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U.S.

-China Meeting on Living Marine Resources


Sea Turtle Workshop

Marine turtle conservation under CITES

---- CAFS research focus

Thanks for:
1. SeaWorld/Busch GardenANIMALS ,http://www.seaworld.org
2. SWOT,http://www.seaturtlestatus.org/
INDEX

 Overview
 Legal Protection
 Sea turtles under CITES
 Awareness and suggestions

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Overview Taxonomy

hawksbill turtle 玳瑁 leatherback turtle 棱皮龟 green turtle 绿海龟 loggerhead turtle 蠵龟,红海龟
(Eretmochelys imbricata) (Dermochelys coriacea) (Chelonia mydas mydas) (Caretta caretta)

olive ridley turtle


太平洋丽龟 black turtle 黑海龟 flatback turtle平背龟
Kemp‘s ridley turtle 肯氏龟
(Lepidochelys olivacea) (Chelonia mydas agassizii) (Natator depressus)
(Lepidochelys kempii)

Source of data: http://www.seaworld.org


Overview Distribution

green sea turtle


(Chelonia mydas mydas)
http://www.seaworld.org/

loggerhead sea turtle


(Caretta caretta)

http://www.seaworld.org
Overview Distribution

olive ridley sea turtle


http://www.seaworld.org
(Lepidochelys olivacea)

hawksbill sea turtle


(Eretmochelys imbricata)
http://www.seaworld.org

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Overview Distribution

leatherback sea turtle


(Dermochelys coriacea) http://www.seaworld.org

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Overview Efforts from
the World
 Establishing and strengthening protected areas around nesting
beaches
 Raising awareness and promoting ecotourism at marine turtle sites
 Local communities involved in and benefit from protecting turtles
and their nests
 Promoting regional and international agreements to conserve
marine turtles
 Lobbying for turtle-friendly fishing practices, such as the use of
turtle excluder devices in nets
 Halting the illegal trade of turtle meat and eggs, through TRAFFIC,
the wildlife trade monitoring network created by WWF and IUCN

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Legal Protection

Convention on International Trade of Endangered


Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

CITES is an international treaty, developed in 1973, to regulate


trade in certain wildlife species. CITES Appendix I includes species
identified as endangered (species faces a very high risk of extinction).
Most efficient convention
Give more concern on marine species in recent year
Some special Methology is on design (IFS, F )

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Legal Protection

Appendices I Appendices II

Cheloniidae Cheloniidae spp *.


Caretta caretta
Chelonia mydas -103
Eretmochelys imbricata
Lepidochelys kempii
Lepidochelys olvacea
Dermochelyidae Dermochelys coriacea

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Legal Protection

China is not party member, but with


MOU signatory
Legal Protection

Appendices I

Appendices II

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Legal Protection
International Union for the Conservation
of Nature and Natural Resources

The organization links together government agencies, non-


government agencies, and independent states to encourage a
worldwide approach to conservation.
Hawksbill turtles: critically endangered
Kemp's ridley turtles: critically endangered
Leatherback turtle: critically Endangered
Green turtles: endangered
Loggerhead turtles: endangered
Olive ridley turtles: endangered
Flatback turtles: data Deficient

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Legal Protection USA

Endangered Species Act, 1973 (ESA).


The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) is administered by the U.S. Departments of
Interior and Commerce. It seeks to stop the extinction of wild animals and plants in the United
States, other nations, and at sea. All sea turtles except the flatback are listed as threatened or
endangered on the U.S. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants List. It is illegal to
harm, or in any way interfere with, a sea turtle or its eggs.
1.Under the ESA, "endangered"
Hawksbill
Kemp's ridley
Leatherback
Populations of green sea turtles (along Florida and the Pacific coast of Mexico),
Breeding populations of olive ridleys (on the Pacific coast of Mexico)
2.Under the ESA, "threatened"
The loggerhead, green (except the populations listed above)
Olive ridley (except the populations listed above

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Legal Protection China

Framework of laws
in Chinese Fisheries
 “Law on the protection of Wildlife, People’s Republic of
China”(1988)
 “Environmental Protection Law, People's Republic of China”
(1989)
 “Marine Environment Protection Law of the People's Republic
of China” (1982, amended in 1999)
 “Law of Fisheries, People’s Republic of China”, (1986,
amended in 2000).
 “Law of The Water Pollution Prevention and Control, People's
Republic of China” (1984, amended in 1996)

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Legal Protection China

Regulations on Aquatic
wildlife conservation
National level:
Regulation on Fishing permission(2002, amended in 2004):
----Classifcation of the fishing boats and fishing grounds
----Control of Marine Fishing Vessels fishing gear in catch limits
----Fishing license system
----Duties for Signatory
Regional Level:
Stipulation for Conserving Living Aquatic Resources In Bohai Sea(2004):
----Aquaculture and fishing
----Enhancement on Living Aquatic resource
----Living aquatic resource conservation
----Eco-environment Protection

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Legal Protection China

Regulations on Aquatic Endangered


Species Conservation
 “The National Catalog of Protected Wildlife in People’s
Republic of China”(1989)
 “Implemental Regulation on Aquatic wildlife Protection,
People’s Republic of China” (1993)
 “Ordinance on the management of the natural reserve, people’s
Republic of China”(1994)
 “Regulation on management of Aquatic wildlife and Plant
Nature Conservation, People’s Republic of China” (1997)
 “Regulation on special license of Aquatic wildlife utilization,
People’s Republic of China” (1999)
Chinese Academy of Fishery Science
Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Sea turtles under Cites

In recognition of the global plight, sea turtles were among the


list species listed on the CITES Appendices when the treaty came
into force, and CITES protection over the past 35 years has been
critical to ensuring their survival. Formidable opposition
From some CITES Parties to all attempts to weaken sea turtle
protection and effort from the conservation community have been
key to maintaining the international ban on trade.

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Sea turtles under Cites

Appendices I and II, as at 4 February 1977


Appendices I Appendices II
Cheloniidae Cheloniidae spp *.
Caretta caretta
Chelonia mydas -103
Eretmochelys imbricata
Lepidochelys kempii
Lepidochelys olvacea
Dermochelyidae Dermochelys coriacea

Third meeting of the Conference of the Parties


New Delhi (India), 25 February – 8 March 1981
Appendices I
Cheloniidae Cheloniidae spp *.
Dermochelyidae Dermochelys coriacea

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Sea turtles under CITES
Commodity term in trading under CITES (hawksbill turtle )

No Commodity term No Commodity term No Commodity term No Commodity term

leather
bodies eggs shells
1 8 15 products (s) 22

2 bone pieces 9 feet 16 live 23 skeletons

3 bone products 10 garments 17 meat 24 skins

4 bones 11 handbags 18 oil 25 skin pieces

5 carapaces 12 ivory carvings 19 pairs of shoes 26 specimens

6 carvings 13 ivory pieces 20 pieces 27 trophies

7 derivatives 14 leather items 21 scales 28 unspecified

Chinese Academy of Fishery Science


Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Sea turtles under CITES
Sea turtle Trading Record
Tradving voloume (KG)
Taxon
1976-1980 1981-1985 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010

hawksbill **** **** ***** **** ***** ** ***

green ****** ****** ***** *** * ** **

loggerhead 0 0 ** * 0 *** *

olive ridley 0 0 *** 0 0 0 0

leatherback ** 0 0 * 0 * **

flatback 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1.Data is from CITES database


2. Based on Unquestionable data analysis
Sea turtles under CITES
Term green hawksbill
meat **** -
soup **** -
skins **** *
Trading analysis between Green
turle and Hawksbill turtle leather
products *** *

specimens *** **

carapaces *** **
bodies *** **
carvings *** **
pieces *** *
calipee *** -

unspecified *** *
oil *** -

eggs (live) *** *


scales - *
Sea turtles under CITES
Trading analysis between China and US
hawksbill green olive ridley loggerhead
Term
china US china US china US
meat ******
skin,skin
pieces
** ***** *
carvings ** *** **** *
carapace
s * ** **** *
specime
ns
* *** * *** *** * ****
unspecifi
ed
** *** *
live ** *** ***
leather
items
** ** * *
eggs ** *** ***
oil **
bodies * * * * ** *
shells *** *

1.Data is from CITES database


2. US green turtle trading most happened in 1979, for olive ridley and loggerhead in 1980s.
Awareness and suggestions

Awareness
1.Lots of efforts, recognition worldwide (US and China)
2.International trading is still on going
3. Sea turtle meat and eggs are consumed in some parties(3/4)
4. Negative impact from destructive fishery and fishing by catch
(explosion, poison gillnet, trail net, trawl)
5. Sea turtle conservation strategy should be improved in member
Parties
6. International cooperation are encouraged (Inter government
organization, NGO)
7. More funding required.
Chinese Academy of Fishery Science
Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Awareness and suggestions

Suggestions
Conservation in china:
1. Conservation Action plan for sea turtle
2. Basic scientific data collecting (research, monitoring) (fishery, population,
trading)
3. More involvement in international cooperation

Research work in CAFS:


1. Included in fishery research concern
2. Listed in Sino-US cooperation framework
3. More focus needed ( natural reserve and habitat, natural resource and
distribution, policy, market trading
Chinese Academy of Fishery Science
Enyuan Fan
Fishery Environment Monitoring Center
Thank You!