Sei sulla pagina 1di 68

SEMINAR

SEMINAR––
WORKSHOP
WORKSHOP
ON
ONQUALITATIVE
QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
RESEARCH

.iangrancho
SAMPLE OF TITLES
• Experiences and Needs of Victims of Child Abuse Among Elementary
School Pupils in Tagum City
• Menopause: Women’s Perceptions and Experiences
• Underground Economy: A survival Strategy of Public School Employees
• Advertising: Its Effects on the Profits of Auto Parts Business
Establishment in Tagum City
• Domestic Violence: Ideas, Experiences and Needs of Married Working
Men in Tagum City
• Expenditure Patterns of young Professionals in Region 11
WHAT IS QUALITATIVE?

Qualitative research begins with an assumption, a worldview, the


possible use of a theoretical lens, and the study of research problems
inquiring into the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or
human problem.

“ Qualitative research is a situated activity that locates the


observer in the world.”
CHARACTERISTICS OF A
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
• Nature Setting- qualitative researchers tend to collect data in the field at
the site where participants’ experience the issue or problem under study.
• Researcher as Key Instrument- qualitative researchers collect data
through themselves through examining documents, observing behavior, and
interviewing participants.
• Multiple Sources of Data- researchers typically gather multiple forms of
data, such as interviews, observations, and documents, rather than rely on a
single data source.
• Inductive Data Analysis- researchers build their patterns, involves
researchers working back and forth between the themes and the database
until they establish a comprehensive set of themes.
• Participant's Meanings- researchers keep a focus on learning the
meaning that the participants hold about the problem or issue, not the
meaning that the researchers bring to the research or writers from the
literatures.
• Emergent Design- means that the initial plan for research cannot be tightly
prescribed, and that all phases of the process may change or shift.
• Theoretical Lens- researchers often use lens to view their studies, such as
the concept of culture. Sometimes, the study may be organized around
identifying the social, political, or historical context of the problem under
study.
• Interpretive Inquiry- a form of inquiry in which researchers make an
interpretation of what they see, hear, and understand.
• Holistic Account- this involves reporting multiple perspectives, identifying
the many factors involved in a situation, and generally sketching the larger
picture that emerges.
CONTENTS
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

Rationale

Purpose of the Study Research Question

Theoretical Lens

Significance of the Study Definition of Terms

Limitations and Delimitations

Organization of the Study

Chapter 2 RELATED LITERATURE


Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY

Research Design

Role of the Researcher

Research Participants

Data Collection

Data Analysis Trustworthiness and Credibility

Ethical Consideration

Chapter 4 RESULTS

Chapter 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Implication for Practice

Implication for Further Research Concluding Remarks

REFERENCES

APPENDICES
CHAPTER 1

Introduction
RATIONALE
• Should be two to three pages
• Discussing problems and researches done by various authorities
around the world related to the present study .
• The last paragraph should also contain the “Research Gap” – a
personal statement that would signify that the research has not
come across any study dealing with the present research topic.
“The researcher (I,We) has/have not come across a study that
specifically discuss the _________________. Furthermore, this
study will provide relevant concepts that would possibly
create_____________ in the academic community.”
SAMPLE
There are various factors that cause the increasing number of non- readers in
the Philippines most specifically in public schools. Few to mention are the less
attention of parent involvement in child’s learning, intense poverty, lack of funds for
learning facilities and materials, inappropriate teaching techniques employed by
teachers, uneven teacher- pupil ratio inside the classroom, and the students who are
not prepared to learn (Eballe, 2012). To some point of view, these problems are also
the basic and common problems that the teachers in far-flung schools of Banaybanay
District in elementary level might be experiencing. And these problems were talked
daily by the teachers exchanging their ideas and opinions. As such, these teachers
“carry out” problems on non-readers, “breathe” problems on non-readers, and “speak”
about problems on non-readers every day.
Past studies mentioned mainly on reading interventions, causes of non-readers
and how to diagnose non-readers. However, I have not come across any study that
looked into the social meanings that the teachers teaching non- readers in remote
schools have constructed themselves and this kind of understandings have become
part of their daily life. I am interested how these groups of teachers socially
understand handling non-readers using a social representations approach.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
• Identify the approach applied in qualitative research
• Phenomenology
• Ethnographic
• Case Study
• Biographical Narrative
• Grounded Theory
• establish the purpose why the study should be conducted
• Who were the Informants and Participants
• A paragraph should contain a personal account on how the study will
benefit the discipline.
SAMPLE (PURPOSE OF THE STUDY)
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to capture the socially elaborated knowledge of the
teachers handling non- readers in remote schools of Banaybanay District in elementary level. It also aimed
to find out the processes through which these shared knowledge were created.
At this stage in the research, handling non- readers in remote schools is a social issue and a
phenomenon that actually exists in the field of education. Teachers handling these non- readers
encountered many experiences that sometimes put them into risks, threatens them, or making them
unhappy and ineffective. With these daily undertakings, they may create a common knowledge through their
communication, allowing them to come up with different themes. These themes will become part of their
daily lives thus; they socially elaborate these themes in their conversations.
This phenomenological study would add to the growing body of knowledge about the usefulness of the
theory of Social Representation in investigating social issues such as of handling non-readers in far-flung
schools. Through this study, I would be able to acquire salient information that would help us understand
how human beings create meanings about a social phenomenon such as handling non-readers in far-flung
schools. It also aims to capture the unheard voices of teachers handling non-readers in remote schools;
and how these teachers cope with the common problems they encountered in helping the non-readers to
read at the end of the school year. It also seeks future directions for teachers how to facilitate learning
inside the classroom with non- readers even if they put themselves into risks or hardships.
This study also visualizes documenting the different experiences of the ten teachers in in-depth
interviews and seven teachers in the focus group discussion both the positive and negative one from their
own workplaces, the remote schools of Banaybanay District, Division of Mati City. Moreover, the intent of
this study is to seek, listen, and understand the unheard stories of the participants as they willingly share
their experiences during the interview. In addition, this study aims to gain additional knowledge in the field
of research concerning teachers handling non-readers in far-flung schools.
APPROACHES USED IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
• Case Study.
- involves a long-time study of a person, group, organization, or
situation.
- seeks to find answers to why such things occur to the subject.
- find the reason/s behind the occurrence
- to delve into relationships of people related to the case under study.
- data collection methods such as interviews, questionnaires,
observations, and documentary analysis.

• Ethnography
- the study of a particular cultural group to get a clear understanding of
its organizational set-up, internal operation, and lifestyle.
- reveals the nature or characteristics of their own culture through the
world perceptions of the cultural group’s members.
• Phenomenological
- “phenomenon” means something known through sensory experience
- how people find their experiences meaningful and understand their
experiences (death of a loved ones, care for handicapped persons,
friendliness of people, etc).
• Content and Discourse Analysis.
- an analysis or examination of the substance or content of the mode
of communication (letters, books, journals, photos, video recordings,
SMS, online messages, emails, audio-visual materials, etc).
- A study on language structures used in the medium of communication
to discover the effects of sociological, cultural, institutional, and
ideological factors on the content or structures of the material
• Historical Analysis
- the examination of primary documents to make you understand the
connection of past events to the present time.
- help you specify phenomenological changes in unchanged aspects
of society through the years.
• Grounded Theory.
- to discover a new theory to underlie your study at the time of data
collection and analysis
- to find theory that applies to your current study
- Interview, observation, and documentary analysis
QUALITATIVE STUDY APPROACHES
• Biographical Narrative- Exploring the life of an individual
• Phenomenology- Understanding the essence of the experience
• Grounded Theory- Developing a theory grounded in data from the
field
• Ethnography- Describing and interpreting a culture-sharing group
• Case Study- Developing an in-depth description and analysis of a
case or multiple cases
NAME THE TYPE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
BEST SUITED FOR THE FOLLOWING TOPICS
1. The Mangyan’s Burial Practices (Ethnography)
2. Relatives of Typhoon Victims (Phenomenological)
3. The Effectiveness of the K-12 Curriculum (Phenomenological)
4. Spiderman: The Very First Film in the 21 st Century (Content & Discourse Analysis)
5. Philippines’ Political Party System: Then and Now (Historical Analysis)
6. Filipino Caregivers in Japan (Phenomenological)
7. Travails of Senior Citizens at the LRT/MRT Stations (Phenomenological/Case)
8. The Lone Grade Vl Speed Reader of UM Tagum High School (Case Study)
9. Grade ll Science Textbook (Content and Discourse Analysis)
10. Student Activism Since the Marcos Era (Phenomenological)
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
• General questions
• What and How questions….
• Minimum of Two maximum of Three

1. What are the experiences of students engaged in child labor?


2. How did students cope with the situation of being engaged in
child labor?
3. What are the insights of students engaged in child labor?
THEORETICAL LENS
• Theory, Proposition, Concept, Result of a Study….that served as
the basis in conducting the qualitative study.
• Note: it is only a working theory, this may change as results of the
study will come in and deviates with the course of the research
• Give your justification why the theory was chosen
• Should be two to three pages
• The older the year the better…
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
• Two paragraphs only!

• The first Paragraph should contain an introductory statement on


“how relevant is the study to the discipline”

• It should be personalized

• Second paragraph will contain Macro to micro presentation of the


beneficiaries
SAMPLE (SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY)
I am confident that this phenomenological study would add to the usefulness and
significance of educating nonreaders especially in far-flung schools. It is through this study
that I was able to obtain information about the teachers’ daily communications in handling
nonreaders, their emotions, hardships, achievements, dedication and commitment, as well as
the different problems they met while teaching non-readers and to how they cope with these
unfavorable experiences.
Moreover, this knowledge would be helpful in attaining the quality education goal by the
Department of Education. Thus, this study is a premeditated and strategic way of promoting
quality education in our country. It is not only that the non- readers who will be benefitted in
this study. Moreover, to the teachers in general who willingly share their experiences in
handling non- readers; on the sense that they can pour their deepest and sincerest sentiments
in teaching non-readers. In such a way, these experiences might be a significant factor of
having a paradigm shift in the aspect of achieving quality education. Lastly, this study would
somehow assist other researchers in the future who are interested to conduct a study related
to teaching non-readers in far-flung schools. It will lend them a hand on identifying areas of
teaching non-readers in public schools that needs further study and investigation.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
• Define the important terms used in the study
• Base the terms on the title
• May be conceptually or operationally defined
• May be one to two pages
SAMPLE (DEFINITION OF TEARS)
Non- readers. These are pupils who cannot read any printed material and they belong
to frustrated reading level. These are schoolchildren with inability to read properly. They have
the behavior of withdrawing from reading situations (Luz, 2007).
Far-flung schools. These are schools at a considerable distance or largely in space or
time. These are remote schools as to what extent they can be reached by any means of
transportation.
Social representation. As a product, it is the shared knowledge about a phenomenon
that is co- constructed by the members of a social group. It is also defined as “common sense
knowledge” or “lay knowledge” (Jodelet, 1991). It is an organized and structured whole of
information, beliefs, opinions, and attitudes. It is conceived as a cognitive and a social
process constructed from everyday experience and communications (Abric, 1993). As a
process, it is a means of communication created and elaborated by a group about a social
object (Moscovici, 1993).
Objectification- transforming what is abstract into something that is concrete (Abric,
1993) by using icon, metaphor or trope that will represent the new phenomenon (Wagner, et
al., 1999).
DELIMITATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
• Half of the Page
• Identify the setting of the Study
• Establish why the study is limited to a certain point
• Discuss the perceived weakness of the study
• Establish that the data to be gathered doesn’t represent the
general view (Generalizability)
SAMPLE (DELIMITATIONS AND LIMITATIONS)
This multiple case study is delimited and aimed only at exploring the
experiences of psychologically distressed public secondary school teachers,
their coping strategies, and insights they can share to their peers and to the
academe in general. I selected five teacher-participants who are all female, and
teaching in big schools in the province of Davao del Norte of Davao region,
Philippines. Moreover, this qualitative research inquiry was conducted from
November 2015 to March 2016.
However, I acknowledge the weaknesses which may not allow this research
to achieve the expected generalizability of this study. Due to the small sample
who participated in the study, results may not be generalized and cannot
adequately support claims of having achieved valid conclusions. In addition, I
cannot guarantee the perfect recollection of all the experiences of the
participants due to the fact that the real stories shared are past events and are
subject for human error in terms of memory.
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
• An overview of the contents of each chapter

• Chapter 1
• Chapter 2
• Chapter 3
• Chapter 4
• Chapter 5
SAMPLE
Chapter 1 presents the very nature of gay lingo that is unique in the Philippines and particularly in schools
in Tagum City. It also presents the factor of gay lingo conversations. It is here were some simple questions on its
origin was answered and will be the basis for a more elaborate discussion in the outcome of the qualitative
research. Moreover, bringing about all these essential facts on gay lingo would give way to why such study is
necessary.

Chapter 2 discusses varied studies and readings on gay lingo, sexuality, factors of gender, sexuality
indexing and the findings of other related studies specifically on how indexing contributes on the linguistic
features of gay lingo.

Chapter 3 deals with the design of the study, the role of the researcher and the participants involved. Data
Collection and analysis is included. Trustworthiness and Credibility of the study is explained together with its
ethical consideration.

Chapter 4 discusses the results of the study based from research questions conducted to the participants,
which would shed light on reasons underlying the phenomenological aspects of views. These are the views
gathered from the participants involved.

Chapter 5 shows the basis of findings and its divergence of the theories presented by sociolinguistic
authors. It also discusses the explanation of its implication in the practice, sociolinguistics and further research
to be conducted together with its concluding remarks.
CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
• Cluster the readings base on the important keywords and concepts of the
study
• Should be five years back
• Paraphrase the readings presented
• Use transition markers
• Avoid one sentence paragraphs
• Avoid Inset citation “….Robins (2013)…” should be at the last part of the
paragraph “…(Robins, 2013).”
• Use inventory “….(Chakraborty and Daz, 2005; Doepke, 2006; Lopez-Calva,
2001; Zimmerman, 2007)..” Note: should be alphabetical
• Provide synthesis
SAMPLE (RRL)
Distress as a personal experience by any individual needs to be understood
better and clearer by studying very closely its origin and the theories that formed
the phenomenon because oftentimes, it is used interchangeably with stress
without difference. Psychological distress is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral
response to a severe form of stressor (also called chronic stress) characterized by
extreme anxiety, anger, sorrow, pain, unhappiness and suffering that affects the
mind, emotion and the physical body including the level of functioning (Maier &
Watskin, 2010; Moberg, 2011; Montgomery & McCrone, 2010; Potter, 2012).
On the other hand, distress can be used to describe a state in which an
organism, has difficulty to adapt to one or more stressors, and is no longer coping
with its environment, where its well-being is compromised. It is widely used term
to describe unpleasant feelings or emotions that impact the level of functioning
and it is a subjective experience. That is, the severity of psychological distress is
dependent upon the situation and how we perceive it. In addition, it is the difficulty
or even the inability to cope with stressful condition that is both painful physically
and mentally (Anderson, 2011).
SAMPLE (SYNTHESIS)
The above-mentioned articles discuss the provisions of the government
in its program to reduce the risk of drop-out if not, to eliminate the problem. It
also presents readings on the relevance of the topics concerning drop-outs
since they have become the bases of the researcher in the formulation of the
support to the problem presented, conclusions and recommendations. The
readings also elaborated the importance of the programs initiated by the
school in order reduce the drop-out rate of the enrolment. This, has become
the springboard in the formulation of the enhancement program.
CHAPTER 3

Methodology
RESEARCH DESIGN
• Identify the Approach applied in qualitative research
• Phenomenology
• Ethnographic
• Case Study
• Biographical Narrative
• Grounded Theory
• Should be with authors (preferably the works of Creswell)
• Give justification why the approach was used
• Three pages minimum
SAMPLE (RESEARCH DESIGN)
In order to have a better understanding and in-depth analysis of the distressful
experiences, coping strategies and insights of the teacher- informants, I utilize a
multiple case study research. Case study research is a qualitative approach in
which the investigator explores a real-life, either single case or multiple cases over
time, through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of
information such as interviews, observations, audio-visual material, documents,
and reports, and generate a case description and case themes (Creswell, 2013).
This phenomenological study described the lived experiences (Creswell, 2009) of
teachers handling non- readers in remote schools. It focused into what common
experiences the participants had encountered in teaching non-readers, the
phenomenon under investigation. I used phenomenology because a group of
individuals such as teachers from far- flung schools personally experienced the
same phenomenon which is handling non- readers. They were able to explore
such single idea (Creswell, 2012) about teaching non- readers into more composite
descriptions based on “what and how” they experienced the phenomenon
(Moustakas, 1994; Creswell, 2012).
ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER
• Establish the roles played in the research
• Give statements with authority
• Should be personalized
• One page
SAMPLE (ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER)
The role of the researcher in qualitative research is an important matter to be considered in the
successful pursuit of investigation of any social phenomena. In this study, I am highly inclined and
qualified to pursue this investigation because I am also a teacher by profession, and has encountered
distressful experience, pain, and frustration when I was not promoted, despite of my best qualifications,
of which I can also relate the feelings of my informants. Besides, I possess some abilities and aptitude
in writing, keen observation, great interest in psychology, and deep concern to help my fellow mentors
to also overcome distress and maintain a healthy living for good. Although, I have some biases,
especially that I can feel what my subjects are feeling, but I see to it that theories and related studies
are respected and considered.
With regards to my basic roles, I followed the principles which states that qualitative inquiry is for
the researchers who are willing to commit extensive time to collect data, engage in data analysis, does
reflexivity, and write long passages by themselves. Hence, I played many roles as a researcher such as
interviewer, transcriber, translator, analyst, and encoder. As an interviewer, I established first rapport
and friendship with my participant. I called all the informants through the help of my gatekeepers for
some introductions, and asked them if they are willing to participate in my study. As an interviewer, I
used personal emphaty to make the participants feel more willing to tell their stories. During the
interview and observation, I applied some techniques like: asking probing questions, then listening and
thinking, then asking more probing question to get to deeper levels of the conversation. As a transcriber
and encoder, I transcribed all the recorded interviews, and translated correctly and organized them into
a standard English statements. Lastly, as an analyst, I employed suitable analysis methods and
procedures fitted for a qualitative research, such as thematic analysis, numeration, and cross- case
analysis. Based on the concepts of Corbin and Strauss, it is the duty of the researcher to interprete the
meaning of hidden in data because he is a primary instrument for data collection and analysis
(Creswell, 2013; Corbin & Strauss, 2014; Miller, et al., 2012).
RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS
• Identify the informants and participants of the study
• Give supporting statements with author
• Informants are for in-depth interview while participants are for
focus group discussion
• Purposive sampling will be used as technique to get the sample
• Establish the inclusion and exclusion criteria
• One page
• Biographical Narrative- One Unique Story
• Phenomenology- 10 to 25 participants/informants
• Grounded Theory- 20-60 participants/informants
• Ethnography- 20-60 participants/informants
• Case Study- 1 to 5 cases

(Creswell, 2013)
SAMPLE (RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS)
This section describes the participants and stipulates the criteria for selection and number of
participants, type of sampling, and the recruitment strategy. One of the most important tasks in the study
design phase is to identify appropriate participants because informants are the very people who can best
provide information on their lived experiences, culture, awareness, knowledge, and expertise regarding the
phenomenon under inquiry. Decision about selection was based on the research questions and theoretical
perspectives. Moreover, my informants were chosen through purposive sampling technique . Creswell
explains, purposive sampling considers a particular group of people or when the desired population for the
study is rare or very difficult to locate, it may be the only option (Creswell, 2007; Creswell, 2013; Lingard,
Albert & Levinson, 2008).
I followed some criteria for selection of participants like the type or nature of the phenomenon, suitable
characteristics of the subjects, and theoretical perspective. The informants of this study are five public
secondary female teachers, teaching more than 15 years in big schools in Davao del Norte division of Davao
Region, Philippines, and who had undergone distressful experiences in school and personal life, but were
able to cope successfully. I intentionally preferred female teachers because women are reported as more
emotional, have higher levels of negative affect and depression, and have more intense experience of
emotions and expressiveness than men. Moreover, I chose five informants because this number of cases is
ideal for a multiple case study, and already sufficient to provide information with regards to the opportunity to
identify and generate the themes of the cases, as well as for the cross-case analysis. It is recommended that
in case study research, it should not be more than four or five cases in a single study. Moreover, it has been
emphasized that excessive number of cases will just dilute the level of details that a researcher can provide
(Creswell, 2013; Denzin, et al., 2008; Larsen & Diener, 1987; Wolcott, 2008).
DATA COLLECTION
• Personalized the discussion for the data collection
• Use authors to support some statements
• Identify the steps done using transition markers ( first…then…
and…second…third…finally )
• Establish the statement how “Triangulation of data” was done
• One and a half page
SAMPLE (DATA COLLECTION)
The following steps were employed in gathering the data:
First, through purposive sampling technique, the participants were
identified. They were requested to sign a consent form and agree to the
condition stipulated that their participation is voluntary and that they were
willing to impart their knowledge as needed in the study.
Second, the participants were given an orientation about the study and
were asked to participate through a focus group interview as a means of data
collection. The process started with an introductory phase, in which the
moderator welcomes the participants, outlines the purpose of the discussion
and sets the parameters of the interview in terms of length and confidentiality.
Researcher also spent some time explaining why they recorded the interview
and what sort of technical issues this raises in a group discussion (particularly
talking one at a time).
Finally, it is important to emphasize that the discussion is about personal
views and experiences and therefore there are no right or wrong answers
(Dornyei, 2007).
DATA ANALYSIS
• Personalized the discussion for the data analysis
• Use authors to support some statements
• Identify the steps done using transition markers ( first…then…
and…second…third…finally )
• highlight how transcribing was done
• One and a half page
SAMPLE (DATA ANALYSIS)
The answer of the participants were analyzed using thematic analysis.
Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing and reporting pattern or themes with a
data (Boyatzis, 1998; Roulston, 2001). Using thematic analysis on this study is very
helpful because it is flexible and a useful research tool that can probably grant a
substantial, complex, and rich account of the data. As suggested by Boyatzis
(1998), I performed the following steps in analyzing the data as to mention:
familiarize data, generate initial codes, search for themes, review the themes,
define and name themes, and construct the report.
Data reduction was used in analyzing the data, which means deleting
unnecessary data and modifying them into a useful material for the study so that
many readers can easily understand it (Namey et al, 2007; Atkinsol and Delamont,
2006; Suter, 2012). In this method, I asked the help of an expert, a data analyst
particularly in handling, sorting, and organizing voluminous qualitative data for me
to merge, manage, sort, and categorize data in easier way.
TRUSTWORTHINESS
• Personalize discussion
• Divide sections of discussion using the four elements
• Credibility
• Dependability
• Conformability
• Transferability
• After discussing how each element was addressed (personalized statements) cite authors
to support the claim
SAMPLE (TRUSTWORTHINESS)
When I conducted the qualitative research, I put into account the responses of my informants. I
also meticulously consider all the details of the data. I checked and rechecked all the
transcriptions and the importance of the data that relate to each other on their themes.
To establish trustworthiness and credibility in the study, Creswell and Miller (2000) suggested
the choice of legitimacy of the procedures. The discussions about trustworthiness are
governed by the research lens and its paradigm assumptions that can help the procedures in
the study. I contend that in this study, the plausibility was determined by the response of the
informants. Silverman (2007) posed the questions on “Does it matter?” and “How is the
credibility be sustained and recognized?”
Credibility is an evaluation of whether or not the research findings represent a “credible”
conceptual interpretation of the data drawn from the participants’ original data according to
Lincoln & Guba (1985). To address credibility, I used three techniques. First, I presented the
credibility of the experiences as an intent of truthfully illustrating and knowing the facts which
are phenomenon in which my participants are included. Second, in designing the research
procedure, I conducted a focus group discussion which extracted ideas on the evolution of gay
lingo in schools and also its process and systems how it is being used. Third, I deliberately
asked the informants to lists gay words they used during conversations and compared them
with the gay words used in the simulation. My intention here was to create layers of data from
each participant.
Transferability is the degree to which the findings of this inquiry can apply or transfer
beyond the bounds of the project according to Lincoln & Guba, (1985). To address
transferability in this study, I have included in the Appendix about several of the data
analysis documents used to give answer to the research question in order to gain
access to the possible inquiry. This will give other researchers the facility to transfer
the conclusions or recommendation as bases for further study.

Dependability is an assessment of the quality of the integrated processes of data


collection, data analysis, and phenomenal explanation. Confirmability is a measure
of how well the inquiry’s findings are supported by the data collected according to
Lincoln & Guba (1985) To address the issues of dependability and confirmability in
this study, I banked on an audit trail of the participants responses wherein their identity
were treated with confidentially. After the video and audion tape was transcribed, the
text were given back to the respondents for authentication and were asked to sign a
verification form. For confirmability, I asked the audit of a competent peer who is a
language teacher and a Master in Applied Linguistics in Australia. After the completion
of my data analysis, the results in Chapter Four, and the discussions in Chapter Five,
my auditor had assessed carefully my audit trail with original transcripts from the
interview, data analysis documents. The auditor had assessed the dependability and
confirmability of the study by signing the verification letter.
ETHICAL CONSIDERATION
• Personalized statements with authors to support in
addressing ethical consideration in the conduct of the
research
• Establish the use of the “Informed Consent”
• Discuss the how “Confidentiality” was addressed
• Emphasize how benefits outweigh the risks
SAMPLE (ETHICAL CONSIDERATION)
The main concerns of my study were individuals who are custody on the code of ethics,
they are teachers and in general, they are professionals. Therefore, I have to ensure their
safety, give full protection so that they will not lose their trust to me. I followed ethical
standards in conducting this study as pointed by (Boyatzis, 1998; Mack et al, 2005), these
are the following: respect for persons, beneficence, justice, consent and confidentiality.
Respect for persons needs an obligation of the researcher not to exploit the
weaknesses of the research participants. Self-sufficiency was avoided in order to maintain
friendship, trust, and confidence among the participants and the researcher. Before hand, I
asked permission from the Schools Division Superintendent in elementary where data
collection belongs to. Next, I also sought permission from the different school heads of the
research participants before conducting the research (Creswell, 2012). This was done to pay
respect for the individuals concerned in the study.
Consent is another most important way of showing respect to persons during research
(Creswell, 2012). This is to let all participants became aware on the purpose and objectives
of the research study that they are going to involve. Written consent was provided for them
to get their approval. After getting their nod, they have actively participated the in-depth
interviews and focus group discussions. Of course, they were informed on the results and
findings of the study.
SAMPLE (ETHICAL CONSIDERATION)
Beneficence requires a commitment of minimizing risks to the research participants rather
maximizing the profits that are due to them. Anonymity of the interviewee was kept in order not to
put each participant into risks. At all times, participants were protected, so every files of
information were not left unattended or unprotected (Bricki and Green, 2007).
Confidentiality towards the results and findings including the safeguard of the participants,
coding system were used. Meaning, the participants’ identities were hidden (Maree and Van Der
Westhuizen, 2007). As recommended by Maree and Van Der Westhuizen (2007), all materials
including videotapes, encoded transcripts, notes, and others should be destroyed after the data
were being analyzed. Some of the informants were hesitant to be interviewed at first because
they were afraid what to say but because of my reassurance to them in regards to the
confidentiality of their responses, they later gave me the chance and showed comfort in
answering the interview questions. I was extra careful with my questions and due respect was
given importance to this study.
Justice requires a reasonable allocation of the risks and benefits as results of the research.
It is very important to acknowledge the contributions of all the participants as they generally part
of the success of the research. They must be given due credits in all their endeavors (Bloom and
Crabtree, 2006). They were not able to spend any amount during the interview. Sensible tokens
were given to them as a sign of recognition to their efforts on the study. I am hoping that through
this study, they will be set free into whatever negative experiences they had as they teach non-
readers and maintain a good name into what positive contributions they could offer in this study.
CHAPTER 4

Results
RESULTS
• Present the results base on the arrangements of the research questions.
• First part, preliminary discussions on how the data was gathered, the sample
of the study, process
• Discuss the Categorization of Data
• Present results by themes
• Provide sample quotations of the theme with the file name
• Note: Purely presentation of results no discussion
• Should be comprehensive
• Provide Table for themes generated
SAMPLE (RESULTS) OPENING STATEMENT
This chapter is segregated into four parts. The first part is all about the data of the participants
from which the qualitative data were assembled. The second part discusses the data analysis dealings
and the steps in the classifications of the emergent themes collected from the in- depth interviews and
focus group discussion of the participants. The third part deals with the answers to the in- depth
interviews and the focus group discussion questions under each research problem. Lastly, part four
includes the outline of responses from the different informants.
Participants
Key informants. There were ten key informants in this study, all of them were women who are all
teaching public elementary non- readers in far- flung schools of Mati City Division. They have different
teaching experiences of which six months are the youngest while nineteen years is the oldest in the
service. They were selected based on the location of the school where they are assigned. These
schools are said to be far- flung, far away from the central office, mountainous, and the means of
transportation is at- risk. The social experiences of these informants being assigned in far- flung
schools would be a lens in resolving issues and concerns about teaching non- readers. The participants
were given pseudonyms in order to preserve confidentiality and privacy as presented in Table 1.
Focus Group. A focus group discussion was conducted with seven participants, all of them were
female teachers handling non- readers. All of them were from the same school but most of them were
living in the Poblacion commuting everyday back and forth. The teaching experiences of these
participants in the focus group discusion ranged from one year to nineteen years. The discussion was
conducted to achieve more insights and to develop social constructions among the participants on the
issue of handling non- readers in a far- flung school. The original names of the participants were not
mentioned vividly instead, pseudonyms were used to make their identity obscure. They were presented
on Table 1 according to their number.
SAMPLE (RESULTS)
Categorization of Data
Upon accomplishing the in- depth interviews and the focus group discussion, data from
the audio- tape recordings were directly transcribed and for those answers in vernacular
were carefully translated into English. Following the steps suggested by Boyatzis (1998), I
first watched the videos and listened cautiously to the sound recordings. This was to
transform the data into texts and so that it would be easier for me to code my data later.
Three steps were being taken during the data analysis that consists of data reduction, data
display, drawing conclusion and verification. These were done in order to identify core and
essential themes about the phenomenon under investigation (Burns and Grove, 2007).
To delete unnecessary data from the transcription, data reduction was employed to
convert those data into essential and logical material, simply understood by many
(Moustakas, 1994; Creswell, 2012). Thematic analysis was the approach used in pairing and
separating data, a way of sorting and categorizing. Through data reduction, the lengthy and
large volumes of qualitative data gathered came out consolidated and manageable, easier to
control and understood. I also asked for assistance from a professional who was expert on
analyzing data.
SAMPLE (RESULTS)
Sex Talk. The reasons why gays use gay lingo would identify not only the evolution of gay

lingo in schools but also the frequency of its influence. Its influence and addictive qualities

made a mark not only among the gay community but also in pop culture. Gays use gay lingo to

have a sense of confidentiality when they discuss topics about sex. The informants mentioned

that:

Gay 1: Yes…we talk about people…or when we talk about sex…hahahah


Gay 5: Specially that…
Gay 6: Agree….binayot jud na…(FGD4)

Gay 1: To make it confidential…


Interviewer: To make it confidential…What was the thing that make it confidential?
Gay 1: Kanang kuan…sex affair…kanang all about boys…yeah
Interviewer: Sex?

Gay 4: Most of the time…(FGD1)


SAMPLE TABLE
Experiences of Students Engaged in Child Labor

Essential Themes Thematic Statements


Pressing Need for Labor Have to work to help parents
Have to work to buy personal needs and
school projects
Underpayment of Services Receiving small salary
Aware of being underpaid
Delayed salary
Unhealthy Physical Condition Vulnerability to accidents and injuries
Sickly
Feeling week no energy
CHAPTER 5

Discussion and Conclusion


DISCUSSIONS OF THE RESULTS

• First Paragraph should contain scope of the study and general


objective of the study
• Second paragraph should contain justification of the qualitative
design used with reference to authors
• Personal statements
• Present discussion based on the declarative form of the
research questions.
• Discussions should be supported with authors
• Themes generated should be highlighted within the discussion
SAMPLE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH
This chapter deals with the discussions and conclusion of the major themes and analysis, which were

drawn from the research questions.


This phenomenological study was able to capture the social meanings of the participants on handling non-
readers from far- flung public elementary schools. Phenomological study is very much concern on the human
perception of events or phenomena created from the concrete proceedings in the real world (Creswell, 2007). These
concrete proceedings are given “breath” based from the experiences of the participants involved in this study through
lengthy discussions for phenomological study describes the common meaning of the “lived experiences” for several
individuals about a concept or phenomenon (Creswell, 2012)
This study supports the theory of social representation concerning its potency in understanding human beings’
meaning- making. Using the theory as a lens also helps give a clearer picture of the understanding of various groups
about a social phenomenon. The results have added to the growing knowledge concerning the value of handling non-
readers in far- flung schools. Knowing how those teachers handling non- readers in their day- to- day activities
socially understand the framework is a valuable feedback to the Department of Education.
Phenomenological qualitative approach is perfect in explaining sensitive issues such as handling non- readers
in public elementary classes from far- flung scools. Bracketing is taken into consideration to look into the things to
discover (Ariola, 2006). It is in this structure of situation that 17 participants, 10 from the in- depth interviews and
seven for the focus group discussion were asked to contribute and share their experiences with handling non-
readers, as well as their insights and views to what had happened to them. All of them are currently teaching from
the far- flung schools of Banaybanay District, Mati City Division. The participants are teachers handling non- readers
in different grade levels in the elementary.
SAMPLE DISCUSSION WITH THEMES
Experiences of Psychologically Distressed Public Secondary School Teachers
The strongest theme in the first research question pointed by all informants, which means that
students’ misbehavior is the most common cause of teachers-participants distress. Based on this
study, it is displayed through the different acts of students such as: being hooked in computer games,
cellphones, and other gadgets; bullying; too much noisy inside the classroom; not cleaning the room;
chatting while teacher is explaining; never listening or paying attention to teacher’s discussion; fighting
back the teacher; and always late or absent from the class. This is supported by the several studies,
that students’ misbehavior are disturbing behaviors in the classroom are intolerable; stress provoking;
and maintaining discipline in the classroom is a main source of teacher’s stress. It is also called
discipline problem or misconduct, which refers to externalizing behaviors that violate rules and
regulations, disturb the classroom order, and disrupt teaching and learning process (Johnson &
Fullwood, 2006; Kyriacou, 2001; Vazsonyi & Huang, 2010).
Students’ misbehavior causes psychological distress among teachers because upon
engagement, they pass the states of frustration and anger towards their students. Based on Sternberg’s
theory of anger, that it is feeling mad in response to frustration which is also the feeling we get when we
do not get what we expect, and these negative feelings are quick conditioned responses which our
brain does not check for accuracy (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2008; Halperin, et al., 2011).
IMPLICATIONS
• Discuss how the study would benefit the discipline
• It should be based on the following elements:

• Implication for Practice


• Implication for Future Researchaccouhould be
discussed
SAMPLE
Implications in Language Teaching

The result of the analyses in the linguistic features (phonology, morphology, semantics

and syntax) could be used for teaching on the influence of language in social context. It

could also be helpful in explaining how subgroups in society could develop their own

language to communicate with each other. This will also be helpful on explaining how

language is affected by situations and how words could be associated to form new words.

The results would also concretize the structure of gay lingo. This will also motivate other

learning institutions in the country to study the gay lingo that developed in their locality.

They could use the classifications made on each linguistic feature as reference in

conducting their own study.


SAMPLE
Implication for Future Research

The result in the focus group discussion gave an overview on how gay lingo evolves in the academic

community. Its evolution was traced back on the stream of influence it has to the community where it is

being used. Gay lingo defines being gay. It gives a sense of identity for a homosexual who longs for respect

from a society where he belongs. The evolution of gay lingo is much deeper and should be given credit by

conducting further studies.

A larger community as the setting for further research would be relevant to give wider perspective as

to how it evolves in the society. The informants could be upgraded to gays belonging to the working class.

Finding out the difference of how gays used gay lingo from those who were working in salons,

establishments, companies and high esteemed professions. It would also be beneficial to find out how gays

are treated in communities to find whether this affected on their usage of gay lingo. Another study could be

attributed on the linguistic features of gay lingo in different areas whether they are distinctive or similar.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
• Final Statement
• Personalized
• Discuss the experience as you conducted the research
Concluding Remarks

When I first conceptualized my qualitative research, I hesitated. I


contemplated that this research would raise controversy and would do me harm
than good. I originally considered of having a simple dissertation title so that I
could finish early. I spent countless hours and sleepless nights just to come up
with a simple title for my dissertation. But a segment in a television show made
me change my perception. The segment featured gays, their lives, their passion
for beauty pageants and their sparkling personalities. I was not actually satisfied
watching the segment. I felt sad that the only topic they could discuss is on how
desperate gays wanted to be like women.
Beyond every feminine dress they wear, beyond every makeup they put on,
beyond every sway of the hips when they walk is an incredible story. A story that
was screaming so loud in a voiceless tone. A story that breaks boundaries yet no
one cared to pay attention. This story can be told on their own tongue, on their
own words, and on their own language. And this e story is what I want to share in
my study. I felt so passionate in doing this scholarly work. It became my calling.
In sociolinguistics, language is culture and I could say that gay lingo is
definitely gay culture which is unique and distinctive. Gay lingo has always been
an expression of a gay’s blissful feelings, erotic emotions, and even his poignant
defeat. It is a specialize language that truly defined a gays culture: A culture full of
color and life.
DOCUMENTS NEEDED
• Permission to Conduct the Study
• Letter to the Participants of the Study
• Informed Consent/ Consent Form
• Interview Guide (IDI and FGD)
• Participants’ Verification Certificate/Form
• Archival Log
• Archival Data Sheet
• Note Taker Form and Field Note
MAKING THE TITLE
Be Creative….

Sample Titles:
Morpho-Semantic Analysis of Gay Lingo: A PHENOMENOLOGY

“I Am Not Afraid”: A phenomenological Study on Krashen’s Affective Filter Hypothesis

Broken But Not Shattered: Voices of Single Mothers

“I Want To be Heard”: A Phenomenological Study on Rights of Gays


DATA ANALYSIS
Researchers’ Task
• Group the transcribed data per Research Questions
• Group the similar quotations (statements) taken from the interview
• Use an envelop to keep the similar quotations per research question
Note: Always keep a file of the data collected (soft and hard copy), should be in a filer

Data Analyst’s Task


• Interpret the quotations grouped in the envelop per research questions
• Interview the researchers on the process of the interview and note the important details in data
collection
• Ask for observations, notations and journals if needed
• After analyzing the data, determine the themes per research question
• Explain the theme generated to the researchers and provide sample on how to make the tables
Note: The data analyst could make multiple meetings depending on the saturation of the analysis
SAMPLE OF COMPUTER PROGRAMS
• Atlas ti
• QSR Nvivo
• HyperRESEARCH
• MAXqda

Note: Computer Programs could help save time but is limited on arranging
codes of transcribed data with similar coding features of quotations (themes)