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Organic Compounds
Organic Compounds: Compounds that contain
carbon and make up living organisms

Carbon is the backbone of life!!!

Organic Compounds
• It used to be thought that only
living things could synthesize the
complicated carbon compounds
found in cells
• German chemists in the 1800’s
learned how to do this in the lab,
showing that “organic”
compounds can be created by
non-organic means.
• Today, organic compounds are
those that contain carbon. (with a
few exceptions such as carbon
dioxide and diamonds)
Why is carbon the backbone of life? Why is it

1. Carbon has 4 electrons in its outer shell.

To satisfy the octet rule, it needs to share
4 other electrons.
2. This means that each carbon atom forms
4 bonds
Three Types Of Carbon Molecules
1. Straight Chain:

2. Ring:

3. Branched Chain:
Large molecules that make up living things. They are
large chains of smaller molecules. It means “giant
All macro organic molecules are made up of
smaller subunits called monomers. This is just
the base unit that repeats over and again. The
monomers can be identical or different.
Organic macromolecules are made up of
repeating monomers.These chains of monomers
are called polymers.
Condensation Reaction
A condensation reaction is the removal of water to
Connect monomers. The large chain is then
bonded to form a polymer.
Four Basic Types of Organic
• Most organic molecules in the cell are:
carbohydrates (sugars and starches), lipids
(fats), proteins, and nucleic acids (DNA and
• These molecules are usually in the form of
polymers, long chains of similar subunits.
Because they are large, these molecules are
called macromolecules. The subunits are called
• The cell also contains water, inorganic salts and
ions, and other small organic molecules.
4 Groups of Organic Compounds
1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Lipids
4. Nucleic Acids
*Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, and O.
*Ratio: 1C:2H:1O
1. Main source of energy.
2. Plants and some animals use it for
structural purposes.
Carbohydrates are made up of monomers called
Examples of monosaccrharides:
1.glucose: plant produce during photosynthesis
2.Galactose: found in milk and diary
3.Fructose: sugar in many fruits

Two monomers of monosaccharides together are
called disaccharides. Sucrose is a examples of a
A polysaccharide is a long chain of monosacchrides
Joined together.
Examples of polysacchrides:
1.glycogen:stored energy
2.Starch: plant stored energy
3.Cellulose: cell walls

Look at the difference between these two. Think about how
Plants use cellulose and animals use starch. They are shaped
this way because of their use. Cellulose – straight chains Starch
DEFINE: Large groups of organic compounds
not soluble in water.
Mostly made up of C and H with very little O.
1.Store energy for long term.
2.Waterproof covering
4 main categories of Lipids
1. Fats
2. Oils
3. Waxes
4. steroids FAT!!!
Structure of a lipid:
Glyercol molecule combines with fatty acids. The
Different fatty acids determine the type of lipid.

Lipids are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and

oxygen and very little nitrogen.
All lipids are not soluble in water. That is why
they are placed together.
Saturated vs. Unsaturated
Saturated means that all the carbon bonds are taken.
They are solid at room temperature and bad for you.
Unsaturated means that there is at least one double
bond with the carbon. They are liquid at room temp.
and are better for you.
Which ones are
Any of a large group of nitrogen containing organic
compounds that are essential part cells; consist of
polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of
animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be
obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes;
"a diet high in protein.”
Macromolecules that contain N, C, O and H.
1.Rate of cell processes.
2.Cellular structures
3.Controls substances in and out of cell.
4.Fight disease.
Examples of Proteins
1. Hemoglobin in blood
2. Collagen
3. Enzymes
4. insulin
Proteins and Amino acid formation
Proteins are made up of monomers of amino
acids help together by peptide bonds.
3 parts of an amino acid:
1.Amino group
2.Carboxyl group
3.R group
Proteins(examples of R-Groups)
There are 20 different amino acids found in
nature.Different proteins are determined by the
type of amino acids connected together. All
amino acids are the same except for the R-group.
The R-group gives the amino acids different
R – Group
The R – Group(functional group)
Functional Groups
• Most of the useful behavior of organic
compounds comes from functional groups
attached to the carbons. A functional group is a
special cluster of atoms that performs a useful
Long chains of amino acids are connected
by peptide bonds which are called polypeptides.
Nucleic acid

Any of various macromolecules composed of

nucleotide chains that are vital constituents
of all living cells.
Nucleic acids
Macromolecules containing H, N, C, O and P.
Made up of monomers of nucleotides.
3 parts of a nucleotide
2.Deoxyribose sugar
3.Nitrogen base
Function of a Nucleic Acids
1. Carry genetic material
2. Carries codes to make proteins
2 Examples of Nucleic Acids
1. RNA – ribosenucleic acids
2. DNA – deoxyribosenucleic acid
Function of DNA
1. Carry codes to make proteins.
2. Carry genetics code(genes).
Function of RNA

1. Function of RNA is to make proteins

from the code DNA carries.
C omposed of: Examples Function
C ompound
Sugar Releases
C arbohydrate
C, H, O Starch energy for
cellulose cells
Organic C omposed of: Examples Function
C ompound
Fats Stores and
Lipid C, H, O Oils releases
Waxes MORE
energy for

C ellmembranes are made oflipids