Sei sulla pagina 1di 63

NATURE OF INQUIRY

AND RESEARCH

Practical Research 2

Prepared by:
Joan F. Astorga

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
UNLOCKING DIFFICULTIES

1. CHREASER

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
2. YRIUQNI

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
3. CITAMETSYS

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
4. DELLORTNOC

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
5.LACIRIPME

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
6.SISEHTOPYH

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
7. RTEPXE
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
8. EGARUOC

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
INQUIRY
 Isany process that has the aim of augmenting
knowledge, resolving doubt or solving a problem.

Is a question which you ask in order to get some


information.

Is a term synonymous with the word


investigation; answer to the question.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
 toinquire or investigate, you tend to ask
question to probe or examine something.

You examine through your HOTS (Higher Order


Thinking Skills) strategies of inferential,
analytical, critical, creative and appreciate
thinking to discover more understandable or
meaningful things beyond such object of your
inquiry. This makes you ask open-ended
questions to elicit views, opinions, and beliefs of
others in relation to your research.
(SMALL 2012)
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
RESEARCH
Careful, critical, disciplined inquiry, varying in technique and
method according to the nature and conditions of the problem
identified, directed toward the clarification or resolution (or both)
of a problem. (GOOD)

The process of gathering data or information to solve a


particular or specific problem in a scientific manner.
(MANUEL AND MEDEL)

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Is simply the systematic search of pertinent information on a
specific topic or problem. After a careful, systematic search for
pertinent information or data in a specific topic or problem, and
after the research worker has analyzed and interpreted the
data, he eventually faces another task – that of preparing the
research report.
(AQUINO)

A systematic study or investigation of something for the


purpose of answering questions posed by the researcher
(SANCHEZ)

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
1. To discover new facts about known phenomena
2. To find answers to problem which are only partially solved by
existing methods and information.
3. To improve existing techniques and develop new instruments
or products.
4. To discover previously unrecognized substances or elements.
5. Discover pathways of action of known substances and
elements
6. To order related, valid generalizations into systematized
science.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
7. To provide basis for decision-making in business, industry,
education, government, and in other undertakings.
8. To satisfy the researcher’s curiosity.
9. To find answer to queries by means of scientific methods.
10. To acquire a better and deeper understanding about one
phenomenon that can be known and understood better by
research.
11. To expand or verify existing knowledge.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
1. Research is systematic. It follows an orderly and
sequential procedure that leads to the discovery of truth,
solution of a problem, or whatever is aimed to be
discovered.
2. Research is controlled. All variables except those that
are tested or being experimented upon are kept constant
so that the changes made on the subjects of the study
can be attributed only to experimental variable.
3. Research is empirical. All the procedures employed and
the data gathered are perceived in the same manner by
all observers.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
4) Research is analytical. There is a critical analysis of
all the data used so that there is no error in their
interpretation.
5) Research is objective, unbiased, and logical. All
the findings and conclusions are logically based on
empirical data and no error is made to alter the results
of the results.
6) Research employs hypothesis. This is to guide the
investigation process.
7) Research employs quantitative or statistical
methods. Data are transform into numerical
measures and are tested statistically to determined
their significance or usefulness.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
8. Research is original work. Except in historical
research, data are gathered from primary sources or
first-hand sources and not from secondary sources.
9. Research is done by an experts. The researcher
uses is valid and carefully designed procedures, valid
data-gathering instrument, and valid data.
10. research is accurate investigation, observation
and description. Every research activity must be
done accurately so that the findings will lead to
formulation of scientific generalizations. All
conclusions are based on actual evidence.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
11. Research is patient and unhurried activity. This is
to ensure accuracy.
12.Research requires an effort-making capacity. No
research can be conducted without the exertion of
much effort. No one without any effort-making capacity
can be conduct a research because research involves
much work and time.
13. Research requires courage. Research requires
courage because researcher oftentimes undergo
hazards, discomforts and the like. At times the
researcher encounters public and social disapproval.
Also, disagreements with colleagues may arise.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
SCIENTIFIC METHODS OF RESEARCH
1. Determining (recognizing) the problem;
2. Forming a hypothesis;
3. Doing the library search;
4. Designing the study;
5. Developing the instrument for collecting the data;
6. Collecting the data;
7. Analyzing the data;
8. Determining implications and conclusions from the findings;
9. Making recommendations for further research
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
PRINCIPLES OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
1. Rigid control – refers to the manipulation of the research
variables.

2. Objectivity – means that there should be no bias or partiality in


treating the results of the inquiry.

3. Systematic organizations – refers to the proper and accurate


tabulation or data as well as presenting them in statistical tables
ready for interpretation.

4. Rigorous standards – refers to the setting up of standards or


principles which serves as basis for evaluating the findings of a
study.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
KINDS AND CLASSIFICATIONS OF RESEARCH

1. ACCORDING TO PURPOSE

a. Predictive or prognostic research – has the purpose of


determining the future operation of the variables under
investigation with the aim of controlling or redirecting such for
the better.
b. Directive research – determines what should be done based
on the findings. This is to remedy an unsatisfactory condition if
there is any.
c. Illuminative research – is concerned with the interaction of
the components of the variable being investigated.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
2. ACCORDING TO GOAL

a. Basic or pure research – is done for the development of


theories or principles. It is conducted for the intellectual
pleasure or learning.

b. Applied research – is the application of the results of pure


research. This is testing the efficacy of theories and principles.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
3. ACCORDING TO THE LEVELS OF INVESTIGATIONS

a. Exploratory research – the researcher studies the variables


pertinent to a specific situation.

b. Descriptive research – the researcher studies the


relationship of the variables

c. Experimental research – the experimenter studies the


effects of the variables on each other

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
4. ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF ANALYSIS

a. Analytic research – the researcher attempts to identify and


isolate the components of the research situation.

a. Holistic research – begins with the total situation, focusing


attention on the system first and then on its internal
relationship.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
5. ACCORDING TO SCOPE
Under this category is action research and it is done on a
very limited scope to solve a particular problem which is not so
big. It is almost problem solving.

6. ACCORDING TO CHOICE OF ANSWERS TO PROBLEM


a. Evaluation research – all courses of action are specified and
identified and the researcher tries to find the most
advantageous.
b. Developmental research – the focus on finding or
developing a more suitable instrument or process that has
been available.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
7. ACCORDING TO STATISTICAL CONTENT

a. Quantitative or statistical research – is one in which


inferential statistics are utilized to determine the results of the
study.

b. Non-quantitative research – the research in which the use


of quantity or statistics is practically nil., especially true in
anthropological studies where description is usually used.
Descriptive data are gathered rather than quantitative data.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
8. ACCORDING TO TIME ELEMENT

a. Historical research – describes what was.

b. Descriptive research – describe what is.

c. Experimental research – describes what will be.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Determine whether INQUIRY OR RESEARCH is
applicable to the given situations. Check the
corresponding column of your answer.
SITUATION INQUIRY RESEARCH

1. A person wants to know the occupant of one condominium.


2. A students wants to know the medicinal effects of guava leaves.
3. Mr. Cruz wants to know the technique to make his electric fan
function instantly.
4. Professor Gomez wants to discover the impact of social
networking on his students learning abilities.
5. Aling Rosa wants to know the reason behind the decrease of her
sales for the day.
6. A business man wants to find out which between these two
marketing strategies; free testing and attractive packaging could
increase daily sales. JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
CONCEPT TRANSFORMATION

Examine the set up of your family, your


school, or any organization you are a member
in. Which aspect of each group do you want
to know more through INQUIRY or
RESEARCH? Present your answer to this
question in a tabular form.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
UNLOCKING DIFFICULTIES
DIRECTIONS: Give the meaning of the underlined italic words in each
sentences.
1. Demonstrate through a hand gesture the magnitude of the screen
that you think is enough to block the window.

2. In looks, Malaysians are analogous to Filipinos, but in language, they


are not.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
3. Please use precise words to explain your point for the listener’s quick
understanding of your ideas.

4. The plastic bag becomes inflated with much air blown into it;
deflated, with air released from the container.

5. A person experiences moral instability if he does not pattern his life


after Jesus Christ, the way, the truth, and the life.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
ANSWERS:
1. GESTURE - a movement of your body(especially of your
hands and arm)
2. ANALOGOUS - similar in some way, being or related to.
3. PRECISE - very accurate and exact
4. INFLATED - too large or high of language; filled and made
larger with air or gas
5. INSTABILITY - the state of being a likely to change; the
quality or state of being unstable

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
 Expressions like numerical forms, objective thinking,
statistical methods, and measurement.

 This type of research is numerical, pertaining to or


denoting a number or symbols to express how many,
how much, or what rank things are or have in this world.

 Expressing meaning through numerical or a set of


symbols indicates specificity, particularity or exactness
of something.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Characteristics of Quantitative research
Uses numbers and figures to denote a particular
things

Described as objective research, characterized by


objectiveness, which only the real or factual.

In this case, you do not identify the problem but


theorize, hypothesize, analyze, infer and create as
well.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
CLASSIFICATIONS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
1. EXPERIMENTAL

a. True experimental
b. Quasi-experimental
a. matched comparative group
b. time series
c. counterbalanced quasi-experimental
c. Single subject
d. Pre-experimental
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
2. NON-EXPERIMENTAL

a. Survey
b. Historical
c. Observational
d. Correlational
e. Descriptive
f. Comparative

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
IMPORTANCE OF QUANTITATIVE
Useful in obtaining an objective understanding of people,
things, places, and events in this world: meaning attaching
accurate or exact meaning to object or subjects.

Use of reliable measurements instruments or statistical


methods.

Effective method to obtain information about specified


personality traits of a group member or of the group as a whole.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
Is a quantitative research that treats or deals with
the object or subject of the research in a definite
or exact manner and determines the extend of
the effect or influence of the treatment on the
object/subjects, then discovers the causes of
such effects.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
TWO GROUP involved in experimental
research.
1. Experimental group – the one on which the treatment or
influence is applied.

2. Control group – which does not receive any treatment.

The object or subjects involved in these types research are


chosen randomly or selected by chance, rather than by the
decision of the researcher.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
CATEGORY OF EXPERIMENTAL
1. True experimental research is done either
laboratory or filed research. Absolutely uses
random selection in determining who among
the participants should compose the
experimental group or control group.

2. Quasi-experimental research adopts a


comparative technique in choosing the
subjects.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
RESEARCH DESIGN of NON-EXPERIMENTAL
Aspects that takes place in a sequential manner:
1. Specify the problem or topic of your research.
2. Formulate the research problem or hypotheses.
3. Determine the dependent and independent variables.
4. Select the participants or subjects.
5. Decide on the specific type of experimental research;
meaning, whether it will be true experimental or quasi-
experimental research.
6. Conduct the experiment.
7. Collect, analyze, and interpret the results.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
TYPES OF QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH
1.MATCHED COMAPARISON – choosing a treatment group and
another group that has similarities with the treatment group.

2. TIME-SERIES QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH - giving


them series of pre-test and post-tests.

3. SINGLE-SUBJECT QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH -


controls treatment and condition applied to just one individual or group.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
NON-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
is a way of finding out truths about a subject by
describing the collected data about such subjects and
determining their relationships or connection with one another.

a desire to discover people’s thoughts, views, feelings


and attitudes about a certain societal issue, object, place, or
event causes you to use a non- experimental research.

it collects data through survey, observation, historical


studies, case studies, documentary analysis and so on.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
CHARACTERISTICS of NON-EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH
1. It is incapable of establishing cause-effect relationship; by
itself, it is able, if it takes place in conjunction with other
experimental and quasi-experimental research methods.
2. It involves various ways of data analysis:
 primary – analysis of data collected by researcher himself
Secondary – examination of data collected by other people
Meta-analysis – analysis of data expressed numerically
3. It uses research method that applicable to both quantitative
and qualitative data.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
SURVEY RESEARCH is the most used non-
experimental research in the field of Sociology,
Psychology, and Humanities, Inquiries,
Investigations, and experiments also happen in
this type of non-experimental research, but in
terms of types and analysis of data.

Survey research follows a standard that is applicable to social studies


(SCHREIBER 2011)

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
SURVEY RESEARCH
 is a method of research that aims at knowing what a big number
of people think and feel about some sociological sciences.
The data it collects from these people serving as “representative
or informants” explain or describe the society’s thoughts,
attitudes and feelings towards environmental issues.
Is a very old research technique that began in the period of the
ancient Egyptian rulers, many still consider that as a very popular
means of social inquiry.

(BABBIE 2013)

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
Usually used by researchers to study issues
affecting a large population, survey research
requires data-gathering techniques such as
interview, questionnaire, online survey, and
telephone interview that primarily consider the
size of the group being studied.
(SCHUTT 2013)
The researcher selects a sample of respondents
from a small/large population and provide the
chosen subjects a formalized questionnaire.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
PURPOSE OF SURVEY RESEARCH
1. To obtain information about people’s opinions and
feelings about an issue.
2. To identify present condition, needs, or problems of
people in a short span of time
3. To seek answers to social problems.
4. To give school officials pointer on curricular
offerings, guidance and counselling services, teacher
evaluation, and so on.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
PHASES OF SURVEY RESEARCH
1. Explanation of objectives clearly.
2. Formulation of research questions or hypotheses to predict
relationship of variables.
3. Determine of the exact kind of data referred to by the hypotheses or
research questions.
4. Assurance of the population or group of people to which the
findings will be applied to.
5. Finalization of the sampling method for selecting the participants.
6. Identification of the method or instrument in collecting data,
whether it is questionnaire on paper, through phone, via computer, or
face-to-face.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
STRENGHTS OF SURVEY RESEARCH
1. VERSATILITY. It can tackle any issue affecting society.
2. EFFICIENCY. It is not costly in terms of money and time,
assuming there is excellent communication or postal
system.
3. GENERALITY. It can get a good representation or sample
of a large group of people.
4. CONFIDENTIALITY. It is capable of safeguarding the
privacy or anonymity of the respondents.

(SCHUTT 2013)
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
WEAK POINTS OF SURVEY RESEARCH
1.It cannot provide sufficient evidence about the relationship
of variables.
2. It cannot examine the significance of some issues affecting
people’s social life.
3. It cannot get data reflecting the effects of the
interconnections of environmental features on the research
study.
4. It cannot consider man’s naturalistic tendencies as the
basis of human behavior unless his ways or styles of living
are related to his surroundings,
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
WEAK POINTS OF SURVEY RESEARCH
5. It cannot promote interpretive and creative thinking unless
its formation of ideas results from scientific thinking.
6. It cannot have an effective application to all topics for
research.
7. It cannot use a questioning or coding method that can
accurately register differences among the participants’
responses.
8. It cannot diffuse the main researcher’s abilities to control
and manipulate some factors affecting the study.
9. It cannot account for real or actual happenings, but can give
ideas on respondents’ views, beliefs, concepts, and emotions.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND RULES IN
SURVEY RESEARCH
1. Respect whatever decision a person has about your research work
for his participation in your study comes solely from his or her own
decision-making powers.
2. Make sure that your study will be instrumental in elevating the
living conditions of people around you or in bringing about world
progress.
3. Conduct your research work in a way that the respondents will be
safe from any injury or damage that may arise from their physical
and emotional involvement in the study.
4. Practice honestly and truthfulness in reporting about the results of
your study.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND RULES IN
SURVEY RESEARCH
5. Accept the reality that the nature, kind, and extent of
responses to your questions depend solely on the
dispositions of the respondents.
6. Decide properly which information should go public
or secret.
7. Stick to your promise of safeguarding the secrecy of
some information you obtained from the respondents.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
VARIABLES
 are “changing qualities or characteristics” of person
or things like age, gender, intelligence, ideas,
achievements, confidence, and so on that are involved
in your research study.
From the root word “vary” which means to undergo
changes or to differ from, variables haves different or
varying values in relation to time and situation.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
TYPES OF VARIABLES
1. INDEPENDENT variables – are those that
cause changes in the subject., cause

2. DEPENDENT variables – are those that bear


or manifest the effect caused by the independent
variables,,, effects

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
EXTRANEOUS variables – two or more variables or
extra variables crop up to create an impact on the
relationship between the independent and dependent
variables. Exist as “nuisance variables” whose potency
need to go down to prevent it from affecting the results
negatively.

 participants variables - refer to the moods, emotions, or


intelligence of the subject.

Situational variables – pertain to nature of the place,:


smelly, chilly, cold, hot, spacious, and the like.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
OTHER TYPES OF VARIABLES
1. CONSTANT – do not undergo any changes during an experiment.

2. ATTRIBUTE – characteristics of people: intelligence, creativity,


anxiety, learning, styles, etc.

3. COVARIATE – included in the research study to create interactions


with the independent and dependent variables.

4. CONTINUOUS – quantitative in nature and is used in interval or


ratio scale of measurement.
JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
OTHER TYPES OF VARIABLES
5. DICHOTOMOUS – has only two possible results: one or zero

6. LATENT – cannot be directly observed like personality traits.

7. MANIFEST – can be directly observed to give proofs to latent


variables.

8. EXOGENOUS – found outside an identified model

9. ENDOGENOUS – found inside; as a part of identified model.


JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
GROUP WORK:

Identify the independent and dependent variables


in each research problem.
Activity 1.Variable Identification.) pp. 32.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
INDIVIDUAL WORK:

Think of your own research problems, then


underline once the independent variables and
twice for dependent variables.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2
REFERENCES
Jose F. Calderon, Ed.D and Expectacion C.
Gonzales (2014). Methods of Research and
Thesis Writing. National Bookstore Inc.

Esther L. Baraceros (2016). Practical


Research 2. Rex Bookstore Inc.

JOAN FORDAN ASTORGA


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2