6.
THANK YOU