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• The integrated circuit or (IC) is a miniature,

low cost electronic circuit consisting of active
and passive components that are joined
together on a single silicon chip.
• These integrated circuits offer a number of
distinct advantages over those made by
interconnecting discrete components.
• Miniaturization and hence increased equipment
• Cost reduction due to batch processing
• Increased system reliability due to elimination of
• Improved functional performance
• Matched devices
• Increased operating speeds
• Reduction in power consumption
Classification of IC’s

• Integrated circuits are broadly classified as two types

1. Linear ICs 2. Digital ICs
• Linear IC: The relationship between input and output
of a circuit is Linear
Examples: operational amplifiers, power amplifiers,
microwave amplifiers multipliers etc
• Digital IC: The circuit is in either ON state or OFF state
but not in between two states
Examples: logic gates, flip flops, counters,
microprocessors, memory chips etc
Various technologies to fabricate ICs
• The following are various technologies used to
fabricate ICs
1.Monolithic technology
2.Thick and Thin Film technology
3.Hybrid technology
Monolithic technology
• The word monolithic comes from the Greek
words ‘monos’ and ‘lithos’ which means single
and stone.
• Monolithic ICs refer to single crystal
• In this technology all circuit components and
their interconnection are manufactured over a
single chip of silicon .
• It can be made identical
• High reliability
• Manufactured in Bulk in less time
• Low cost
Thick and Thin Film Technology
• These devices are larger than monolithic ICs but smaller
than discrete circuits.
• These ICs can be used when power requirement is
comparatively higher.
• With a thin-or thick-film IC, the passive components like
resistors and capacitors are integrated, but the transistors
and diodes are connected as discrete components to form
a complete circuit.
• The essential difference between the thin- and thick-film
ICs is not their relative thickness but the method of
deposition of film.
• Both have similar appearance, properties and general
Hybrid technology

• The circuit is fabricated by interconnecting a

number of individual chips.
• Hybrids ICs are widely used for high power
audio amplifier applications .
• Have better performance than monolithic ICs
• Process is too expensive for mass production
Classification ON BASIS OF CHIP SIZE

• SSI (small-scale integration)

• MSI (medium-scale integration)

• LSI (large-scale integration)

• VLSI (very large-scale integration)

• ULSI (ultra large-scale integration)


•Small scale integration (SSI)

has 3 to 30 gates/chip or Up
to 100 electronic
components per chip

•Medium scale integration

(MSI) has 30 to 300
gates/chip or 100 to 3,000
electronic components per

•Large scale integration (LSI)-300

to 3,000 gates/chip or 3,000 to
100,000 electronic components
per chip

•Very large scale integration

(VLSI)-more than 3,000
gates/chip or 100,000 to
1,000,000 electronic components
per chip
•Ultra Large-Scale Integration
(ULSI)- More than 1 million
electronic components per chip.
• The Intel 486 and Pentium
microprocessors, for example,
use ULSI technology.
•The line between VLSI and ULSI
is vague.
IC Packages
• There are three popular IC packages are

1.Metal can (TO)

2. Dual-in-Line
3. flat pack
Metal can package
• The metal can packages are available in
3,5,8,10, and 12 pins
• The metal ceiling plane at the bottom over
which the chip is bonded
• The metal ceiling plane also acts a heat sink.
• It is also called as Transistor pack
Dual-in-Line Package
• In this type the chip is mounted inside a
plastic or ceramic.
• This package is available in 8,12,14,16 and 20
• It is easy to handle
Flat pack package
• The flat pack package gives a compact
• In this type the chip is enclosed in a
rectangular ceramic case.
• It is available in 8,10,14 and 16 pins
Temperature ranges
• There are three temperature grades based on
which the op amp ICs are classified
• Military Temperature Range:-55 degrees to
+125 degrees
• Industrial temperature ranges: -20 degrees
to +85 degrees
• Commercial temperature range: 0 degrees to
50 degrees
Operational amplifier
• An operational amplifier is a DC-coupled high-gain
voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually,
a single-ended output.

• An op-amp produces an output potential that is

typically hundreds of thousands of times larger than
the potential difference between its input terminals.

• An op-amp contains a number of differential amplifier

stages to achieve a very high voltage gain.
•Figure shows a basic op-amp with two inputs and one
output as would result using a differential amplifier
input stage

• Depending on whether the signal is applied to the plus

(+) or the minus (-) input we get either the same or an
opposite polarity (or phase) output
Single-Ended Input
• Single-ended input operation results when the
input signal is connected to one input
with the other input connected to ground.

• The input is applied to the plus input (with minus

input at ground), which results in an output having
the same polarity as the applied input.

• The input is applied to the minus input (with plus

input at ground), which results in an output having
the opposite in polarity as the applied input.
Double-Ended (Differential) Input

• An input, Vd, applied between the two input

terminals with the resulting output in phase
with that applied between the plus and minus
inputs .
Common-Mode Operation
• When the same input signals are applied to both
inputs, common-mode operation results.
• Ideally, the two inputs are equally amplified, and
since they result in opposite polarity signals at
the output, these signals cancel, resulting in
0-V output.
• Practically, a small output signal will result.
OP-AMP Terminals
• Op-amps have five basic terminals, that is, two
input terminals, two power supply terminals
and one output terminal.

• The significance of other terminals varies with

the type of op-amps.
Power supply connections
• The V+ and V- terminals are connected to the
two dc voltage sources.
• The V+ pin is connected to the positive
terminal of one source and the V- pin is
connected to the negative terminal of the
other source.
• The typical values of voltage sources are 15 V
• Instead of using two power supplies a single
power supply can be used to obtain the V+ and
V- .
• Typical value of R is 10Kohms
• Typical value of C is 0.01 to 10 microfarad
• Zener diodes can also be used to generate
required voltages.
• a potentiometer can be used to get equal
values of V+ and V- .
• Diodes D1 and D2 are used to protect IC if the
positive and negative terminals are accidently
Ideal op-amp characteristics
• An ideal op-amp is usually considered to have the following
• Infinite open loop gain
• Infinite input resistance Rin, and so zero input current
• Zero input offset voltage
• Infinite output voltage range
• Infinite bandwidth with zero phase shift and infinite slew
• Zero output resistance Rout
• Zero noise
• Infinite common mode rejection ratio(CMRR)
• Infinite power supply rejection ratio.
Op-amp block diagram
Input stage :
• The input stage is a dual-input, balanced output
differential amplifier.
• The two input are inverting and non-inverting
input terminals.
• This stage provides most of the voltage gain of
the OP-AMP and decides the input resistance
value Ri.
• The function of the differential amplifier is to
amplify the difference between two input signals
Intermediate stage :
• This is usually another differential amplifier. It is
driven by the output of the input stage.
• This stage is a dual-input unbalanced output
(single ended output) differential amplifier.
• A single differential amplifier may not produce
the high gain requirement of omp-amp..
• Therefore, an intermediate stage is used to
provide additional gain required.
• Practically, an intermediate stage is a cascaded
differential amplifiers.
Level translator:
• Due to the direct coupling between the first
two stages, the input of level of shifting stage
is an amplified signal with some non-zero dc
• Level shifting stage is used to bring this dc
level to zero volts with respect to ground.
• A commonly used level translator consists of
cc amplifier with current mirror.
Output stage:
• This stage is a emitter follower with
complementary transistors.
• It increases the magnitude of the voltage and
raises the current supplying capability of OP-
• it also provides a low output resistance.
Ideal Op -Amp specifications
• Open loop Voltage Gain A0l is infinity.
• Infinity input resistance Ri , so that almost any signal source
can be drive it and there is no loading of the preceding
• Zero output resistance R0 , so that the output can be drive
an infinity number of other devices.
• Perfect Balance, i.e. the differential voltage in inverting and
non-inverting terminals be zero.
• Zero output voltage when input is zero.
• Infinity bandwidth, so that any frequency signal from 0 to
infinity Hz can be amplified without attenuation.
• Infinity common-mode rejection ratio so that the output
common-mode noise voltage is zero.
• Infinity slew rate so that output voltage changes occur
simultaneously with input voltage changes.
• Zero drift of characteristics with temperature.
Practical Op-amp Specifications:
• Voltage gain is not infinite, but typically 10^5 to
• The input impedance Zi is maximum and is finite
i.e. in the order of 100k or more.
• The output impedance Z0 is minimum not zero, in
the order of 100 or less.
• CMRR is typically 90 dB
• Practical Bandwidth is from dc to 1 MHz.
• Slew rate is typically 0.5 to 90 V/uS .
• It is not able to give zero at output when input is
zero, due to mismatching of input transistors.
• Two terminal may be virtually ground not Vd = 0
exactly, for all conditions.