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Are positively and negatively
charged with Protons and
.- Can be found in the Neutrons
outer shell
.- Are the ones that
participate in the Atomic bond
atomic bond
Forms when electrons from different atoms
interact with each other

Main types

Covalent ionic metallic

Forms between Formed

two non metals between metal
between a
with identical atoms, where it
metal and a
or close is formed due
electronegativi to the
where the non-
ty values, in attraction
metals are
this bond the between
stronger than
electrons are kernels and
the metal, thus
equally shared the mobile
having the
between the electrons
metals transfer
atoms. found in metal
or donate
electrons to the
non-metals to
Polar NonPolar stabilize the
other atom

When atoms When atoms

are unequally equally share
distributed electron pairs
Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics

Directional Non-directional Non-directional

bond bond bond

Fairly strong Weak bond

bond because Strong bond because of the
of the electron because of the simultaneous
pair is electrostatic attraction of
strongly force of electrons to a
attracted to attraction large amount
two nucleus of kernels

-Makes -Makes
-Makes substances hard substances
substances hard and brittle malleable and
and ductile
incompressible -High melting
and boiling point -High melting
-Low melting and boiling point
and boiling point -Not conductive
in solid state, -Electrical and
-Non conductive conductive in thermal
liquid state conductivity

Example Example Example

sodium chloride
Water molecule Bonding of zinc
in table salt