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Heat Exchangers: Fundamentals and Design Analysis

Heat Exchanger Network Analysis by Pinch Technique


Prof. P. K. Das.
Mechanical Engineering
IIT KHARAGPUR

Reference: The Pinch Design Method For Heat Exchanger Networks by B. Linnhoff and E. Hindmarsh
Chemical Engineering Science Vol.38, No.5, pp.745-763, 1983

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Heat Exchanger Network
Process Plant:
 Many streams need heating or cooling.
 Utilities like hot air , hot oil, steam for heating.
 Utilities like air, water, chilled water, refrigerant for cooling.
 Efforts to be made for reducing the use of utilities.
 This can be done by “ Heat Integration” .
 “ Heat Integration” implies heat exchange between the hot and cold streams.
 This reduces the use of utilities.
 However, this increases the number of heat exchangers.
 Heat exchanger synthesis means designing a network so that using minimum
number of heat exchangers, the use of utilities can also be minimized

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Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Network (HEN)

 There are different techniques of synthesis of HEN.


 The pinch technique is very widely used.

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Schematic representation of Heat Exchanger Network

C1 C2 C3
H1 RULE:
Minimum number of Heat
H2 Exchangers (𝑈𝑚𝑖𝑛 ) = 𝑁-1
𝑁=No. of process streams ( N1 ) + No.
H3
of utilities(N2)

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Pinch Technique
Basic assumptions for present discussion:
 Logic Based- based on first and second law of thermodynamics.
 There is one hot utility and one cold utility of infinite capacity.
 Steady state operation.
 There is no restriction for matching the streams.
 All heat exchangers are without any phase change and without any heat generation or
reaction.
 Heat exchangers are assumed to be indirect contact and counter flow.

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Table 1. Stream data for test case
STREAM NUMBER & HEAT CAPACITY FLOW RATE 𝑪𝒑 TS(℃) TT(℃)
TYPE kW/℃

(1) HOT 2 150 60

(2) HOT 8 90 60

(3) COLD 2.5 20 125

(4) COLD 3.0 25 100

𝜟𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒏 = 𝟐𝟎° 𝑪

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4
3

2
1

20 ℃ 25 ℃ 60 ℃ 90 ℃ 100 ℃ 125 ℃ 150 ℃


Temperature
Goals of HEN synthesis
1) Minimum utility.
2) Stream matching.
3) No. of heat exchangers needed.
4) End temp of the heat exchangers.

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T

Cold Hot
Utility Utility

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Table 2. The problem table for Test case
SUBNET STREAMS AND TEMPERATURE DEFICIT ACCUMULATED HEAT FLOWS
WORK

COLD T(℃) HOT INPUT OUTPUT INPUT OUTPUT


STREA STREAMS
MS

150
SN1 3 -10 0 10 107.5/HU 117.5
125 145
SN2 120 +12.5 10 -2.5 117.5 105
4 100

SN3 +105 -2.5 -107.5 105 0


70 90
SN4 40 60 -135 -107.5 27.5 0 135

SN5 25 1 2 +82.5 27.5 -55 135 52.5


SN6 20 +12.5 -55 -67.5 52.5 40/CU

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Thank You!!

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Heat Exchangers: Fundamentals and Design Analysis
Heat Exchanger Network Analysis by Pinch Technique
Prof. P. K. Das.
Mechanical Engineering
IIT KHARAGPUR

Reference: The Pinch Design Method For Heat Exchanger Networks by B. Linnhoff and E. Hindmarsh
Chemical Engineering Science Vol.38, No.5, pp.745-763, 1983

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Table 1. Stream data for test case
STREAM NUMBER & HEAT CAPACITY FLOW RATE 𝑪𝒑 TS(℃) TT(℃)
TYPE kW/℃

(1) HOT 2 150 60

(2) HOT 8 90 60

(3) COLD 2.5 20 125

(4) COLD 3.0 25 100

𝜟𝑻𝒎𝒊𝒏 = 𝟐𝟎° 𝑪

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4
3

2
1

20 ℃ 25 ℃ 60 ℃ 90 ℃ 100 ℃ 125 ℃ 150 ℃


Temperature
Goals of HEN synthesis
1) Minimum utility.
2) Stream matching.
3) No. of heat exchangers needed.
4) End temp of the heat exchangers.

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T

Cold Q
Hot
Utility Utility

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Table 2. The problem table for Test case
SUBNET STREAMS AND TEMPERATURE DEFICIT ACCUMULATED HEAT FLOWS
WORK

COLD T(℃) HOT INPUT OUTPUT INPUT OUTPUT


STREA STREAMS
MS

150
SN1 125 -10 0 10 107.5/HU 117.5
3 145
SN2 100 +12.5 10 -2.5 117.5 105
4 120
SN3 70 +105 -2.5 -107.5 105 0
90
SN4 40 -135 -107.5 27.5 0 135
60
1 2
SN5 25 +82.5 27.5 -55 135 52.5
SN6 20 +12.5 -55 -67.5 52.5 40/CU

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𝑄𝐻𝑀𝐼𝑁 =107.5 kW
𝑄𝐻𝑀𝐼𝑁 =107.5 kW
SN1
117.5 1
SN2 Hot end 3
105 problem 4
SN3

0
SN4
135 Cold end
SN5 problem 3 4
1 2
52.5
SN6
𝑄𝐶𝑀𝐼𝑁 =40 kW 𝑄𝐶𝑀𝐼𝑁 =40 kW
(a) (b)
Fig. 1. (a) Subnetwork heat flow diagram for TC3. (b)Subnetworks combined into hot and cold region
Rules for PINCH ANALYSIS

 Pinch point divides the HEN into two independent problems to be solved
separately.

 No heat flow is allowed across pinch point.

 No cold utility to be used in the hot end.

 No hot utility to be used in the cold end.

 Violation of (2) – (4) gives double penalty

 Design of each end should start at the pinch point.

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Rules for Pinch End Matching
1.For hot end 𝑁𝐻 ≤ 𝑁𝐶 𝑁𝐻 - No of Hot stream

For cold end 𝑁𝐶 ≤ 𝑁𝐻 𝑁𝐶 - No. of cold stream

Note: In the hot end, there is some amount of hot utility & hot stream which can only
exchange heat with cold stream.

2. For individual match

Hot end, 𝐶𝐻 ≤ 𝐶𝑐

Cold end,𝐶𝑐 ≤ 𝐶𝐻

3.For hot end


𝑁 𝑁 𝑁𝑜.𝑜𝑓 𝑀𝑎𝑡𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠
(σ1 𝑐 𝐶𝑐 -σ1 𝐻 𝐶𝐻 )≥ σ1 (𝐶𝑐 − 𝐶𝐻 )

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Some Examples

C Difference in C Difference in C
C
Composite “C” Composite “C”
1 1 4 difference
4 difference
8-6=2 9-6=3
2 Summation of match Summation of match”
2
2 “C” 2 Diff=(5-4)+(3-2)=2
Diff=(5-4)+(3-2)=2 Solution is possible.
Solution is possible.

3 5 3 5

4 3 4 3

1
5

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Hot End Design

Stream Data at Pinch

No
𝑁𝐻 ≤ 𝑁𝐶 Split cold stream

Yes

No Stream Splitting
𝐶𝐻 ≤ 𝐶𝐶 for each match and
cumulative stream
Yes

Solutio
n

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Stream Matching for Hot End
150 ℃ 90 ℃
𝑁𝐻 ≤ 𝑁𝐶 1 2
70 ℃
𝐶𝐻 ≤ 𝐶𝐶 3 H 2.5
125 ℃ 118 ℃ 120
(𝐶𝐻 )1= 2 4 70 ℃
H 3
100 ℃
(𝐶𝐶 )3= 2.5

(𝐶𝐶 )4 = 3
150 ℃ 90 ℃
All above conditions are satisfied i.e. number of hot 1 2
streams ≤ number of cold streams 70 ℃
3 H 2.5
125 ℃ 82℃ 30
4 70 ℃
3
100 ℃ 90

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Stream Matching for Cold End

𝑵𝑪 ≤ 𝑵𝑯
Cumulative , 𝐶𝐶 ≤ 𝐶𝐻 8 3
8 3
2 2.5 2 2.5

8 3

2 2.5

So, we have to split hot stream

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Splitting of Hot Streams
7.5 3
7.5 3
8 8
0.5 0.5
0.5
2 2.5 2.5
2 2.0

3
8 3
5

2 2.5
90℃ 80℃
C 60℃ 2

90℃ 3.5 60℃


8

4.5

70℃ 20℃
3 2.5
105 20

70℃ 25℃
4 3

135

So, the restrictions i.e. 𝐶𝐻 ≥ 𝐶𝐶 just next to pinch point

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150℃ 60℃
1 2

90℃ 60℃
2 8

125℃ 20℃
3 2.5
120℃ 105 20

100℃ 25℃ 3
4

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Thank You!!

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