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Starter – Brainstorm

What are the main elements that


make up the human body?
4%

3%

n s ion: do
e 10%
Ext lecules
a t mo ments
Wh se ele t he
h e in
t w ith
m
for body?
18%

65%
6/15/19

Structure of Biological
Molecules
Ex
Na tensi
Carbohydrates m
sim e anot n:
fou ple su her
o

nd g
i n f ar
ruit
• Long chains of simple sugars
• Glucose is a simple sugar
(monosaccharide)
• When 2 glucose join together maltose is
formed (disaccharide)
• When lots of glucose join together
starch, glycogen or cellulose is formed
(polysaccharide)
Glycosidic bonds
E xt
Wh ensio
Lipids bet
a
dif t’s th :
f
wee erenc e
n

nf e
oils at sa
? nd

• Most lipids in the body are made up of


triglycerides
• Their basic unit is 1x glycerol and 3x
fatty acids
• The fatty acids vary in size and
structure
1 x Glycerol 3 x fatty acids

Ester bonds
Wh Ext
ich ens
do extr ion:

R
Proteins con ALL p a elem
ta r
and in tha oteins nt
e
lipi t
ds carb
don s
’t?
• Long chains of amino acids
• There are over 20 different amino acids

• The amino acids can be arranged in any


order, resulting in hundreds of
thousands different proteins
• When amino acids join together
proteins are formed

Peptide bonds
Plenary
Use your marking grid to peer
assess someone else’s work and leave
it with them.
Criteria Details Achieved
Diagram See white board.

Function Main fuel for supplying cells with energy via respiration

Name of monomers Simple sugars. Eg glucose

Name of polymer Polysaccharides. Eg Starch and Glycogen and Cellulose

Location of chemical bond Between each sugar unit.

Name of chemical bond Glycosidic bond

Elements present Carbon. Hydrogen. Oxygen


Starter
• Get your whiteboards ready to answer
the following questions:

• Keep a tally in the bottom corner of how


many questions you answer correctly
(it’s out of 3)
The name’s Bond….
…but which Bond???

Name the bond formed when amino acids


join together

PEPTIDE BOND
The name’s Bond….
…but which Bond???

Name the bond formed when glucose


molecules join together

GLYCOSIDIC BOND
The name’s Bond….
…but which Bond???

Name the bond formed between a glycerol


molecule and the fatty acids

ESTER BOND
FOOD TESTING

Glucose and starch tests


6/15/19

Lesson Objectives:
1. Name the food tests used for
glucose and starch
2. Describe tests for glucose and
starch
3. Carry out practical to test for
glucose and starch
Testing for starch
• Iodine is used to test for starch in food
samples

• A positive test = yellow to blue/black

• A negative test = stays yellow


Testing for Glucose
• Benedict’s solution is used to test for
glucose
• A positive test =
green/yellow/orange/brick red
• A negative test = stays blue
Safety
• Wear aprons and goggles throughout

• Care of glassware

• Care of hot water

• Don’t eat the food…

• Be aware of any allergies


Recording your results

Food sample Starch present (x or ) Glucose present (x or )


Bread
Cake
Shredded Wheat
Dried milk
Cottage cheese
Yoghurt
Extension:
Write a simple conclusion Can you identify any
on which foods contained patterns in your
starch and/or glucose results?
Starter – True or False
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen are found in Lipids and Carbohydrates
Glycosidic bonds are found in Lipids
Ester bonds are found in Proteins
Protein is a polymer
Fat is an immediate energy source
An Amino Acid is a polymer
Meat, Fish and Eggs contain carbohydrates
Starch is Insoluble
Glucose is Soluble
Starch and glycogen are a monomers
6/15/19

Enzymes
6/15/19

Lesson Objectives:
1. Define the term catalyst and enzyme.
2. Describe the role of enzymes in
catalysing reactions in living cells
3. State two factors that affect the
rate of an enzyme controlled reaction.
4. Describe the effect of two factors on
the rate of an enzyme controlled
reactions.
Discuss:
i. Meaning of the word catalyst.

ii. Link between enzymes and catalysts

iii. Function of enzymes

iv. 55 000 different enzymes in the


body….think up as many metabolic
reactions as possible.
Enzymes
Add as many ideas as you can about enzymes:
Examples What are they?
What do they
do?

What type of Enzymes


molecule are
they? Where are they
What processes are found?
they involved in?
Definition:
A catalyst is a chemical that speeds up
the rate of a chemical reaction without
being used up. Enzymes are biological
catalysts. Enzymes speed up the rate of
chemical reactions inside the body /
metabolic reactions.
Enzyme structure
Products
Substrate
Substrate
Substrate
Molecule
Molecule has
tobroken
bethe
down
exact
brokeninto
shape
smaller
down for this
pieces
particular enzyme
Substrate
Enzyme-substrate complex
A substrate fits exactly
into the active site of the Active Site
enzyme Releases
Site
Location the products
shape
on
which nowhere
matches
enzyme longer
that offit into
the active
reaction site. Now free
substrate
occurs
Enzyme to bind with another
t en s ion: substrate molecule
Ex s this
d oe
What anism
mech ou of?
in d y
re m
Breaker Enzymes
Builder Enzymes
How enzymes work:
Animation

Task:
Watch this animation.
Create your own
storyboard on how
enzymes work
Key words:
Enzyme, substrate, active
site, lock and key,
enzyme-substrate
complex, product
Catalase Plenary
•  
Hydrogen peroxide is an unstable colourless
liquid H2O2. It ‘decomposes’ to form water and
oxygen:

This reaction can be sped up with a catalyst or


an enzyme – e.g. catalase, which is found in living
tissue
Catalase Plenary
Living tissue Maximum froth height (mm)
Liver 130
Muscle 10
Apple 1
Potato 8
Boiled liver 2
Tube with H2O2 only 0
• Which tissue do you think contained the most
catalase?
• Can you explain the result for boiled liver?
Starter
In pairs discuss where in the body would
you find enzymes involved in digestion

e n sion :
Ext n am e
o u
Can y zymes?
es e en
t h
The Effect of temperature on enzyme
action

LOs

• Carry out practical work to reveal the


effect of temperature on enzyme action

• Be able to describe the experiment


Enzymes build/break molecules and speed
up reactions in living things

Amylase is found in saliva


• Amylase breaks
long starch
molecules down
into small glucose
molecules.
• Only the small
molecules can be
absorbed in
digestion
The rate of an enzyme controlled reaction is
affected by temperature

At low temperatures enzyme controlled reactions go


slowly because the molecules have low kinetic energy.
The rate of an enzyme controlled reaction is
affected by temperature

• When temperature increases the reaction also


increases as the molecules have more kinetic energy

But this only occurs up to


the optimum temperature
(usually about 40oC)

The temperature at
which the rate of
reaction is fastest is
known as the optimum
temperature
Rate of reaction of an enzyme reaction changes
at different temperatures

Optimum temperature

Molecules gain Enzyme


Rate kinetic energy is denaturing
Of
Reaction

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Temperature/oC
The rate of an enzyme controlled reaction is
affected by temperature

After the optimum temperature the heat causes the


enzyme to denature
The enzyme changes shape and the active site no longer
matches the shape of the substrate molecule
The rate of an enzyme controlled reaction is
affected by temperature

Equipment:
20ᵒC 30ᵒC 40ᵒC 50ᵒC
8 x test tubes
1
Iodine
4xpipettes 2

2x spotting tiles 3
Marker pen
Stop clock 4

Amylase solution 5

6
Method
Hypothesis: temperature affects the rate
at which an enzyme works
• 4 test tubes – 5cm3 starch 20 30 40 50
• 4 test tubes – 1cm3 amylase
• Label and put one of each
into each water bath (20°C,
30°C, 40°C, 50°C)
• Two spotting tiles next to
each other with two drops
of iodine in each.
Method
• Add the amylase to the starch – shake
to mix – start stopclock
• Immediately take a pipette of the 20 30 40 50
starch/ amylase from a water bath 1
back to your bench
2
• Add a drop to the first well for
that temperature 3

• Each minute add a drop to the next


4
well for that temperature
• Record time taken for starch 5
solution to stop turning the iodine 6
black (all digested)
Results
• Copy this table and record your results
as you go
Temperature
20 30 40 50
(ᵒC)

Time taken for


starch to be
digested
(mins)

1/Time
Prep

• Draw a graph to represent your results


• Use 1/Time as your dependent variable
(y-axis)
• Temperature as your independent
variable (x-axis)
The activity and shape of enzymes is also
affected by pH
• Enzymes prefer to work at an optimum pH. Outside of its
pH range the enzyme is denatured.

Optimum pH
pepsin amylase

Rate
Of
Reaction

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
pH