Sei sulla pagina 1di 27

# RATIONAL FUNCTIONS,

EQUATIONS, AND
INEQUALITIES
OBJECTIVE
At the end of the lesson, you should
be able to distinguish rational
functions, rational equations, and
rational inequalities.
REVIEW OF RATIONAL EXPRESSION
Definition. A rational expression is an
expression that can be written as a ratio
of two polynomials.
REVIEW OF RATIONAL EXPRESSION
Definition. A rational expression is an
expression that can be written as a ratio
of two polynomials.
A rational expression can be described
as a function where either the numerator,
denominator, or both have a variable on
it.
RATIONAL OR NOT?
2
𝑥 + 3𝑥 + 2
𝑥+4
RATIONAL OR NOT?
2
𝑥 + 3𝑥 + 2
𝑥+4

## Rational expression because it is a

ratio of two polynomials.
RATIONAL OR NOT?
1
3𝑥 2
RATIONAL OR NOT?
1
3𝑥 2

## Rational expression because the

numerator 1 is a polynomial (of
degree 0).
RATIONAL OR NOT?
2
𝑥 + 4𝑥 − 3
2
RATIONAL OR NOT?
2
𝑥 + 4𝑥 − 3
2

polynomial.
RATIONAL OR NOT?
𝑥+1
𝑥3 − 1
RATIONAL OR NOT?
𝑥+1
𝑥3 − 1

## Not a rational expression since the

numerator is not a polynomial.
RATIONAL OR NOT?
1
𝑥+2
𝑥−2
RATIONAL OR NOT?
1
𝑥+2
𝑥−2

1
The expression is equal to so
(𝑥+2)(𝑥−2)
it is a rational expression.
CONCEPT REVIEW
Definition.
A polynomial function p of degree n is a function that
can be written in the form
𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑎𝑛 𝑥 𝑛 + 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑥 𝑛−1 + 𝑎𝑛−2 𝑥 𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝑎1 𝑥 + 𝑎0
where 𝑎0 , 𝑎1 , ⋯ , 𝑎𝑛 ∈ ℝ, 𝑎𝑛 ≠ 0 and 𝑛 is a positive integer.
Each summand is a term of the polynomial function.
The constants 𝑎0 , 𝑎1 , ⋯ , 𝑎𝑛 are the coefficients. The
leading coefficient is 𝑎𝑛 . The leading term is 𝑎𝑛 𝑥 𝑛 and
the constant term is 𝑎0 .
Rational Equation Rational Rational Function
Inequality

## Definition An equation An inequality A function of the form of

involving rational involving rational f(x) = p(x)/ q(x) where
expressions. expressions p(x) and q(x) are
polynomials, and q(x) is
not the zero function

Example 2 3 1 5 2
𝑓 𝑥 =
𝑥 2 +2𝑥+3
or
− = ≤ 𝑥+1
𝑥 2𝑥 5 𝑥−3 𝑥
𝑥 2 + 2𝑥 + 3
𝑦=
𝑥+1
EXAMPLE
A rational equation or inequality can be solved for all x
values that satisfy the equation or inequality. Whereas
we solve an equation or inequality, we do not solve
functions. Rather, a function (and in particular, a
rational function) expresses a relationship between two
variables (such as x and y), and can be represented by
a table of values or a graph.
RATIONAL EXPRESSION OR NOT?
15
1. x−1
4 7
2. 5x − 6x + 1
5−x3
3. x
RATIONAL EXPRESSION OR NOT?
15
1. NOT RATIONAL
x−1
4 7
2. 5x − 6x + 1
5−x3
3. x
RATIONAL EXPRESSION OR NOT?
15
1. NOT RATIONAL
x−1
4 7
2. 5x − 6x + 1 RATIONAL
5−x3
3. x
RATIONAL EXPRESSION OR NOT?
15
1. NOT RATIONAL
x−1
4 7
2. 5x − 6x + 1 RATIONAL
5−x3
3. x RATIONAL
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
1. y = 5x 3 − 2x + 1
8 x
2. x
− 8=
2x−1
3. x−2=4
x−1
4. = x3
x+1
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
1. y = 5x 3 − 2x + 1 RATIONAL FUNCTION
8 x
2. x
− 8=
2x−1
3. x−2=4
x−1
4. = x3
x+1
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
1. y = 5x 3 − 2x + 1 RATIONAL FUNCTION
8 x
2. − 8= RATIONAL EQUATION
x 2x−1
3. x−2=4
x−1
4. = x3
x+1
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
1. y = 5x 3 − 2x + 1 RATIONAL FUNCTION
8 x
2. − 8= RATIONAL EQUATION
x 2x−1
3. x−2=4 NONE OF THESE
x−1
4. = x3
x+1
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
1. y = 5x 3 − 2x + 1 RATIONAL FUNCTION
8 x
2. − 8= RATIONAL EQUATION
x 2x−1
3. x−2=4 NONE OF THESE
x−1
4. = x3 RATIONAL EQUATION
x+1
PRACTICE
Determine whether the given is a rational function, a
rational equation, a rational inequality, or none of
these.
7𝑥 3 −4 𝑥+1
5. 𝑦= NONE OF THESE
𝑥 2 +3
5
6. 6𝑥 − ≥0 RATIONAL INEQUALITY
𝑥+3