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# GROUP 5

POWERPOINT
PRESENTATION
MODULE 1 – DESCRIBING
MOTION
WHAT IS MOTION?
✘ Motion is a change in position of an object
over time.
✘ Motion is mathematically described in terms
of displacement, distance, velocity,
acceleration, time, and speed. ... An object's
motion cannot change unless it is acted
upon by a force, as described.
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EXAMPLE

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DISPLACEMENT
✘ A displacement is the length of the
shortest distance from the initial to the
final position. It quantifies both the distance and
direction of an imaginary motion along a straight
line from the initial position to the final position of
the point.

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DISTANCE
✘ Distance is a scalar quantity that refers
to "how much ground an object has
covered" during its motion.

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VELOCITY
✘ Velocity is quickness of motion or action. A
synonym is celerity; a simpler word is speed. In
physics, velocity specifically refers to the
measurement of the rate and direction of change
in position of an object.

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ACCELERATION
✘ Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of
an object with respect to time. An object's
acceleration is the net result of all forces acting
on the object, as described by Newton's Second
Law. The SI unit for acceleration is metre per
second squared (m/s−2).

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TIME
✘ A duration or relation of events expressed in
terms of past, present, and future, and measured
in units such as minutes, hours, days, months, or
years. A certain period during which something
is done.

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SPEED
✘ Speed is the distance traveled per unit of time. It
is how fast an object is moving. Speed is the
scalar quantity that is the magnitude of the
velocity vector. It doesn't have a direction. A
higher speed means an object is moving faster.

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MODULE 2 – WAVES AROUND
YOU
WHAT ARE WAVES?

## ✘ A wave is a disturbance that transfers

energy through matter or space, with little
or no associated mass transport (Mass
transfer). Waves consist of oscillations or
vibrations of a physical medium or a field,
around relatively fixed locations.
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TWO MAIN TYPES OF
WAVES
✘ MECHANICAL WAVE - Mechanical
waves propagate through a physical
matter, whose substance is being
deformed.
✘ ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE -
Electromagnetic waves do not require a
periodic oscillations of electrical and
magnetic fields originally generated by
11 charged particles, and can therefore
PARTS OF A WAVE

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TRANSVERSE WAVES
✘ A transverse wave is a moving wave
that consists of oscillations occurring
perpendicular (right angled) to the
direction of energy transfer (or the
propagation of the wave)

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LONGITUDINAL WAVES
✘ Longitudinal waves are waves in which
the displacement of the medium is in the
same direction as, or the opposite
direction to, the direction of propagation
of the wave.

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SURFACE WAVES
✘ In seismology, several types of surface waves are
encountered. Surface waves, in this mechanical
sense, are commonly known as either
Love waves (Lwaves) or Rayleigh waves. A
seismic wave is a wave that travels through the Earth,
often as the result of an earthquake or explosion.

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SINUSOIDAL WAVEFORMS

## ✘ A sine wave or sinusoid is a

mathematical curve that describes a
smooth periodic oscillation. A sine wave
is a continuous wave. It is named after
the function sine, of which it is the
graph.

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HOW TO MEASURE THE
WAVELENGTH OF A WAVE?
✘ A wavelength is a measure of distance between
two identical peaks or crests -- high points -- or
between two identical troughs -- low points -- in
a wave.

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CREST TO
CREST

TROUGH TO
TROUGH

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WHAT IS FREQUENCY
✘ In physics and chemistry, the term frequency is
most often applied to waves, including light,
sound, and radio. Frequency is the number of
times a point on wave passes a fixed reference
point in one second.

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HOW TO MEASURE
FREQUENCY OF A WAVE
✘ Divide the velocity of the wave (V) by the wavelength
converted into meters (λ) in order to find the frequency (f).
will have completed your calculation for the frequency of the
wave. Write your answer in Hertz, Hz, which is the unit for
frequency.

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HOW TO MEASURE SPEED
OF A WAVE

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MODULE 3 - SOUND
✘ In physics, sound is a vibration that typically
propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a
transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In
human physiology and psychology, sound is the
reception of such waves and their perception by the
brain.
✘ Sound travels faster in solid because the molecules
are closer together, while in gas it travels slower
because the molecules are far apart. Sound cannot
travel in a vacuum.
✘ Vibration causes sound. Vibration is a back and forth
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movement. To produce sound an object must be
vibrating.
SPEED OF SOUND IN DIFFERENT
MATERIALS

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FACTOR THAT AFFECT THE
SPEED OF SOUND

✘ Atmospheric pressure
✘ Relative humidity

✘ Atmospheric
temperature

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ATMOSPHERIC
PRESSURE
✘ Atmospheric pressure is defined as the
force per unit area exerted against a
surface by the weight of the air above
that surface.

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RELATIVE HUMIDITY
✘ Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of
water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water
at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on
temperature and the pressure of the system of
interest. The same amount of water vapor results in
higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air.

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ATMOSPHERIC
TEMPERATURE
✘ Atmospheric temperature is a measure of
temperature at different levels of the Earth's
atmosphere. It is governed by many factors,
including incoming solar radiation, humidity and
altitude.

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CHARACTERISTICS AND
PROPERTIES OF SOUND

## ✘ PITCH - the quality of a sound

governed by the rate of vibrations
producing it; the degree of highness or
lowness of a tone.

## ✘ LOUDNESS – it is how soft or how

intense the sound is as perceived by
the ear and interpreted by the brain.
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HUMAN EAR
✘ The ear is the organ of hearing and, in
mammals, balance. In mammals, the
ear is usually described as having
three parts—the outer ear, middle ear
and the inner ear. The outer ear
consists of the pinna and the ear
canal.

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PARTS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE
EAR
✘ Hearing is the process by which humans use their ears to detect and perceive sounds.
Ears are important for hearing and for controlling a sense of position and balance. Each
ear is divided into three sections:

## ✘ The outer ear.

✘ The middle ear.
✘ The inner ear.
✘ The middle and inner parts of the ear are located in hollow spaces on either side of the
head within the temporal bones of the skull.

## ✘ To hear sound, the ear has to do three basic things:

✘ Direct the sound waves into the hearing part of the ear.
✘ Sense the fluctuations in air pressure.
✘ Translate these fluctuations into an electrical signal that the brain can understand.
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✘ The pinna or ear shell is the shell-like part of the external ear, and it is
made of cartilage and skin. The pinna directs sound waves from the
outside into the external auditory canal (ear canal), which in turn
channels sound waves to the tympanic membrane (known as the
eardrum), causing it to vibrate
✘ The middle ear is an air-filled space that contains three tiny bones
known as ossicles which transmit sound. The bones are known
individually (according to their shapes) as the:
Malleus (hammer).
Incus (anvil).
Stapes (stirrup).

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✘ The Eustachian tube is a narrow tube that connects the middle ear to the back of
the nose and throat. During swallowing, the Eustachian tube opens up to allow air
into the middle ear, so that air pressure on either side of the tympanic membrane
is the same.
✘ The cochlea, in the shape of a snail, which is involved in hearing. The round
window (fenestra cochlea) is a membrane that connects the cochlea to the middle
ear. It helps dampen the vibrations in the cochlea
✘ The vestibular system (consisting of the semicircular canals, saccule and utricle),
which is responsible for maintaining balance and a sense of position.

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HOW MUCH HERTZ CAN A
HUMAN HEAR

## ✘ Experiments have shown that a healthy

young person hears all sound
frequencies from approximately 20 to
20,000 hertz." "The maximum range of
human hearing includes sound
18,000 waves, or cycles, per second."
"The general range of hearing for young
people is 20 Hz to 20 kHz."
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FREQUENCIES AND
WAVES
✘ ULTRASONIC FREQUENCIES - The term "ultrasonic" applied to
sound refers to anything above the frequencies of audible sound, and
nominally includes anything over 20,000 Hz. Frequencies used for
medical diagnostic ultrasound scans extend to 10 MHz and beyond.
✘ INFRASONIC FREQUENCIES - sometimes referred to as low-
frequency sound, is sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz or
cycles per second, the "normal" limit of human hearing. Hearing
becomes gradually less sensitive as frequency decreases, so for
humans to perceive infrasound, the sound pressure must be
sufficiently high
✘ ULTRASONIC WAVES - Ultrasonic waves are sound waves
transmitted above the human-detectable frequency range,
usually above 20,000 Hz. They are used by some animals
and in medical or industrial technological devices.
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LOUDNESS AND
INTENSITY
✘ SOUND INTENSITY – Sound intensity level also
known as acoustic intensity is defined as the
power carried by sound waves per unit area in a
direction perpendicular to that area.
✘ LOUDNESS - loudness is the subjective
perception of sound pressure.

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MODULE 4 - LIGHT
✘ Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain
portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The
word usually refers to visible light, which is the
visible spectrum that is visible to the human eye
and is responsible for the sense of sight.

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INTENSITY VS DISTANCE FROM
LIGHT SOURCE

## ✘ The intensity or brightness of light

as a function of the distance from
the light source follows an inverse
square relationship. Notice that as
the distance increases, the light
must spread out over a larger
surface and the surface brightness
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decreases.
WHAT IS DISPERSION?
✘ It is a phenomenon in which a prism
separates white light into it’s
component colors.

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SUMMARY
✘ Light has wavelike nature and particle-like
nature. As a wave, it is part of the
electromagnetic waves as the visible spectrum is
also known as white light.
✘ Rainbows are a consequence of dispersion.
✘ White light undergoes dispersion when it passes
through a prism.
✘ The component colors of white light include red,
orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.
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MODULE 5 - HEAT
✘ WHAT IS HEAT?
-heat is an energy that is transferred from
one object to another due to the difference
in their temperature, or simply ‘energy in
transit’.
✘ THERMOMETER
-a thermometer is an apparatus used in
measuring the hotness or coldness of an
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object.
CONDUCTION AND
CONVECTION

## ✘ IT IS A MODE OF HEAT TRANSFER THAT

TAKES PLACE DUE TO THE VIBRATING AND
COLLIDING PARTICLES OF OBJECTS THAT
ARE IN CONTACT.

## ✘ A MODE OF HEAT TRANSFER THAT

TAKES PLACE IN FLUIDS BECAUSE
THEIR PARTICLES CAN MOVE
AROUND.
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CONDUCTIVITY
✘ THE ABILITY OF THE MATERIAL
TO CONDUCT HEAT. THE
HIGHER THE CONDUCTIVITY
OF THE OBJECT, THE MORE IT
CONDUCTS HEAT.

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CONDUCTOR AND
INSULATOR
✘ CONDUCTOR – A MATERIAL THAT ALLOWS
THE TRANSFER OF THERMAL ENERGY
EASILY.

## ✘ INSULATOR – A MATERIAL THAT DOES NOT

ALLOW THE TRANSFER OF THERMAL
ENERGY EASILY.

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✘ A MODE OF HEAT TRANSFER THAT
DOES NOT NEED PARTICLES OR A
MEDIUM TO TAKE PLACE.

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MODULE 6 - ELECTRICITY
✘ WHAT IS ELECTRICITY?
- ALSO KNOWN AS ELECTRICAL, IS THE
PRESENCE AND FLOW OF ELECTRIC CHARGE.
THE WORD ELECTRICITY IS SOMETIMES USED
TO MEAN ELECTRICAL ENERGY. THEY ARE
NOT THE SAME THING– ELECTRICITY IS A
TRANSMISSION MEDIUM FOR ELECTRICAL
ENERGY, LIKE SEA WATER IS A
TRANSMISSION EDIUM FOR WAVE ENERGY.

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✘ TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL
ENERGY CAN OCCUR NATURALLY
ORFORM K BE PRODUCED. IT IS A
FORM OF ENERGY WHICH WE USE
TO POWER MACHINES AND
ELECTRICAL DEVICE.

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✘ WHEN ELECTRICAL CHARGES ARE
NOT MOVING, ELECTRICITY IS
CALLED STATIC ENERGY. WHEN
THE CHARGES ARE MOVING THEY
ARE AN ELECTRIC CURRENT,
SOMETIMES CALLED DYNAMIC
ELECTRICITY.

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✘ GROUNDING – OCCURS WHEN
DISCHARGING IS DONE BY MEANS
OF PROVIDING A PATH BETWEEN
THE CHARGED OBJECT AND A
GROUND.

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✘ POSITIVELY CHARGED IS THE
CHARGE OF THE MATERIAL WHEN
IT LOSES ELECTRONS.

## ✘ NEGATIVELY CHARGED IS THE

CHARGE OF THE MATERIAL WHEN
IT GAINS ELECTRONS

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END OF OUR REPORT

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