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JEAN WATSON

By: A. Barrell, M. Bradshaw, P. Dolin, J. Dove, C. McCrory, M. Mills, T. Snow


EARLY HISTORY
• Born and raised in West Virginia

• Received the following degrees from the University


of Colorado
• Bachelor of Science in Nursing in 1964
• Masters Degree of Science in 1966
• Doctor of Philosophy in 1973
https://www.papermasters.com/jean-watson-nursing-theory.html

The Philosophy and Science of Caring


was her first book published in 1979
(Black, 2014)

http://libguides.daemen.edu/c.php?g=32927&p=208372
Career Milestones
• Author and co-author of over 20 books
• Past President of the National League of Nursing
• Fellow of American Academy of Nursing Photo by: www.mceyo.com

• Distinguished Professor of Nursing and Chair in Caring Science at the University


of Colorado Health Sciences Center (watsoncaringscience.org, 2015)
• Founding member of International Association in Human Caring and International
Caritas Consortium (watsoncaringscience.org, 2015)
• Founder and Director of the Watson Caring and Science Institute
(watsoncaringscience.org, 2015)
• In 2010 launched the Million nurse Global Caring Field Project (, 2015)
• October 2013 was inducted as a Living Legend by the American Academy of
Nursing (Kelly, 2013)
AWARDS
• The Fetzer Institute Norman Cousins Award (watsoncaringscience.org,2015)
• International Fellowship in Australia (watsoncaringscience.org,2015)
https://www.governmentjobs.com/jobs?keyword=Nursing

• Fulbright Research Award in Sweden (watsoncaringscience.org,2015)


• Holds 10 honorary Doctoral Degrees including 8 International honorary Doctorates
(watsoncaringscience.org,2015)

• 2010 Holistic Nurse of the Year (ahna.org, 2010)

http://www.teamusa.org/usa-canoe-kayak/resources/awards
http://quotesgram.com/dr-jean-watson-quotes/
THE THEORY
Jean Watson’s Theory can be broken down into four
categories.

•1.) The Caritas Processes


•2.) The Transpersonal Caring Relationship
•3.) The Caring Occasion/Caring Moment
•4.) Caring and Healing Model

When looking at this theory of practice, Black informs us that


the emphasis for nursing practice focuses primarily on “How
can I create an environment of trust, understanding, and
openness so that the patient and I can work together in
meeting his or her needs?” (Black, 2014).
CARATIVE FACTORS
• Goal was to provide a framework for the “core of
nursing”
Watson referred to the “core” as the philosophy,
science and art of caring

• Transitioned from Carative Factors to Caritas


Processes as Watson’s ideas and values evolved

• Caritas-comes from the Latin word meaning “to


cherish and appreciate, giving special attention
to, or loving.”

• Builds upon Carative Factors

• Caritas processes openly displays more love and


caring and a deeper human experience (Watson,
2014)
http://carebears.wikia.com/wiki/Take_Care_Bear
ORIGINAL 10 CARATIVE FACTORS
1 .Formation of a humanistic–altruistic system of values

2. Instillation of faith–hope

3. Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others

4. Development of a helping–trusting, human caring relationship

5.Promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings

6. Systematic use of a creative problem solving caring process

7. Promotion of transpersonal teaching– learning

8. Provision for a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, &
spiritual environment

9. Assistance with gratification of human needs

http://mind42.com/public/bdd85724-5aa0-40ca-b956-cf0d61ce1ab9
10. Allowance for existential–phenomenological–spiritual forces (Watson, 2014)
FROM CARATIVE TO CARITAS
1. Formation of a humanistic–altruistic system of values becomes the practice of loving

2. Instillation of faith–hope becomes being authentically present and enabling and


sustaining the deep belief system and subjective life world of self and one being cared
for

3. Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others becomes cultivation of one’s own
spiritual practices and transpersonal self, going beyond ego self, opening to others with
sensitivity and compassion
http://zeroturnaround.com/blog/xrebel-share-because-sharing-is-

4. Development of a helping–trusting, human caring relationship becomes developing caring/

and sustaining a helping–trusting, authentic caring relationship

5. Promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings


becomes being present to, and supportive of, the expression of positive and negative
feelings as a connection with deeper spirit of self and the one being cared for
(authentically listening to another’s story)

6. Systematic use of a creative problem solving caring process becomes creative use of
self and all ways of knowing as part of the caring process; to engage in the artistry of
caring-healing practices (Watson, pg. 325).
CARITAS PROCESSES
7. Promotion of transpersonal teaching learning becomes engaging in genuine
teaching-learning experience that attends to unity of being and meaning, attempting
to stay within others’ frames of reference

8. Provision for a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal,


and spiritual environment becomes creating a healing environment at all levels(a
physical and nonphysical, subtle environment of energy and consciousness, whereby
wholeness, beauty, comfort, dignity, and peace are potentiated)

9. Assistance with gratification of human needs becomes assisting with basic needs,
with an intentional caring consciousness, administering “human care essentials,” which
potentiate wholeness and unity of being in all aspects of care; sacred acts of basic
care; touching embodied spirit and evolving spiritual emergence
Allowance for existential–phenomenological–spiritual forces becomes opening and
attending to spiritual-mysterious and existential dimensions of one’s own life-death; soul
care for self and the one being cared for. “Allowing for miracles.” (Watson, 2014).
http://www.findmemes.com/sharing-is-caring-memes

“We are the light in institutional darkness, and in this caritas model we get to return to
the light of our humanity” - Watson, 2008
THE TRANSPERSONAL CARING
RELATIONSHIP
• This portion of the theory focuses on “the one caring and the one cared
for.” (Cara, 2003). The nurse and patient can develop a deep divine
relationship that blends together and promotes overall health and well-
being.

• This process requires the use of “Actions, words, behaviors, cognition, body
language, feelings, intuition, thought, senses, and the energy field” (Watson
& Woodword, 2010).

• The nurse has a professional as well as a personal obligation to not only see
the patient as more than an object but to also protect and assist with
improving the patient’s dignity. (Cara, 2003)

• The nurse should be using her professional experience to promote healing


and bonding with the patient. This may include the use of various
http://www.findmemes.com/sharing-is-caring-memes communication techniques, both verbal and non-verbal to achieve a
healing and gentle relationship. (Watson & Woodward, 2010)

• The nurse and the patient are transformed together in this relationship.
(Black, 2014).
THE CARING OCCASION/
CARING MOMENT
• This portion of the theory focuses on an actual tangible moment in
time in which the nurse recognizes the connection that is developed
between him/herself and the patient. (Cara, 2003). This moment
dictates the ability for the nurse to have an overall impact on the
patient.

• According to Cara, The Caring Moment “Consists of feelings, bodily


sensations, thoughts, spiritual beliefs, goals, expectations,
environmental considerations, and meanings of one’s perceptions—
all of which are based upon one’s past life history, one’s present
moment, and one’s imagined future.” (Cara, 2003).

• This can occur during various nursing interventions and interactions


http://southernhillsbaptist.tv/the-church-caring/ with each patient.
CARING & HEALING MODEL OF
THEORY
• The nurse is able to help the patient with overall well-
being by assisting them with the release of “disharmony
and blocked energy” (Watson & Woodward, 2010).

• The use of this portion of the theory helps the patient with
overall healing and renewal. (Black, 2014).

http://sujanpatel.com/business/7-ways-to-show-your-
customers-you-care/
• Nurses can impact the patient through “health
promotion, health restoration, and illness prevention”
(Black, 2014).
CREATING THE THEORY (WHY)
• Plan was to bring new meaning and dignity to nursing
• Used concepts from personal and professional experience
• Inducted, grounded, and combined with philosophy, ethical, intellectual,
and experimental background.
• The goal was to enhance the publics view of humanity and life in correlation
with nursing
• Watson’s commitment: professional role and mission of nursing; ethical
covenant with society as sustaining human caring and preserving human
dignity; attending to and helping to sustain human dignity, humanity, and
wholeness in the midst of threats and crises of life and death

http://www.communityclinicofdoorcounty.org/the-healing-project/
CREATING THE THEORY (HOW)
• “Dr. Watson drew parts of her theory from nursing writers like
Florence Nightingale as well as from works of psychologists and
philosophers.” (Theory Description, n.d.)

• “Her theory is one based on the human interactive process that


recognizes the spiritual and ethical dimensions relevant to the
human care process.” (Theory Description, n.d.)
CREATING THE THEORY (HOW)
Dr. Watson states that though her life’s work had been to live out her theory, she did
not fully understand her purpose until she was involved in a freak accident where she
lost her eye. She describes it as:

My soul life journey, purpose and learning transcended my professional world.

“It was only after a traumatic eye injury and uncanny golfing accident with
my grandson, (where I lost my eye, literally, metaphorically and symbolically –
losing my eye/(ego)/ I, did I get it. I had to learn to be still, to surrender to all,
to let go, to learn to receive, to be open to unknown mystery and miracles –
it was the mystic and metaphysical/spiritual practices and inner experiences
that carried me through.

It was this journey of losing my eye and losing my world as I had known it,
including my beloved and devoted husband, who shortly thereafter,
committed suicide –that I awakened and grasped my own writing. I was
given the painful but loving, growing blessings of spiritual mystical
http://healing.about.com/od/crystaltherapy/ss/top-10-
experiences, that I have experienced and learned my oneness with all. I
healing-gemstones.htm
learned that all there is is Love. We are all energy of LOVE.” (Watson, 2015).
CARATIVE FACTORS & NURSING

“Watson’s theory offers a


conceptual approach to care
that is focused on the
nonmedical, human-to-human
caring relationships that are
viewed as the core of nursing
practice.” (Marckx, 1995, p. 46)

https://hsl.osu.edu/mhc/local-nursing-legends https://www.pinterest.com/nursinghistory/evolution-of-the-nursing-uniform/
USING THE CARATIVE
FACTORS…..
• Illness as disharmony
• Carative factor #9: provide assistance with basic human
needs while also designing specific interventions to instill
hope. (Marckx, 1995)

• Humanistic and altruistic values


• Carative factor #1: respecting the patient’s autonomy and
freedom of choice in determination of care. (Marckx, 1995)
http://photobucket.com/images/nursing%20shoes

http://wallpapershidef.com/nursing-cartoon-pictures.html
THE ATTENDING NURSE CARING MODEL
- WATSON, J. & FOSTER, R (2003)

• There is one nurse who oversees care similar


to that of a hospitalist
• The Attending Caring Nurse is responsible for:
• Establishing and maintaining a continuous
caring relationship with their patients
• Providing a comprehensive assessment of
caring needs and concerns
• Creating a plan for comprehensive caring
and healing with the patient and family
• Creating plans for direct communication with
other members of the healthcare team
ensuring continuity. (Watson & Foster, 2003)
Photo courtesy of: https://www.pinterest.com/justinebuckle/babynursebabygirl/
WATSON’S MODEL USED IN PRACTICE: AT
ST. PATRICK’S HOSPITAL SYSTEM IN WESTERN
MONTANA

Photo courtesy of: www.montana.providence.org


HOW NURSES RELATE TO THE
THEORY
 Embrace altruistic values and Practice loving kindness with self and others.
 Instill faith and thope and honor others.
 Be sensiive to self and others by nurturing individual beliefs and practices.
 Develop helping – trusting- caring relationships.
 Promote and accept positive and negative feelings as you authentically
listen to another’s story
 Use creative scientific problem-solving methods for caring decision making.
 Share teaching and learning that addresses the individual needs and
comprehension styles.
 Create a healing environment for the physical and spiritual self which
respects human dignity.
 Assist with basic physical, emotional, and spiritual human needs.
 Open to mystery and Allow miracles to enter.
Nurses seem to just have
compassion in their blood.
Compassion is not a trait that
can be taught. Watson’s Ten
Caritas Processes relate to
nursing in a way that many
other theories may not. Watson
focused on not only the physical
aspect of nursing but providing
spiritual and emotional needs as
well. It is our duty as nurses to
provide not only physical care to
help heal a patient but also to
provide emotional and spiritual
support and to respect a
patient’s religion.
Provision 8
Provision 9 The nurse collaborates Provision 7
The profession of nursing, with other health The nurse, in all roles and
collectively through its professionals and the settings, advances the
professional organizations, public to protect profession through
must articulate nursing human rights, promote research and scholarly
values, maintain the health diplomacy, and inquiry, professional
integrity of the profession, reduce health standards development,
and integrate principle of disparities. and the generation of
social justice into nursing
Provision 1 both nursing and health
and health policy.
The nurse practices policy.
with compassion
and respect for the
inherent dignity,
worth, and unique
attributes of every Provision 6
person. The Ten Caritas The nurse, through
Processes is very similar individual and collective
to our nursing code of effort, establishes,
ethics. As we look at
each provision of the ANA maintains, and improves
Nursing Code of Ethics, the ethical environment
each one relates in some of the work setting and
Provision 2 way to the Ten Caritas conditions of
The nurse’s primary Processes. employment that are
commitment is to
conducive to safe,
the patient,
quality health care.
whether an
individual, family,
group, community,
or population. Provision 3
The nurse Provision 4
promotes, The nurse has authority,
advocates for, and accountability, and Provision 5
responsibility for nursing The nurse owes the same
protects the rights,
practice; makes uties to self as to others,
health, and safety decisions; and takes including the responsibility
of the patient. action consistent with to promote health dand
the obligation to safety, preserve wholeness
promote health and to of character and integrity,
provide optimal care. maintain competence,
and continue personal and
professional growth.

(American Nurses Associtation, 2015)


REFERENCES
American Nurses Association. (2015). ANA Code of Ethics. (2015). Retrieved from
http://www.nursingworld.org/DocumentVault/Ethics_1/Code-of-Ethics-for-Nurses.html.
Black, B. (2014). Professional Nursing Concepts and Challenges. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders.
Cara, C. (2003). A pragmatic view of Jean Watson’s caring theory. International Journal for Human Caring,
7(3), 51-61.
Caring Science Theory & Research. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://watsoncaringscience.org/about-us/caring-
science-definitions-processes-theory/
Kelly, D. (2013, Aug 27). Retrieved from http://www.ucdenver.edu
Lukose, A. (2011). Developing a practice model for watson’s theory of caring. Nursing Science Quarterly,
24(1), 27-30.
Marckx, B. (1995). Watson’s theory of caring: A model for implementation in practice. Journal of Nursing
Care Quality, 9(4), 43-54.
Personal profile: Jean Watson. (2015) Watson Caring Science Institute. Retrieved from
http://watsoncaringscience.org/about-us/jean-bio/personal-profile/
REFERENCES
Schoner, A. (2010, June 24). Holistic Nurse of the Year. Retrieved from American Holistic Nurse Association:
http://anha.org/Home/News- Room/HNY-Award-2010
Theory Description. (n.d.) Jean Watson: Caringscience.
http://jeanwatsoncaringscience.weebly.com/theorydescription.html
Watson Caring Science. (2015). Retrieved from Watson Caring Science Institute:
http://www.watsoncaringscience.org
Watson, J. (2014). Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. (pgs 321-340)
Watson, J (2008). The Philosophy and Science of Caring. Colorado: University Press.
Watson, J., & Foster, R. (2003). The attending nurse caring model: integrating theory, evidence and advanced
caring-healing therapeutics for transforming professional practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12,
360-365.
Watson, J., & Woodward, T. K. (2010). Jean Watson’s theory of human caring. Nursing theories and nursing
practice, 3, 351-369.