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Culverts

Presented by
Asif Al Razi Nabil (ID: 1605018)
&
Mustary Zahan (ID: 1605021)

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

SYLHET AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY


SYLHET
Presentation Outline

Culvert and its features

Types of Culverts

Design Features

Capacity of Culverts

Advantages

Disadvantages
Culvert and its features
What is Culvert?
A structure that allows water to flow under a road, railroad or similar obstruction from one side to another.

Construction Materials:
Precast concrete

Plastic Culverts Aluminum

Galvanized steel
Types of Culverts

Pipe Culvert Pipe Arch Culvert Box Culvert


( Single or Multiple ) (Single or Multiple) (Single or Multiple)

Arch Culvert Bridge Culvert


Design Features of Culverts
Possible conditions of flow through culvert
Capacity of Culverts
Culvert capacity may be controlled either by the inlet section or by conduit. The
capacity of a culvert when the slope of the culvert is less than the neutral slope,
which for small angles of  is,

𝐻𝑓 𝑣2
Sn = tan  = sin  = = Kc
𝐿 2𝑔
Where,
 = slope angle of conduit,
Hf = friction loss in conduit length L in m,
L = length of conduit,
Kc= friction loss coefficient,
v = velocity of flow in m/s,
g = gravitational constant in m/s2 .
Capacity of Culverts
Capacity of the culvert under conditions of pipe flow is given by,
𝑎 2𝑔𝐻
q=
1+𝐾𝑒 +𝐾𝑏 +𝐾𝑐 𝐿
Where,
q = flow capacity in (𝐿2 𝑇 −1 ),
a = conduit cross-sectional area 𝐿2
h = head causing flow 𝐿
Ke = entrance loss coefficient,
Kb = loss coefficient for bends in the culvert.

If the conduit is at greater than neutral slope and the outlet is not submerged, the flow will be
controlled by the inlet section on short culverts and orifice flow prevails. Capacity is then given by,
𝑞 = 𝑎 𝐶 2𝑔ℎ
Where,
a = cross-sectional area 𝐿2
h = head to the center of the orifice 𝐿 .
Advantages and Disadvantages of Culverts
Advantages

1 • Safe and stable method for stream crossing.

2 • Can accommodate wildlife and protect stream health

3 • Can reduce expensive erosion and structural damage

4 • Low cost

5 • Low maintenance

Disadvantages
• If designed or installed incorrectly, can cause severe scouring and erosion.
1
• If poorly sized or installed, can restrict aquatic organisms from freely moving
2 between upstream and downstream habitat.