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Chapter 2

Police planning
All police organization have a set of policies guidelines, procedures
and different type of plans to address all types of situation that its
police officer faces in a daily basis.
Rules of Engagement is the common term used to denote a set of procedures on
how to execute a certain operations.
Rule 1: Police Blotter- each PNP office, units or Installation shall maintain an
Official Blotter. All types of operational and undercover dispatches shall be
recorded containing the Cardinal Rule of Information during criminal
Rule 2: Inter-Unit Coordination- Team Leaders of local police units operating
outside their area of responsibility and National Support Units shall coordinate
personally or through an official representative with the concerned Police
Territorial Units.
Rule 3: Basic requirements of Police Intervention Operations- generally, all
police intervention procedures (arrest, raid, search and seizure, checkpoint,
response, etc). Shall be led by a police commissioned officer and with personnel
in police proper uniform.
Rule 4: Warning by Use of Megaphones- during actual police intervention
operations, the team leader shall use all peaceful means including the use of
Rule 5: Warning shots- the PNP shall not use warning shots during any police
Rule 6: Use of Deadly Force- the excessive use of deadly force shall be
avoided. The use of firearm is justified by the virtue of Doctrine of Self
Defense, Defense of Relative and Defense of Stranger.
Rule 7: Reasonable Force- during armed confrontation, the police may use
reasonable force to overcome the threat posed by the suspect.
Rule 8: Moving Vehicles- moving vehicles may not be fired upon solely to
disable them. The driver or other occupant of a moving vehicle may be fired
upon if the police have a probable cause to believe that the suspect pose an
imminent danger.
Rule 9: Thing to be done after an Armed Confrontation- immediately after
an armed confrontation, the Officer-in-Charge of the operation shall secure the
site of confrontation; check whether the situation still poses imminent danger;
evacuate the wounded to the nearest hospital; and account for the killed,
wounded and arrested person.
Rule 10: Jurisdictional Investigation
by the Territorial Unit concerned- the
police unit which has territorial
jurisdiction of the area of the armed
confrontation, together with the SOCO
Team, if any, shall immediately
undertake the necessary investigation
and processing of the scene of encounter.
Planning – Planning is the determination in advance how
the objectives of the organization will be attained.
- The act of determining guidelines and policies for
policies for police activities
- The process of combining all aspect of the department
and the realistic anticipation of future problems
- The use of rational and logical designs or pattern for all
departmental undertakings than relying on chance.
Types of Plans: To properly achieve the administrative
planning responsibility
- Procedures or Policies
- Tactics
- Operations
- Extra-departmental activities
- Management
Policy Procedural Plan: Standard operating procedures
shall be planned to guide members in field and routine
 Office Procedures- the two principal office procedures are records division operation and
reporting regulations.
 Records Division operation- makes important an assurance that each task is performed in
the manner prescribed.
 Reporting Regulations- assist the office on what forms are to be used for a particular
 Field Procedure- they are intended to be used in all situations of all kinds and serves as a
guide to officers in the field procedures that relate to the following:
- Reporting
- Dispatching
- Raids
- Arrest
- Stopping suspicious person
- Receiving complaints
- Patrolling
- Conduct of investigation of crimes
 Headquarter Procedure- usually found on the duty manual because they pertain to the
responsibility of one person or one class of persons.
 Special Operating Procedures- include in such guidelines are crime scene search,
preservation and investigation, dissemination of information.
Tactical Plans: These are procedures for coping with specific situations at known
 Blockades
 Emergencies
 Special community events
 Parades
 Athletic contest
 Religious celebrations
 Strikes
 Demonstration
Operational Plans: This pertains to plans of
division; they are prepared to accomplish each of the
primary police task such as:
 Patrol Division
 Investigation Division
 Traffic Control Division
 Vice Control Division
 Juvenile Control Division
Types of Operational Plans:
Regular Operating Programs- they are designed
primarily to meet everyday, year round needs.
Meeting Unusual Needs- refers to the result of
intermittent and usually unexpected variations in activities
that demand police attention.
Extra - departmental Plans: These are plans designed to
guide the organization of the community to assist in
accomplishing the police objectives in the field.
Management Plans: Plans of management shall map out
in advance all operations involved in the organization.
Budget Planning- which encompass present and future monetary
requirement for personnel, equipment must be approximated and
plans for supporting the budget.
Accounting Procedures- Bookkeeping measures must be
established along with the expenditure reports to aid in making
administrative decisions.
Specifications- Requirements and purchasing measures must be
established for the procurement of supplies and equipment.
Personnel- Personnel program must be carried out and the
allocation and staffing of personnel.
Organization- A basic organization plan must be established and
posted for the information and guidance of the personnel
Steps in Planning
Reference- Frame of reference is based on a thorough and
prudent view of the matters relating to the situations.
Clarifying the problem- This procedure call for the recognition
of the predicament.
Collecting all pertinent facts- This is the gathering and
compilation of all data and facts relating to issue or problem at
Analyzing the facts- this steps refers to the careful scrutiny and
evaluation or relevant facts which provides the basis from which
plans are developed.
Developing alternative plans- This is part of the initial stages of
plan development.
Selecting the most appropriate alternative- A
meticulous and cautious consideration of all facts will
result in the determination of the best alternative
Selling the plan- This step pertains to the measures
undertaken to ensure belief, agreement and acceptance
by persons concerned in order to effectively carry out
the plan.
Arranging for the execution of the plan- This
necessities the issuance of directives and orders to units
concerned the establishment of schedule and the
provision of resources.
Characteristics of plans: Effective plans have certain
identifiable characteristics namely:
- Clearly defined goals or objectives
- Clarity simplicity and directness
- Flexibility
- Possibility of attainment
- Provision for standards of operations
- Economy
Execution of Plans: Once plans are made the same shall be put into operations
and the result thereof evaluated accordingly.
- Protection of life, liberty and property
- Preservation of peace
- Prevention of crimes
- Repression and suppression of criminal activities
- Apprehension of criminal
- Enforcement of the laws and ordinances and regulations of conduct
- Safeguarding of public health and morals
- Prompt execution of writs and processes of the courts
- Coordination and cooperation with other law enforcement agencies
Measuring Police Work Efficiency- Efficiency is securing of maximum results
with a minimum effort.
Crime Prevention- can be done by the mere presence of the police officers
Accident Prevention- activities to prevent the occurrence of accidents especially
in times of vacations, festivities, seasons and holidays.
Arrest Made- the fact that police officers cannot be at all place at the same time,
and the immediate absence of police officers.
Convictions Obtained- filing of appropriate cases to the court for the arrested
individual by the availability of evidence and the manner of arrest.
Stolen Property Recovered- retrieval of any stolen property through coordinate
and painstaking effort will show how efficient and effective the police officers are.
Chapter 3
Principles of organization
Principle of Police Organizations
CHAIN OF COMMAND- This refers to the line or chain of
supervisors from top to bottom. Referring to a continued position
who takes the lead in controlling the entire police organization- as
police officers are still human, subject to natural element and
normal course of life.
It is the system which purpose is to ensure that orders, directive,
and other information are channeled downward and upward through
an organizational structure in a timely and uniformed fashion.
It is also the manner through which the supervisors establish and
maintain the necessary control over subordinates.
Categories of Police Duties:
Primary line or operation police task:
- Patrol
- Investigation
- Traffic
- Vice
- Juvenile Control
Secondary or auxiliary service task:
- Records
- Property
- Crime laboratory
- Transportation
- Communication
Administrative or Managerial police task:
- Personnel
- Intelligence
- Inspection
- Planning
- Budgeting
- Training
- Public Community Relations
UNITY OF COMMAND- It simply means that each individual unit
and/or situation should be under the control of only one direct unit
supervisor. Presence of several bosses confuses the operation of
subordinates this was eliminated by having an Officer with Primary
Responsibility (OPR) or the ground commander.
In police service, it is important that only one man be in complete
command or supervision of each officer. Confusion is created when
more than one supervisor undertakes independent command of an
It is unwise for police commanders to appear at the scene of the
incident on a routine basis unless he plans to take personal command.
SPAN OF CONTROL: An officer should not have more
subordinates than he can effectively supervise, manage or
- All municipalities (MPS) and component cities (CPS)
under the provincial office (PPO)
- All provinces (PPO) and chartered cities (CPO) under the
regional office (PRO)
- Group of regional office (PRO) under a Directorate for
Integrated Police Office (DIPO)
- All units under the National Headquarters (NHQ)
In police service the span of control is the pyramidal
arrangement or grouping of subordinate units or personnel.
The ability of one man to direct, coordinate has a physical
limits, because he can be only in one place at one time, and
his inability to work for a continuous 24 hours daily.
Determinant factors for proper span of control:
- Native ability
- Complexity of the task to be performed
- Separation form the superior from immediate
- Time demanded by the public for personal assistance
Factors which results in error in span of control:
- Over estimation of his own ability
- Inability or unwillingness to delegate authority


delegation of work is related to the process committing an
activity to another’s care.
The division of the task of command among the officers
of the various units is referred to as the delegation of
authority. The authority of the chief is limited to the
command of members within the pyramid of that officer’s
Divisions in Delegation of Authority:
Policy formulation- involve what are to be done in the
form of orders or broad statement of action.
Direction- deals with procedures what is to be done who is
to do it, when, where, and how it is to be done.
Supervision- deals with the assistance and guidance given
to subordinates to ensure successful performance.
Execution- deals with the performance of task to be done
with commensurate authority to fulfill the responsibility.
the police force who is directly or immediately in
command responsibility for any of the following:
Misfeasance- it is the improper performance of
some act might be lawfully done in the police
Malfeasance- also known as misconduct it is the
performance of some act which ought not to be done
Nonfeasance- it is the omission of some act which
ought to be performed. It as also referred to as
neglect of duty
Justification to be exempted from the doctrine of
“Command Responsibility”
- When the commanding officer was not properly
informed of the acts or omission of his subordinates
- When the commander was properly informed and he
conducted an immediate investigation of such act or
- When he acted upon lawful order from higher authorities
Police Territorial Units
- Police Community Precincts (PCP)- headed by the Precinct
Commander, police personnel assigned in the outlying outpost in
a municipality.
- Municipal Police Station (MPS)- headed by a chief of Police in
charge of all personnel in municipality of the province
- City Police Station (CPS)- headed by a chief of Police in charge
of all personnel in the component city of a province.
- Provincial Police Office (PPO)- headed by a Provincial Director
in charge of all police units in the province in the region.
- Police Regional Office (PRC)- headed by a
Regional Director in charge of all police unit in the
- Directorate for Integrated Police Office (DIPO)-
headed by a director that is in charge of a certain
number of PRO
- National Headquarters (NHQ)- headed by the
Chief PNP who is charge of all police unit
Areas of Concern
Post – fixed point or location, traffic duty or spot or
location for general duty
Route – length of street/s designated for patrol purposes
Beat – assigned for patrol, whether foot or motorized
Sector – containing two or more beats, routes or post
District – geographical subdivision of a city for patrol
Police Operations
Under RA 6975
- Enforce all laws and ordinances, protection of lives and
- Maintain peace and order
- Investigate and prevent crimes
- Search and seizure in accordance with the constitution and
pertinent laws.
- Detain an arrested person, informing the person so detained of all
his rights under the Constitution
- Supervise and control the training and operations of security
agencies and issue license to operate security agencies
Under RA 8551
Gathering and performance of its ordinary police functions support
the Armed Force of the Philippines on matters involving
suppression of insurgency, except in cases where the President shall
call on the support the AFP in combat operations.
Intelligence- attaining of intelligence (intelligence and counter
intelligence activities of the PNP)
Operations- manage and supervise the exercise of the command,
control, directions and supervision of all activities concerning
operations, employment and development of the PNP.
Police Community Relations- manage and supervise the planning,
directing, coordinating supervising and controlling the programs,
projects and activities of the PNP in relation to police community
Investigation and Detection Management- manage and supervise
the direction, control, coordination and all efforts of investigation
activities of the PNP.
Integrated Police Office- direct and supervise the conduct of inter-
regional anti-criminality, counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency
operations against lawless elements
Primary Police Duties
Patrol – derived from the French word “Patrouiler” “to travel on
Traffic – movement of person goods and vehicles either powered
by animals or animal-drawn vehicles
Vice Control – vice refers to any immoral conduct or habit,
Wickedness and corruption of the mind and body
Juvenile Control – anti social behavior or act, differs from the
normal model of set of laws and parameters, culture and customs.
Investigation – collection of methods by which crimes are studied
and criminals arrested.
Usually, Police Community Relations covers:
A. Public Information Program – keeping members of the society
B. Public Relations Program – focused on building a good image
for the police organization
C. Civic Action Program – endeavor attempts to impart to the
members of the community that the police is their Friends and
partners as well.
D. Mass Communication Program – designed to influence the
opinions, attitudes, behavior and emotion of the public in a
manner in accordance with the law.
Special Weapon and Tactics (SWAT) – composed of highly
trained personnel, trained expert in assorted types of weapon like
assault pistols and rifles.
Bomb Squads or Explosives and Ordinance Team (EOT) –
another set of highly trained personnel who works alone in
performing their functions.
Non-criminal Services – 60 to 70 percent of the time spent by
police officers on operational activities in not crime related.
Pulis ko, Teacher ko – placing police officer who are qualified
Police Advisory and Liasson in Schools (PALS) - main goal of
the program is crime prevention (through child safety).