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HOMEOSTASIS

OBJECTIVES
 Describe the structure of kidney and its
functional units
 Describe urine formation:
i. Ultrafiltration ii. Reabsorption iii. Secretion
 Describe the concentration of urine by
counter current multiplier mechanism
 Explain the regulation of blood water content
 Explain the regulation of Na+ reabsorption
Function of Kidney

 As an organ for osmoregulation; control the


volume of water, ion concentration, osmotic
pressure and the pH of blood
 As an excretory organ; excrete toxic
substances (e.g. urea: in urine)
STRUCTURE OF
KIDNEY
Structure of Kidney
 Bean-shaped
 Dark red in colour
 A pair of kidney, one on
each side of the vertebral
column below liver and
behind the lining of
abdominal cavity
Structure of Kidney

 Three regions :
 renal cortex
 renal medulla
 renal pelvis

**both renal cortex and medulla


are supplied with blood by renal
artery and drained by renal vein
STRUCTURE OF KIDNEY
Structure of Kidney : RENAL CORTEX

 The outermost portion of the kidney


 Consist of :
 Spherical bundles of capillaries – glomerulus

 Associated structures of

nephrons
 funtional unit for kidneys

Renal cotex
Structure of Kidney : RENAL MEDULLA

 The middle portion of the kidney


 Consists of 8-18 renal pyramids
 i.e. Longitudinally striped, cone-shaped areas

 Consist of tubules and


collecting ducts of nephrons

Renal medulla
Structure of Kidney : RENAL PELVIS

 a large urine-collecting space within


the kidney
 formed from upper portion of the
ureter

Renal pelvis
** collects urine from the
excretory tubules (in
medulla and cortex) and
passes to urinary bladder
KIDNEY FUNCTIONAL
UNIT: NEPHRON
REMEMBER??
Glomerulus

Distal c.t
Bowman’s capsule

Proximal c.t Collecting duct

Loop of Henle

c.t : convoluted tubule


Functional unit of Kidney : NEPHRON

 Each nephron consist of :


 A tubular component

 An associated vascular component

** Additonal info:
•A human kidney contains roughly 1 million of nephrons
•2 types: cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons (important in urine
production)
Structure of NEPHRON

** add label:
-Peritubular capillaries
-Vasa recta
NEPHRON:
VASCULAR COMPONENT

** vascular: consist of vessels. Especially carrying blood


NEPHRON :Vascular component
 Vascular component includes:
 Afferent arteriole

 Carry blood from renal artery into glomerulus


 Glomerulus
 Consist of a network of capillaries between
afferent and efferent arteriole and enclosed by a
cup-like capsule called Bowman’s capsule

 Filter blood: formation of filtrate when blood


pressure forces fluid from blood in the
glomerulus into the Bowman’s capsule
NEPHRON :Vascular component
 Efferent arteriole
 Carry blood away from the glomerulus

 Peritubular capillaries
 Efferent arteriole branches to form network

of capillaries called peritubular capillaries


, surrounding the proximal and distal tubules
 Vasa recta :Peritubular capillaries that

surrounded the loop of Henle


 Renal vein :Blood leaves the kidney

through the branches of renal vein


NEPHRON: VASCULAR COMPONENTS
NEPHRON:
TUBULAR COMPONENT
NEPHRON : Tubular component
 Tubular componen includes:
 Bowman capsule
 A cup-like capsule at the
beginning of the tubular
component of a nephron
 Encloses the glomerulus
 The outer layer consist of
simple squamous epithelial
 The inner layer consist of
specialized epithelial cell
called podocytes

** Bowman’s space a.k.a lumen of Bowman’s capsule


NEPHRON : Tubular component
 Bowman capsule : Podocytes
• Surrounded the glomerular capillaries
• Have many foot-like projections called pedicels
(foot processes) attached to basement membrane to
provide a filtration net
• They are not tightly arrange and leaves a slit
between them
A: endothelium cells of glomerular
B: basement membrane
C: podocytes
NEPHRON : Tubular component

 Bowman capsule : Podocytes


• The slits is covered by slit diaphragms

which ensure that large macromolecules such


as serum albumin and gamma globulin remain
in the bloodstream
• Small molecules such as water, glucose, and

ionic salts are able to pass through the slit


diaphragms and form an ultrafiltrate which is
further processed by the nephron to produce
urine.
Podocytes

** renal corpusle:
Glomerulus + Bowman’s capsule
Outer layer
(simple squamous
epithelium)

Inner layer
(Podocyte)
NEPHRON : Tubular component
 Bowman capsule : Basement membrane
• lies between the endothelial and epithelial cells
• Composed of a mesh work of collagen fibres and
glycoprotein
• prevent any large molecules such as proteins from
leaving the blood.
NEPHRON : Tubular component
 Proximal Convoluted Tubule
• Consist of cuboidal epithelia
• Inner surfaces lined with microvilli; to increase the
surface area for re-absorption
• Reabsorbs substances filtered from blood:
• Water, NaCl, glucose, some amino acids and small
polypeptide chain
• Presence of mitocondria to provide energy for the
active transport
NEPHRON : Tubular component
 Loop of Henle
• Straight portion of the tubule
• Composed of :
• Descending limb
- single squamous epithelium
• Ascending limb
- 2 parts :
1. thin segment of ascending limb ; simple squamous
epithelium
2. thick segment ascending limb ; cuboidal
epithelium

• Generates a concentration gradient


NEPHRON : Tubular component
 Distal Convoluted Tubule
• In renal cortex

• Composed of cuboidal epithelium

• Have very few microvilli

• Abundantly supplied with mitochondria

• To provide energy for the active transport


NEPHRON : Tubular component
 Collecting duct
• Filtrates from distal tubules of many nephrons

passes into a single collecting duct


• Parallel to the limbs of loop of Henle

• Drains the final filtrate, urine into the renal

pelvis
Urine formation
Concept of reabsorption & secretion
Urine formation

 Ultrafiltration
 Reabsorption

 Secretion
Ultrafiltration
 In the glomerulus, hydrostatic pressure is high
because the diameters of efferent arteriole and
the capillaries of glomerulus are narrow than
the diameter of afferent arteriol.
 High hydrostatic pressure force water, glucose,
amino acids, NaCl and urea from tiny pores of
glomerular capillaries into Bowman’s capsule
to become glomerular filtrate
 Blood cells platelets, plasma proteins remain in
glomerulus due to their large size
Ultrafiltration
Factors increase efficiency of ultrafiltration:
High hydrostatic pressure in glomerulus due
to larger afferent arteriole than efferent
arteriole
Formation of large amount of filtrate due to
long but coiled glomerulus
High permeability of glomerulus to blood
solutes
(large @
wide in
diameter)
Reabsorption : Proximal Convoluted Tubule
 As glomerular filtrate flows through proximal convoluted
tubule;
 All glucose, free amino acids, vitamins and many
NaCl reabsorbs into peritubular capillaries through
active transport while HCO3- and K+ through passive
transport
 Reabsorption through active transport against a
concentration gradient requires ATP.
 The active uptake of ions into the blood capillaries
reduces the water potential in the capillaries
 As a result, reabsorption of water occurs from the
filtrate into blood capillaries by osmosis
 To enhance the effeciancy of active
reabsorption, the tubule wall is one cell thick
and the surface facing the lumen of the tubule
has microvilli and the epithelial cells lining the
wall of the tubule are packed with mitocondria
 Any blood protein in the filtrate, are then
removed by the pinocytosis process at the base
of microvilli
 Result in, production of much reduced volume
of filtrate.
Reabsorption : Proximal Convoluted
Tubule
Reabsorption : Distal Convoluted Tubule

 As glomerular filtrate flows through distal


convulated tubule,
 HCO3- and NaCl reabsorbs into peritubular
capillaries by active transport while water by
osmosis
Reabsorption : Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 Factors increase efficiency of reabsorption:


 Epithelial cells lining the proximal convoluted
tubule is one cell thick
 Epithelial cells lining proximal convoluted tubule
have microvilli
 The presence of numerous mitochondria in the
epithelial cells lining the proximal convoluted
tubule
Secretion
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
◦ Substances that are secreted from blood capillaries into
proximal convoluted tubule:
 H ,drug and toxin (poison) by active transport
+

 NH by passive transport
3
 Water by osmosis

Distal Convoluted Tubule


 Substances that are secreted from blood capillaries into
distal convoluted tubule:
 H+, K+ by active transport
Urine concentration: counter
current multiplier mechanism
Counter current
Flow of the filtrate through of loop of Henle is in
opposite direction
 Down the descending limb and up through ascending
limb
Multiplier
Osmotic concentration of filtrate become
progressively higher in descending limb and
become progressively lower in ascending limb
Urine concentration: counter
current multiplier mechanism
Involve loop of Henle
Descending limb:
 Permeable to H2O
 Impermeable to NaCl
• Ascending limb:
• Permeable to NaCl
• Impermeable to H2O
Urine concentration: counter
current multiplier mechanism
In thick segment of ascending limb, NaCl is
actively transported to medulla region

In thin segment of ascending limb, NaCl is


diffuse out to medulla region
Urine concentration: counter
current multiplier mechanism
H2O diffuse out by osmosis from descending
limb to medulla region
Results in production of concentrated filtrate
Concentration of filtrate is highest at bottom of
loop of Henle
NaCl diffuse out from thin segment of
ascending limb and actively transported from
thick segment of ascending limb into medulla
region
Filtrate become more dilute as it moves along
ascending limb
Urine concentration: counter
current multiplier mechanism
Some urea diffuse out of collecting duct into
medulla region
Thus increasing concentration of NaCl and
urea in medulla
Result in, H2O diffuse out of descending limb
and collecting duct by osmosis into medulla
The reabsorbed H2O then diffuse into vasa
recta
Urine become concentrated as it moves to
renal pelvis
Function of loop of Henle: conserve water

- The longer the loop of Henle, the more


concentrated the urine that can be
produced

- The drier the habitat of animal, the longer


its loop of Henle

Alcohol inhibit secretion of ADH


- Cause dehydration
Blood water content regulation
Blood osmotic pressure increase (low ψ)
due to low intake of water/eating salty
food/excessive sweating
detect by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus
Osmoreceptors then sent impulse through
nerve to the posterior pituitary gland to
secrete antidiuretic hormone (ADH) into
blood and carried to the kidney
ADH increase permeability of distal
convoluted tubule and collecting duct to H2O
Blood water content regulation

Results in, reabsorption of more H2O into


blood capillaries by osmosis
Produce more concentrated urine with
reduced volume
Blood osmotic pressure decrease to normal
through negative feedback
Blood water content regulation
Blood water content regulation

Blood osmotic pressure decrease (high ψ)


due to high intake of water/little sweating/low
amounts of salt ingested
detect by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus
Posterior pituitary gland is inhibited from
release antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Walls of distal convoluted tubule and
collecting duct become impermeable to H2O
Blood water content regulation

Results in, reabsorption of less H2O into


blood capillaries by osmosis
Produce more diluted urine with large
volume
Blood osmotic pressure increase to normal
through negative feedback
Blood water content regulation
Na+ reabsorption regulation
The hormone aldosterone helps to maintain
the sodium level in blood plasma and has a
secondary effect on water reabsorption

A decrease in blood sodium level leads to


decrease in water entering the blood by
osmosis
This causes a decrease in blood pressure
and volume
Stimulates the secretory cells in the
juxtaglomerular complex (located near the
afferent arteriole) to release the enzyme
renin into the blood
Na+ reabsorption regulation
Renin acts on angiotensinogen (blood
plasma protein) to form angiotensin I.
Angiotensin is then convert into
angiotensin II.
Angiotensin II stimulate the adrenal cortex
to release the hormone aldosterone.
Aldosterone is carried by bloodstream to
kidney.
increase permeability of distal convoluted
tubule and collecting ducts to Na+ ions
Na+ reabsorption regulation
More Na+ ions are reabsorbed by active
transport from the tubules into the
surrounding blood capillaries
More water is reabsorbed into blood
capillaries by osmosis
Normal levels of sodium ions in the
plasma, blood volume and pressure are
restored
Na+ reabsorption regulation
A an increase in blood sodium level leads
to increase in blood volume and blood
pressure.
This stimulates the heart cardiac muscles
to secrete natriuretic hormones
This hormones inhibit the secretion of
renin and aldosterone
This causes a decrease in the
reabsorption of sodium and water at the
kidney tubule
The excess sodium and water is excreted
Blood pressure and volume return to
normal