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Kingdom Monera

KINGDOM MONERA

“Bacteria”
Kingdom Monera
 Commonly called bacteria

 All monerans are unicellular

 All monerans are prokaryotes

Prokaryotes: Single-celled organisms


surrounded by a membrane and cell wall
that LACK membrane bound organelles
Prokaryote Cell
Characteristics of Monera
 Monera can be divided into two main
groups:
1) Archaebacteria
- “ancient” bacteria
- live in extremely harsh conditions
2) Eubacteria
- “true” bacteria
Archaebacteria (ancient)
 Can be divided into 4 groups:

1. Methanogens “methane producers”

2. Thermoacidophiles “heat and acid lovers”

3. Chemosynthesizers “make own chemicals”

4. Extreme Halophiles “salt lovers”


Methanogens
 Produce methane

 Live where there is


no oxygen

 Found in intestines
of many mammals

 Found in swamps –
causes the “rotten
egg” smell
Thermoacidophiles
 Live in extremely
hot and acidic
waters

 Often found in hot


springs

 Ex. Yellowstone
National Park
Chemosynthesizers
 Use inorganic compounds as
source of energy (instead of
sun)

 Inorganic = compounds
containing sulfur, iron,
nitrogen (not carbon!)

 Process called oxidation

 Use energy to change carbon


dioxide into organic food
molecules

 Live in harsh environments


(e.g. hot sulfur vents on ocean
floor)
Extreme Halophiles
 “salt loving”

 Live in water up
to ten times saltier than
sea water

 Found in places like


the Dead Sea
ARCHAEBACTERIA
Methanogens Live in oxygen free environments,
produce methane (CH4).

Thermoacidophiles Live in water than is very hot and acidic


(pH 2 to 4), line the edges of hot springs

Chemosynthesizers Make carbohydrates using inorganic


compounds as energy source, live in hot
sulfur vents on ocean floor
Extreme Halophiles Live in extremely salty places, grow in
water up to ten times saltier than the
ocean
Eubacteria

 Divided into three groups:

1. Gram-positive Bacteria

2. Gram-negative Bacteria

3. Cyanobacteria
Gram-positive bacteria
 Have thick cells walls.

 Turn purple when put


through a special series
of stains called “gram-
staining.”

 Includes a wide variety


of bacteria such as those
causing strep throat and
tetanus (lockjaw).
Gram-negative bacteria
 Have an extra layer
of fat outside cell
wall.
 Appear pink after
gram-staining.
 Includes bacteria
such as E.coli and
the bacteria that
causes whooping
cough.
Gram-positive vs. negative
Cyanobacteria
(Blue-green alga)
 Perform plant-like
photosynthesis.
 Release oxygen.
 Used to be called
“blue-green” algae
(still commonly
called that!).
 Toxic to animals.
EUBACTERIA
Gram-positive Have thick walls made of protein-
Bacteria sugar complex, turn purple when
stained
Gram-negative Have extra layer of lipid outside cell
Bacteria wall and turn pink after staining

Cyanobacteria Gram-negative monerans that


perform photosynthesis (like plants)
and release oxygen
Classification of Bacteria
 3 main shapes:

1. Bacilli
(rod-shaped)

2. Cocci
(sphere-shaped)

3. Spirilla
(corkscrew-shaped)
Why learn about Bacteria?

 Some cause serious diseases:


 Pneumonia, tuberculosis, lyme disease,
bubonic plague, food-borne illnesses
 Most are beneficial
 Intestinal bacteria (digest food and make
vitamins)
 Break down dead organisms
(decomposers)
 Industry: make cheese, yogurt,
antibiotics
KINGDOM MONERA *

ARCHAEBACTERIA EUBACTERIA
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Gram-positive:
Methanogens:
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Gram-negative:
Thermoacidophiles:
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Chemosynthesizers: Cyanobacteria:
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Extreme Halophiles:
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