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Submitted To:

Sir Umer
Submitted by:
Noor ul Ain Ahmed
Reg no:
 Time estimated: 30-40 minutes



It is impossible to create a

heat engine with 100%

French scientist and engineer N. L. Said Carnot proposed

the engine’s concept in 1824. This ideal engine turns out
to be the best at using energy as heat to do useful work.
In an ideal engine, all processes are reversible and no
wasteful energy transfers occur due to, say, friction and
Working Principle

Figure shows schematically the operation of a Carnot engine.

During each cycle of the engine, the working substance
absorbs energy |QH| as heat from
a thermal reservoir at constant temperature TH and
discharges energy |QL| as heat to a second thermal reservoir
at a constant lower temperature TL.
 Working substance is a gas,
confined to an insulating cylinder
with weighted, movable piston.
 If we place the cylinder in contact
with the high-temperature
reservoir at temperature TH.
 Heat |QH| is transferred to the working
substance from this reservoir as the gas
undergoes an isothermal expansion from
volume Va to volume Vb.
 Similarly, with the working substance in
contact with the low-temperature reservoir at
temperature TL, heat |QL| is transferred from
the working substance to the low-temperature
reservoir as the gas undergoes an isothermal
compression from volume Vc to volume Vd
We assume that heat transfers to or from the working substance can take place only
during the isothermal processes ab and cd .During processes bc and da the cylinder is
placed on an insulating slab as the volume of the working substance is changed.
 Therefore, processes bc and da
in that figure, which connect the
two isotherms at temperatures
TH and TL, must be (reversible)
adiabatic processes; that is, they
must be processes in which no
energy is transferred as heat.

Carnot Cycle

 Reversible isothermal expansion of the gas

 During this step, the expanding gas causes the piston to do work on the
surroundings. The gas expansion is propelled by absorption of heat from the high
temperature reservoir.
 Reversible adiabatic expansion of the gas.
 For this step we assume the piston and cylinder are thermally insulated, so that no
heat is gained or lost. The gas continues to expand, doing work on the
surroundings. The gas expansion causes it to cool to the "cold" temperature, TC.
 Reversible isothermal compression of the gas at the "cold" temperature, TC.(
Isothermal heat rejection ) Now the surroundings do work on the gas, causing heat
to flow out of the gas to the low temperature reservoir.
 Reversible adiabatic compression of the gas. Once again we assume the piston and
cylinder are thermally insulated. During this step, the surroundings do work on the
gas, compressing it and causing the temperature to rise to TH. At this point the gas
is in the same state as at the start of step 1.
 During the processes ab and bc the working substance is expanding and
thus doing positive work as it raises the weighted piston. This work is
represented by the area under curve abc.
 During the processes cd and da the working substance is being
compressed, which means that it is doing negative work on its
environment This work is represented by the area under curve cda.
 The net work per cycle, which is represented which is W is the difference
between these two areas and is a positive quantity equal to the area
enclosed by cycle abcda

 Process ab is the isothermal expansion of the
 cycle. As the working substance (reversibly) absorbs
energy |QH| as heat at constant temperature TH
during the expansion, its entropy increases.
 Similarly, during the isothermal compression cd, the
working substance (reversibly) loses energy |QL| as
heat at constant temperature TL, and its entropy
 The two vertical lines in Fig correspond to the two
adiabatic processes
 of the Carnot cycle. Because no energy is transferred
as heat during the two
 processes, the entropy of the working substance is
constant during them.
Work done is
W =|QH| -|QL|
Entropy Changes In a Carnot engine, there are two
(and only two) reversible energy transfers as heat,
and thus two changes in the entropy of the working
substance—one at temperature TH and one at TL.
The net entropy change per cycle is then
S  S H  S L Here "SH is positive because energy |QH| is
added to the working substance as heat
(an increase in entropy)
 
SL is negative because energy |QL| is removed
from the working substance as heat (a
TH TL decrease in entropy)

S  0

Efficiency of Carnot engine
 Thermal efficiency defined as the work the engine does
per cycle (“energy we get”) divided by the energy it
absorbs as heat per cycle

W =|QH| -|QL|

 
 where the temperatures TL and TH are in kelvins. Because TL ( TH, the
Carnot engine necessarily has a thermal efficiency less than unity—that is,
less than 100%.
 This is indicated that only part of the energy extracted as heat from the high-
temperature reservoir is available to do work and the rest is delivered to the
low-temperature reservoir.
 Real engines, in which the processes that form the engine cycle are not
reversible, have lower efficiencies. If your car were powered by a Carnot
engine, it would have an efficiency of about 55% But its actual efficiency is
probably about 25%.

 No series of processes is possible whose sole result is the transfer of energy

as heat from a thermal reservoir and the complete conversion of this energy
to work.

 3. Based on the graph below, what

is the efficiency of the Carnot
 Low temperature (TL) = 350 K

 High temperature (TH) = 500 K

 Wanted : Efficiency of Carnot on

 The Stirling engine was developed in 1816 by Robert

Stirling. This engine, long neglected, is now being
developed for use in automobiles and spacecraft.
 A Stirling engine delivering 5000 hp (3.7 MW) has
been built. Because they are quiet, Stirling engines
are used on some military submarines.
Working principle

 The two isotherms of the Stirling engine cycle are connected, not by
adiabatic processes as for the Carnot engine but by constant-volume
 To increase the temperature of a gas at constant volume reversibly from TL
to TH (process da of Fig.) requires a transfer of energy as heat to the working
substance from a thermal reservoir whose temperature can be varied
smoothly between those limits.
 Also, a reverse transfer is required in process bc.
 Thus, reversible heat transfers (and corresponding entropy changes)
occur in all four of the processes that form the cycle of a Stirling
engine, not just two processes as in a Carnot engine
 More important, the efficiency of an ideal Stirling engine is lower
than that of a Carnot engine operating between the same two
temperatures. Real Stirling engines have even lower efficiencies.