Sei sulla pagina 1di 27

RATIONAL FUNCTIONS,

EQUATIONS, AND
INEQUALITIES
OBJECTIVE
At the end of the lesson, you should
be able to distinguish rational
functions, rational equations, and
rational inequalities.
REVIEW OF RATIONAL EXPRESSION
Definition. A rational expression is an
expression that can be written as a ratio
of two polynomials.
REVIEW OF RATIONAL EXPRESSION
Definition. A rational expression is an
expression that can be written as a ratio
of two polynomials.
A rational expression can be described
as a function where either the numerator,
denominator, or both have a variable on
it.
RATIONAL OR NOT?
2
𝑥 + 3𝑥 + 2
𝑥+4
RATIONAL OR NOT?
2
𝑥 + 3𝑥 + 2
𝑥+4

Rational expression because it is a


ratio of two polynomials.
RATIONAL OR NOT?
1
3𝑥 2
RATIONAL OR NOT?
1
3𝑥 2

Rational expression because the


numerator 1 is a polynomial (of
degree 0).
RATIONAL OR NOT?
2
𝑥 + 4𝑥 − 3
2
RATIONAL OR NOT?
2
𝑥 + 4𝑥 − 3
2

Rational expression which is also a


polynomial.
RATIONAL OR NOT?
𝑥+1
𝑥3 − 1
RATIONAL OR NOT?
𝑥+1
𝑥3 − 1

Not a rational expression since the


numerator is not a polynomial.
RATIONAL OR NOT?
1
𝑥+2
𝑥−2
RATIONAL OR NOT?
1
𝑥+2
𝑥−2

1
The expression is equal to so
(𝑥+2)(𝑥−2)
it is a rational expression.
CONCEPT REVIEW
Definition.
A polynomial function p of degree n is a function that
can be written in the form
𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑎𝑛 𝑥 𝑛 + 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑥 𝑛−1 + 𝑎𝑛−2 𝑥 𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝑎1 𝑥 + 𝑎0
where 𝑎0 , 𝑎1 , ⋯ , 𝑎𝑛 ∈ ℝ, 𝑎𝑛 ≠ 0 and 𝑛 is a positive integer.
Each summand is a term of the polynomial function.
The constants 𝑎0 , 𝑎1 , ⋯ , 𝑎𝑛 are the coefficients. The
leading coefficient is 𝑎𝑛 . The leading term is 𝑎𝑛 𝑥 𝑛 and
the constant term is 𝑎0 .
Rational Equation Rational Rational Function
Inequality

Definition An equation An inequality A function of the form of


involving rational involving rational f(x) = p(x)/ q(x) where
expressions. expressions p(x) and q(x) are
polynomials, and q(x) is
not the zero function

Example 2 3 1 5 2
𝑓 𝑥 =
𝑥 2 +2𝑥+3
or
− = ≤ 𝑥+1
𝑥 2𝑥 5 𝑥−3 𝑥
𝑥 2 + 2𝑥 + 3
𝑦=
𝑥+1
EXAMPLE
A rational equation or inequality can be solved for all x
values that satisfy the equation or inequality. Whereas
we solve an equation or inequality, we do not solve
functions. Rather, a function (and in particular, a
rational function) expresses a relationship between two
variables (such as x and y), and can be represented by
a table of values or a graph.
RATIONAL EXPRESSION OR NOT?
15
1. x−1
4 7
2. 5x − 6x + 1
5−x3
3. x
RATIONAL EXPRESSION OR NOT?
15
1. NOT RATIONAL
x−1
4 7
2. 5x − 6x + 1
5−x3
3. x
RATIONAL EXPRESSION OR NOT?
15
1. NOT RATIONAL
x−1
4 7
2. 5x − 6x + 1 RATIONAL
5−x3
3. x
RATIONAL EXPRESSION OR NOT?
15
1. NOT RATIONAL
x−1
4 7
2. 5x − 6x + 1 RATIONAL
5−x3
3. x RATIONAL
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
1. y = 5x 3 − 2x + 1
8 x
2. x
− 8=
2x−1
3. x−2=4
x−1
4. = x3
x+1
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
1. y = 5x 3 − 2x + 1 RATIONAL FUNCTION
8 x
2. x
− 8=
2x−1
3. x−2=4
x−1
4. = x3
x+1
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
1. y = 5x 3 − 2x + 1 RATIONAL FUNCTION
8 x
2. − 8= RATIONAL EQUATION
x 2x−1
3. x−2=4
x−1
4. = x3
x+1
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
1. y = 5x 3 − 2x + 1 RATIONAL FUNCTION
8 x
2. − 8= RATIONAL EQUATION
x 2x−1
3. x−2=4 NONE OF THESE
x−1
4. = x3
x+1
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
1. y = 5x 3 − 2x + 1 RATIONAL FUNCTION
8 x
2. − 8= RATIONAL EQUATION
x 2x−1
3. x−2=4 NONE OF THESE
x−1
4. = x3 RATIONAL EQUATION
x+1
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
7𝑥 3 −4 𝑥+1
5. 𝑦= NONE OF THESE
𝑥 2 +3
5
6. 6𝑥 − ≥0 RATIONAL INEQUALITY
𝑥+3