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4 visualizzazioni39 pagineWork, power and Energy

Jul 03, 2019

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Work, power and Energy

© All Rights Reserved

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00 mi piace00 non mi piace

Work, power and Energy

© All Rights Reserved

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What is work?

Work is the energy transfer that takes place when a force

causes an object to move.

in direction of force

W = Fs

Where:

work done is measured in joules (J)

force is measured in newtons (N)

distance is measured in metres (m)

Work: example question 1

A box is pushed across a floor by a constant force of 100 N.

What is the work done by the force to move the box 5 m?

W = Fs

100 N

= 100 × 5

= 500 J

The box accelerates and gains kinetic energy.

If the floor is rough, where does the energy go?

Some or all of the energy is lost as heat and sound.

4 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009

Work done by a force at an angle

The same box is now dragged by a rope, which is raised at

an angle θ to the horizontal.

direction of the applied force. How does this affect the work

done? Can you think of any suggestions?

Calculating work done at an angle

When calculating the work done by a force acting at an

angle, it is useful to break the force down into components.

and a vertical component.

does no work because Fsinθ

θ

the box does not move in

that direction. Fcosθ

So to calculate work done by a force at an angle:

W = Fscosθ

Work: example question 2

A toy car is pulled along by a piece of string which is at 30° to

the horizontal. Calculate the work done in pulling the toy if the

tension in the string is 10 N, and it is pulled along 5 m.

10 N

30°

5m

W = Fscosθ

= 10 × 5 × cos30°

= 43.3 J

7 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009

Investigating work

Force–distance graphs

Work: true or false?

11 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009

What is energy?

Energy is the measure of the ability of an object or a

system to perform work. There are many types of energy:

to position in a gravitational field

stretched or compressed

Energy transfer

When work is done, energy is

transferred. That energy might be:

gravitational potential energy

– e.g. when an object

changes height within a

gravitational field

kinetic energy – e.g. when

an object changes speed

light energy – e.g. when a

light bulb is switched on

heat and sound – e.g. when

a car brakes sharply.

Conservation of energy

The law of conservation of energy states that:

Energy cannot be created, or destroyed;

it can only be changed into another form.

of a system is constant.

A bungee jumper’s

gravitational potential energy

is changed into kinetic energy

as they jump, and then stored

as elastic potential energy as

the bungee rope stretches.

What is gravitational potential energy?

Gravitational potential energy (GPE, Ep or Egrav) is the

energy of an object due to its position in a gravitational field.

lift it, and the distance it is lifted:

potential energy field strength

Ep = mgh

of a change in an object’s Ep ΔEp = mgΔh

due to a change in its height:

Ep: example question 1

A supermarket employee lifts a

baked bean tin, weighing 250 g,

from the floor, to a shelf 2 m high.

How much gravitational potential

energy does it gain?

(g = 9.81 N kg-1)

ΔEp = mgΔh

= 0.250 × 9.81 × 2

= 4.9 J

Ep: example question 2

A pole vaulter of mass 80 kg

jumps a height of 5 m. What is

his gravitational potential

energy at the highest point of

his jump?

(g = 9.81 N kg-1)

Ep = mgh

= 80 × 9.81 × 5

= 3924 J

Work done using slopes

What is kinetic energy?

Kinetic energy (KE or Ek) is the energy of an object due to

its speed.

Ek = ½mv2

Where:

mass is measured in kilograms (kg)

speed is measured in metres per second (ms-1).

Deriving Ek = ½mv2

Consider a force F acting on an object of mass m, initially at

rest, moving it a distance s in time t.

Because u = 0 ms-1: s = ½vt a=v/t

Newton’s 2nd law: F = ma

Substituting a = v / t: F = mv / t

Work done by force: W = Fs

W = (mv / t) × ½vt

W = ½mv2

Work done = energy transferred: Ek = ½mv2

Ek and Ep

If resistive forces, such as friction and air resistance, are

ignored, Ek and Ep are related as follows:

loss of Ek = gain in Ep

lose of Ep = gain in Ek

ground at height h, it will gain speed, v, as it falls.

resistance is negligible, after falling a height of Δh:

½mv2 = mgΔh

Conservation of energy: example question

A ball of mass 400 g is thrown upwards at a speed of 5 ms-1.

(g = 9.81 N kg-1).

What is the ball’s Ek as it is released? Ek = ½mv2

= ½ × 0.4 × 52

= 5J

= 5J

What is the ball’s maximum height? Ep = mgh

h = Ep / mg

= 5 / (0.4 × 9.81)

= 1.27 m

22 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009

Resistive forces

Resistive forces are forces that act on a moving body in the

opposite direction to the direction of movement.

The main resistive force is friction, which includes drag or

air resistance.

When an object such as a rollercoaster moves vertically

without a driving force, any difference between a change in

ΔEp and ΔEk corresponds to a loss of energy to resistive

forces, or work done against resistive forces:

W = ΔEp + ΔEk

is negative, and vice versa.

Investigating Ek and Ep

Energy calculations

26 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009

What is power?

Power is the rate at which work is done, or the rate at which

energy is transferred.

P = W/t

Where:

work done or energy transferred is measured in joules (J)

time is measured in seconds (s).

Power: example question 1

A crane lifts a load of

1500 kg a height of 25 m

at a steady rate, in a

time of 2 min. What is

the power of the crane?

= 367 875 / 120 ΔEp = mgΔh

= 3066 W = 1500 × 9.81 × 25

= 367 875 J

28 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009

Motive power

The power outputted by a powered object, such as an engine

or muscles, is sometimes called the motive power.

constant height:

P = Fv

powered object is equal but opposite to all resistive forces

acting on the object, such as friction and air resistance.

Power: example question 2

What is the resistive force on a cyclist who has leg muscles of

power 200 W each and who reaches a top speed of 10 ms-1 on

a level road?

P = Fv

F=p/v

= (200 × 2) / 10

= 40 N

Power: efficiency

Efficiency is the ratio of useful work done by a device, to

the total work done (or the ratio of useful output energy to

the total energy input).

efficiency = useful energy output / total energy input

Efficiency is always less than 100%, as no device is perfect

and some energy is always lost.

For example, what is the efficiency of a 60 W filament

lamp that gives out 1 W of light?

efficiency = 1 / 60 = 0.017 = 1.7%

31 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009

Sankey diagrams

A Sankey diagram is a type of flow diagram that shows the

major energy transfers, including energy losses, through a

closed system.

5% efficient would look like this:

light energy

electrical (5 W)

energy (100 W)

heat energy

(95 W)

32 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009

Sankey diagrams: example question

Power: calculations

35 of 39 © Boardworks Ltd 2009

Glossary

What’s the keyword?

Work, energy and power equations

Multiple-choice quiz

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