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 .

 Romanticism was a completely new approach to arts, literat,ure, philosophy, aesthetics


that emerged from germany and UK in the end of the XVII C as a response or opposittion
to the rationlists approach.ad the society shaped by capitalism. It expandrd thoughout
europe in the XVIII C.

 Romanticism may be seen in part as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, though it was
also a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment,
as well as a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.

 ___________________

 Today, Romantic literature still has infuence, a strong influence nowadays.


MAIN CHARACTERISTICS:

- INDIVIDUALISM

- THE INFLUENCE OF NATURE

- REBEL ARTIST

- PESIMISTIC LITERATURE

- EXALTATION OF IMAGINATION AND FANTASY


MAIN CHARACTERISTICS:

individualism
- Frankenstein (mary shelley, 1818)

”How can I describe my emotions at this catastrophe, or


how delineate the wretch whom with such infinite pains
and care I had endeavoured to form? His limbs were in
proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful.
Beautiful! Great God! His yellow skin scarcely covered the
work of muscles and arteries beneath; his hair was of a lustrous
black, and flowing; his teeth of a pearly whiteness; but
these luxuriances only formed a more horrid contrast with
his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the same colour as
the dun-white sockets in which they were set, his shrivelled
complexion and straight black lips.”
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS:

The influence of nature


- Song of myself (walt whiteman, 1855)

” A child said What is the grass? fetching it to me with full hands;


How could I answer the child? I do not know what it is any more than he.
I guess it must be the flag of my disposition, out of hopeful green stuff woven.
Or I guess it is the handkerchief of the Lord,
A scented gift and remembrancer designedly dropt,
Bearing the owner’s name someway in the corners,
that we may see and remark, and say Whose?
Or I guess the grass is itself a child, the produced babe of the vegetation.
Or I guess it is a uniform hieroglyphic…”
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS:

EXALTATION OF IMAGINATION
AND FANTASY

- The Prelude (William Wordsworth, 1805)

…” The immeasurable height


Of woods decaying, never to be decayed,
The stationary blasts of waterfalls,
And everywhere along the hollow rent
Winds thwarting winds, bewildered and forlorn”…
Who were the ROMANTICS?

PRE-ROMANTICS:
- William Blake (1757-1827)
- Robert Burns (1759 – 1796)
- Walter Scott (1771-1832)

FIRST GENERATION (the Lake Poets):


- William Wordsworth (1770-1850)
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772 – 1834)
- Robert Southey (1774-1843)
- Charles Lamb (1775-1834)
- Thomas de Quincey (1785-1821)

SECOND GENERATION:
- George Gordon (1788-1824)
- Lord Byron (1788-1824)
- Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)
- John Keats (1795-1821)
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS:

- APPEARING OF THE GOTHIC NOVEL


- TRASCENDENTALISM, PANTHEISM
- THE BEAUTY OF NATURE

- SELF-RELIANCE AND SELF-


EXPRESSION

- DEMOCRACY AND FREEDOM


- UTOPIC IDEALS
Most famous romantic writers:

- Ralph Waldo Emerson ("Self-Reliance,"


"The American Scholar," "Nature")
- Henry Thoreau(Walden, Maine
Woods)
- Walt Whitman(Leaves of Grass)
- Washington Irving ( The Sketchbook,
The Knickerbocker Tales)
- Emily Dickinson.

DARK ROMANTICS:

• Nathaniel Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter,


House of Seven Gables,
"Young Goodman Brown,
• Herman Melville (Moby Dick)
• Edgar Allan Poe.( "The Raven," "Ligeia,"
"The Fall of the House of Usher"
 “Finish each day and be done with it. You have done
what you could. Some blunders and absurdities no
doubt crept in; forget them as soon as you can.
Tomorrow is a new day. You shall begin it serenely and
with too high a spirit to be encumbered with your old
nonsense.”
 ― Ralph Waldo Emerson

 “Happiness is a butterfly, which when pursued, is


always just beyond your grasp, but which, if you will sit
down quietly, may alight upon you”. Nathaniel
Hawthorne
 “It is not down on any map; true places never are.”
 ― Herman Mellvile, Moby-Dick, or, the Whale
 “To travel far, there is no better ship than a book.”
 “Saying nothing... sometimes says the most.”
 “I think of love, and you, and my heart grows full and
warm, and my breath stands still... I can feel a
sunshine stealing into my soul and making it all
summer, and every thorn, a rose.”
 “It is by no means an irrational fancy that, in a future
existence, we shall look upon what we think our
present existence, as a dream.”

 “Believe nothing you hear, and only one half that you
see.”

 “The boundaries which divide Life from Death are at


best shadowy and vague. Who shall say where the one
ends, and where the other begins?”