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BY :
INDAH PURNAMA DE WI (1704410001)

The four skills can be referred to as Receptive Skills (listening and reading) or
Productive Skills (speaking and writing).
Perhaps the easiest way to start integrating skills in your class is by combining the
receptive and productive skills which are used across the same medium.
For the example, curriculum designers are taking more of a whole language approach
whereby reading is treated as one of two or more interrelated skills. A course that deals
with reading skills, then, will also deal with related listening, speaking, and writing
skills. A lesson in a so-called reading class, under this new paradigm, might include:
• A pre-reading discussion of the topic to activate schemata
• Listening to a lecture or a serics of informative statements about the topic of a passage to
be read
• Focus on,a certain reading strategy, say, scanning
• Writing a paraphrase of a section of the reading passage
The integration of the four skills is the only plausible approach within a
communicative, interactive framework. Most of the interactive techniques
already described or referred to in this book involve the integration of skills.
The following observations support such techniques:
1.Production and reception are quite simply two sides of the same coin; one
cannot split the coin in two.
2. Interaction means sending and receiving messages
3.Written and spoken language often (but not always!) bear a relationship to
each other, to ignore that relationship is to ignore the richness of language.
4.For literate learners, the interrelationship of written and spoken language is
an intrinsically motivating reflection of language and culture and society.

5. By attending primarily to what learners can do with language, and

only secondarily to the forms of language, we invite any or all of
the four skills that are relevant into the classroom arena
6. Often one skill will reinforce another; we learn to speak, for
example, in part by modeling what we hear, and we learn to write
by eximining what we can read
7. Proponents of the whole language approach have shown us that in
the real world of language use, most of our natural performance
involves not only the integration of one or more skills, but
connections between language and the way we think and feel and
Content Based Instructions are integrated learning. The reasons that are the basis of
Content Based Teaching are "the second language is learned most effectively when
used as a medium to deliver information content that is interesting and relevant to
students" (Brinton, Snow & Wesche, 1989: vii).
Here are some examples of content-based curricula:
 Immersion programs for elementary school children
 Sheltered English programs (mostly found at elementary and secondary school
 Writing across the curriculum (where writing skills in secondary schools and
universitics are taught within subject-matter areas like biology, history art, etc.)
 English for Specific Purposes (ESP) (e.g, for enginecring, agriculture,or medicine)
The major principles tying both theme-based and content-
based instruction are :
• Authomaticity
• Meaningful learning
• Intrinsic motivation
• Communicative competence
Closely related to and overlapping content-based and theme-based instruction is the
concept of experiential language learning. Experiential learning includes activities that
engage both left- and right-brain processing, that contextualize language, that integrate
skills, and that point toward authentic, real-world purposes.
Examples of learner-centered experiential techniques include:
1. Hands-on projects (such as nature projects)
2. Computer activities (especially in small groups)
3. Research projects
4. Cross-cultural experiences (camps, dinner groups, etc.)
5. Field trips and other "on-site" visits (such as to a grocery store)
6. Role-plays and simulations
But some teacher-controlled techniques may be considered
• Using props, realia, visuals, show and-tell sessions
• Playing games (which often involve strategy) and singing
• Utilizing media (television, radio, and movies)
Task Based Teaching is a learning model Student-centered. Use of
the Task Based Teaching model in learning can encourage students
active learning (active thinking and doing), collaborative, and
meaningful. Tasks given are in the form of assignments which can
provide an authentic learning experience and contextual. The stages
of Task-Based Learning consist of three stages, namely:
a) Pre-task (Pre-task),
b) In task (During-task), and
c) Post-task (Post-task).