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CHAPTER

MEC 451

3 Thermodynamics

Lecture Notes:

MOHD HAFIZ MOHD NOH

HAZRAN HUSAIN & MOHD SUHAIRIL

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 First Law of

Shah Alam, Selangor

Thermodynamics

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

ENERGY ANALYSIS

OF CLOSED SYSTEM

2

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

of Energy, i.e. energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but

rather transformed from one state to another.

studied/defined boundary.

The various energies associated are then being observed as

they cross the boundaries of the system.

3

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Closed

Heat

System V

Work

z

Reference Plane, z = 0

or

Ein Eout Esystem

4

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

The total energy of the system, Esystem, is given as

E = U + KE + PE

The change in stored energy for the system is

E U KE PE

The first law of thermodynamics for closed systems then can be

written as

5

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

If the system does not move with a velocity and has no change in

elevation, the conservation of energy equation is reduced to

Qnet Wnet U

The first law of thermodynamics can be in the form of

V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

qnet wnet u2 u1

(kJ / kg)

2000 1000

V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net W net m u2 u1

(kJ )

2000 1000

For a constant volume process,

V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net W net m u2 u1

2000 1000

V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net m u2 u1

2000 1000 6

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net W net m u2 u1

2000 1000

V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net P(V2 V1 ) m u2 u1

2000 1000

V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net m u2 u1 P(V2 V1 )

2000 1000

V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net m h2 h1

2000 1000

7

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

8

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Example 3.1

A closed system of mass 2 kg Rearrange the equation

undergoes an adiabatic process. V2 2 V12 g ( z2 z1 )

The work done on the system is Qnet W net m u2 u1

2000 1000

30 kJ. The velocity of the system V2 2 V12 g ( z2 z1 )

changes from 3 m/s to 15 m/s. Wnet m u2 u1

2000 1000

During the process, the elevation 9.81 45

152 32

of the system increases 45 meters. 30 2u 2 2

2000 1000

Determine the change in internal

u 14.451 kJ Ans..

energy of the system.

Solution:

Energy balance,

V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net W net m u2 u1

2000 1000

9

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

quality is heated in a rigid container at P1 1100 kPa, x1 0.92

until the pressure is 2000 kPa. For a v1 v f 1 x1v fg1

mass of 0.05 kg, calculate the amount

0.00113 0.92 0.17753 0.001133

of heat supply (in kJ) and the total

0.1634 mkg

3

u

u1

u xx1u

u ff,11 1u fg,1

1

fg 1

780.09 0.92(1806.3

779.780.92 1805.7)

2441.9 kL kJ

2441.024

kg

kg

ss1 ssf 1 x1 s fg1

1 f,1 x1 s fg,1

2.1792

2.17850.92 0.92(4.3744

4.3735)

6.204

3

kJ m

6.20212

kg . K

kg

10

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

v2=v1=0.1634 m3/kg

State2 v2 v g superheated

at P2 2000 kPa, v2 0.1634 mkg

3

v u s

0.15122 2945.9 7.1292

0.1634 u2 s2

0.17568 3116.9 7.4337

0.1634 0.15122

u2 2945.9 3116.9 2945.9

0.17568 0.15122

3030.42 kJ

kg

0.1634 0.15122

s2 7.1292 7.4337 7.1292

0.17568 0.15122

7.2790 kgkJ. K

11

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Q m u2 u1

0.05 3030.42 2441.9

29.43 kJ

s s2 s1

7.2790 6.204

1.075 kgkJ.K

12

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

A rigid tank is divided into two equal

State1

parts by a partition. Initially one side

P1 200 kPa, T1 Tsat Comp. liquid m3

of the tank contains 5 kg water at 200 v1 v f @ 25 C 0.001003 kg

T1 25 C

o

initial volume of half resevoir

evacuated. The partition is then

V1 mv

removed, and the water expands into

5 0.001003

the entire tank. The water is allowed to

0.005 m3

exchange heat with its surroundings

until the temperature in the tank The initial volume for entire tank

returns to the initial value of 25°C.

Vresevoir 2 0.005

Determine (a) the volume of the tank

(b) the final pressure (c) the heat 0.01 m3

13

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

u1 u f @ 25 C 104.88

kJ

104.83 kJ

k

kgg

State 2

u2 u f x2 u fg

T2 25 C v 0.001003 m 3

f kg v2 v f

0.01 3 x2

v2 0.002 mkg vg 43.34 mkg

3

v fg

5

check region ! 2.3 105

v f v vg saturated mixture 104.83 2.3 105 (2304.3)

u2 104.88 2304.9

then : P2 Psat 3.169 kPa 104.93

104.88 kJ

kg

Then :

The heat transfer for this process

Qnet 5 104.93 104.88

(104.88-104.83)

Qnet Wnet m u ke Pe 0.25 kJ

Qnet Wnet m u ke Pe

Qnet mu m u2 u1

+ve sign indicates heat transfer

into the system.

14

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Supplementary Problems 1

monoxide gas at 77°C and 0.7 bar. Tank B holds 8 kg of the same gas

at 27°C and 1.2 bar. Then the valve is opened and the gases are allowed

to mix while receiving energy via heat transfer from the surrounding.

The final equilibrium temperature is found to be 42°C. Determine (a)

the final pressure (b) the amount of heat transfer. Also state your

assumption. [P2=105 kPa, Q = +37.25 kJ]

and 0.06 m3. Now 200 kJ of heat is transferred to the water while its

pressure is held constant. Determine the final temperature of the water.

Also, show the process on a T-V diagram with respect to saturation

lines. [ 721.1oC]

15

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Supplementary Problems 1

3. A piston-cylinder device contains 6 kg of refrigerant-134a at 800 kPa

and 50oC. The refrigerant is now cooled at constant pressure until it

exist as a liquid at 24oC. Show the process on T-v diagram and

determine the heat loss from the system. State any assumption made.

[1210.26 kJ]

4. A 0.5 m3 rigid tank contains refrigerant-134a initially at 200 kPa and 40

percent quality. Heat is now transferred to the refrigerant until the

pressure reaches 800 kPa. Determine (a) the mass of the refrigerant in

the tank and (b) the amount of heat transferred. Also, show the process

on a P-v diagram with respect to saturation lines.

[12.3 kg, 2956.2 kJ]

5. An insulated tank is divided into two parts by a partition. One part of

the tank contains 6 kg of an ideal gas at 50°C and 800 kPa while the

other part is evacuated. The partition is now removed, and the gas

expands to fill the entire tank. Determine the final temperature and the

pressure in the tank.

[50°C, 400 kPa] 16

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

the working fluid undergoes a series of state changes such

that the final and initial states are identical.

working fluid is zero.

thermodynamic cycle becomes

Qnet Wnet

17

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Boundary Works

P

2

1 5

18

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

1 ∞ isochoric constant volume (V1 = V2) P1 P2

T1 T2

2 0 isobaric constant pressure (P1 = P2) V1 V2

T1 T2

3 1 isothermal constant temperature

(T1 = T2) P1V1 P2V2

4 1<n< γ polytropic -none- n

n

P1 V2 T1 n 1

5 γ isentropic constant entropy (S1 = S2) P2 V1 T2

19

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

isochoric W12 P(V2 V1 ) 0

isothermal V2

W12 P1V1 ln

V1

polytropic

P2V2 P1V1

W12

isentropic 1 n

20

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Example 3.4

Process 1-2: isobaric work output of 10.5 kJ from an initial volume of 0.028

m3 and pressure 1.4 bar,

Process 2-3: isothermal compression, and

Process 3-1: isochoric heat transfer to its original volume of 0.028 m3 and

pressure 1.4 bar.

Calculate (a) the maximum volume in the cycle, in m3, (b) the isothermal work,

in kJ, (c) the net work, in kJ, and (d) the heat transfer during isobaric expansion,

in kJ.

21

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Solution:

Section 1 2 isobaric Section 2 3 isothermal

W12 P V2 V1 10.5

2 2 PV

PV 3 3

140 V2 0.028 10.5 0.103

P3 140 515 kPa

V2 0.103 m3 0.028

V3

W23 PV 2 2 ln

V2

0.028

140 0.103 ln

0.103

18.78 kJ

22

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Section 3 1 isochoric

W31 0

Wnet W12 W23 W31

10.5 18.78

8.28 kJ

23

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Example 3.5

a pressure of 1.15 bar until it has a specific volume of 0.12 m3/kg. It is then

cooled reversibly at a constant pressure, then is cooled at constant volume until

the pressure is 0.62 bar; and is then allowed to compress reversibly according

to a law PVn = constant back to the initial conditions. The work done in the

constant pressure is 0.525 kJ, and the mass of fluid present is 0.22 kg.

Calculate the value of n in the fourth process, the net work of the cycle and

sketch the cycle on a P-V diagram.

24

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Solution:

Section 1 2 isothermal

1 1 PV

PV 2 2

115

V1 0.22 0.12

415

0.00732 m3

V2

W12 PV

1 1 ln

V1

0.0264

415 0.00732 ln

0.00732

3.895 kJ

25

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

n

0.525 P1 V4

V3 0.0264

115 n

62 0.00732

0.03097 m3

415 0.03097

ln 0.1494 n ln 0.2364

n 1.3182

Section 3 4 isochoric 1 1 PV

PV

W41 4 4

W34 0 1 n

415 0.0072 62 0.03097

1 1.3182

3.5124 kJ

Wnet W12 W23 W34 W41

0.9076 kJ

26

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Supplementary Problems 2

1. A mass of 0.15 kg of air is initially exists at 2 MPa and 350oC. The air is

first expanded isothermally to 500 kPa, then compressed polytropically

with a polytropic exponent of 1.2 to the initial state. Determine the

boundary work for each process and the net work of the cycle.

2. 0.078 kg of a carbon monoxide initially exists at 130 kPa and 120oC. The

gas is then expanded polytropically to a state of 100 kPa and 100oC.

Sketch the P-V diagram for this process. Also determine the value of n

(index) and the boundary work done during this process.

[1.248,1.855 kJ]

27

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

process cycle shown in Fig. 3-14.

Calculate the net work.

expanded adiabatically till the pressure falls to 1.0 bar. The air is then

heated at a constant pressure till its enthalpy increases by 70 kJ.

Sketch the process on a P-V diagram and determine the total work

done.

28

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

OF CONTROL VOLUME

29

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Conservation of Mass

Conservation of mass is one of the most fundamental

principles in nature. We are all familiar with this

principle, and it is not difficult to understand it!

implicitly used since the mass of the system remain

constant during a process.

boundaries. So the amount of mass entering and leaving

the control volume must be considered.

30

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Mass flow through a cross-sectional area per unit time is called the

mass flow rate. Note the dot over the mass symbol indicates a time

rate of change. It is expressed as

m V .dA

If the fluid density and velocity are constant over the flow cross-

sectional area, the mass flow rate is

AV

m AV

1

where

is called specific voulme

31

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

expressed as

principle becomes

32

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

As the fluid upstream pushes mass across the control volume, work

done on that unit of mass is

A

W flow F dL F dL PdV Pv m

A

W flow

w flow Pv

m

33

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

surface is the sum of the internal energy + flow work + potential

energy + kinetic energy

V2 V2

energy u P 2 gz h 2 gz

. . . Vout

2

. Vin

2

Q net W net mout hout gzout min hin gzin

out 2 in 2

34

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

The steady state, steady flow conservation of mass and first law of

thermodynamics can be expressed in the following forms

V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

qnet wnet h2 h1

(kJ / kg)

2000 1000

V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net W net

m h2 h1 (kJ )

2000 1000

. . . V2 V1

2 2

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net W net m h2 h1

(kW )

2000 1000

35

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

36

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

the velocity fluid at the expense

of pressure.

Diffuser - device that increases

pressure of a fluid by slowing it

down.

Commonly utilized in jet

engines, rockets, space-craft

and even garden hoses.

Q = 0 (heat transfer from the

fluid to surroundings very

small

W = 0 and ΔPE = 0

37

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

. .

. Vin

2

. . . Vout

2

Q in W in min hin gzin Q out W out mout hout gzout

in 2 out 2

. Vin

2

. Vout

2

min hin mout hout

2 2

V1

2

V2

2

h1 h2

2 2

38

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Steam at 0.4 MPa, 300ºC, V12 V2 2

enters an adiabatic nozzle with h1 h2

2 2

a low velocity and leaves at 0.2

MPa with a quality of 90%. State1

Find the exit velocity. P1 0.4 MPa h1 3067.1 kJ

kg

T1 300o C sup erheated

Solution:

State 2

State1 State 2 P2 0.2 MPa h2 h f x2 h fg

P1 0.4 MPa P2 0.2 MPa

x2 0.9 h2 2486.1 kJ kg

T1 300o C x2 0.9

Exit velocity:

V1 0

V2 2000 3067.1 2486.1

1078 m / s

39

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Air at 10°C and 80 kPa enters the P1 80 kPa V2 0

diffuser of a jet engine steadily

T1 10o C

with a velocity of 200 m/s. The

V1 200m / s

inlet area of the diffuser is 0.4 m2.

The air leaves the diffuser with a A1 0.4 m 2

velocity that is very small Solution:

Determine (a) the mass flow rate 2

0

V 2 V2

h1 h2

1

of the air and (b) the temperature

2 2

of the air leaving the diffuser.

From Ideal Gas Law:

RT1

v1 1.015 mkg

3

P1

40

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

1 V12

m V1 A1 h2 h1

v1 2000

1 2002

284.42

200 0.4 2000

1.015

304.42 kJ

78.8 kgs kg

h2

T2

Cp

Enthalpy at state 1

304.42

h1 C pT1 1.005 283

1.005

284.42 kJ

kg

302.9 K

41

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

fluid.

Compressor (as well as pump and fan) - device used to increase

pressure of a fluid and involves work input.

Q = 0 (well insulated), ΔPE = 0, ΔKE = 0 (very small compare to

Δenthalpy).

42

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

. . . Vin

2

. . . Vout

2

Q in W in min hin

gzin Q out W out mout hout

gzout

in 2 out 2

. . .

W out m h1 h2

. .

43

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

. .

. Vin

2

. . . Vout

2

Q in W in min hin gzin Q out W out mout hout gzout

in 2 out 2

. . .

W in m h2 h1

. .

44

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Example 3.8

the magnitudes of Δh, Δke, and Δpe. Then determine the work done

per unit mass of the steam flowing through the turbine and calculate

the mass flow rate of the steam.

Exit (P = 15 kPa, x = 90%, v = 180 m/s, z = 6m)

45

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Solution:

From energy balance:

State1 . . . Vin 2

Qin W in min hin gzin

p1 2 MPa sup erheated 2

in

T1 400o C h1 3247.6

3248.4 kJ

.

kg . . Vout 2

State 2 Q out W out mout hout gzout

out 2

P2 15 kPa

sat. mixture Solve the equation:

x2 0.9

h2 h f 2 x2 h fg 2

h h2 h1 -887.39

885.87 kJ

225.94 0.9 (2372.3)

2373.1

kg

V2 2 V12

2361.73

2361.01 kJ

kg

KE 14.95 kJ

kg

2000

g z2 z1

PE 0.04 kJ

kg

1000

46

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

V12 V2 2 g z1 z2

Wout h1 h2

2000 1000

885.87

887.39 14.95 0.04

870.96 kJ

872.48 kg

Wout 5000

m 5.74

5.73 kgs

Wout 870.96

872.48

47

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Air at 100 kPa and 280 K is

compressed steadily to 600 Win m h2 h1 Qout

kPa and 400 K. The mass m h2 h1 mqout

flow rate of the air is 0.02

kg/s, and a heat loss of 16 State1

kJ/kg occurs during the

P1 100 kPa air

process. Assuming the

T1 280 K h1 280.13 kJkg

changes in kinetic and

potential energies are State 2

negligible, determine the P2 600 kPa air

necessary power input to the T2 400 K h2 400.98 kJkg

compressor.

48

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Thus

2.74 kW

49

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Throttling Valve

cause a significant pressure drop

in the fluid.

ordinary adjustable valves and

capillary tubes.

50

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Example 3.10

State1 Steam enters a throttling valve at

8000 kPa and 300°C and leaves

P1 8000 kPa sup erheated at a pressure of 1600 kPa.

T1 300 C h1 2786.5 kJkg

o Determine the final temperature

and specific volume of the

State 2 steam.

P2 1600 kPa

make int erpolation

h2 h1

P kPa T C

o vf vg hf hg

1500 198.29 0.001154 0.131710 844.55 2791

1600 T2 vf 2 vg 2 hf 2 hg 2

1750 205.72 0.001166 0.113440 878.16 2795.2

51

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

mixture

v2 v f 2 x2v fg 2

T2 Tsat 201.3o C 0.0011588

0.997 0.124402 0.0011588

0.1240 m3

h2 h f 2 kg

x2

hg 2 h f 2

2786.5 857.994

2792.68 857.994

0.997

52

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Mixing Chamber

takes place.

a shower, for example, serves as the

mixing chamber for the cold- and

hot-water streams.

53

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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Mixing Chamber

Energy Balance:

m1h1 m2 h2 m3h3

m1h1 m3 m1 h2 m3h3

m1 h1 h2 m3 h3 h2

h3 h2

m1 m3

1

h h2

54

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Heat Exchanger

streams exchange heat without

mixing.

no work interactions (w = 0) and

negligible kinetic and potential

energy changes for each fluid

stream.

55

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Liquid sodium, flowing at 100

kg/s, enters a heat exchanger at ms h1s mw h1w ms h2 s mw h2 w

450°C and exits at 350°C. The ms h1s h2 s mw h2 w h1w

specific heat of sodium is 1.25

kJ/kg.oC. Water enters at 5000 ms C p , s T1s T2 s mw h2 w h1w

kPa and 20oC. Determine the

minimum mass flux of the water State1: water

so that the water does not

completely vaporize. Neglect the

P1 5000 kPa comp. liquid

pressure drop through the T1 20o C h1w 88.61 kJ

kg

exchanger. Also, calculate the

State 2 : water

rate of heat transfer.

Assume a sat. vapor

P2 5000 kPa state to obtain the

h2 w 2794.2 kJ

kg

max. allowable exiting

enthalpy.

56

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

the minimum mass flux of the water the rate of heat transfer

so that the water does not

Qw mw h2 w h1w

completely vaporize

mw

h2 w h1w 12.5 MW

100 1.25 450 350

2794.2 88.61

4.62 kgs

57

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Supplementary Problems 3

1. Air flows through the supersonic nozzle . The inlet conditions are 7 kPa

and 420°C. The nozzle exit diameter is adjusted such that the exiting

velocity is 700 m/s. Calculate ( a ) the exit temperature, ( b )the mass flux,

and ( c ) the exit diameter. Assume an adiabatic quasiequilibrium flow.

and it leaves at 2 MPa and 300°C. The inlet area of the nozzle is 50 cm2,

and heat is being lost at a rate of 120 kJ/s. Determine (a) the mass flow

rate of the steam, (b) the exit velocity of the steam, and (c) the exit area

nozzle.

3. Steam enters a turbine at 4000 kPa and 500oC and leaves as shown in Fig

A below. For an inlet velocity of 200 m/s, calculate the turbine power

output. ( a )Neglect any heat transfer and kinetic energy change ( b )Show

that the kinetic energy change is negligible.

58

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UiTM

Figure A

4. Consider an ordinary shower where hot water at 60°C is mixed with cold

water at 10°C. If it is desired that a steady stream of warm water at 45°C

be supplied, determine the ratio of the mass flow rates of the hot to cold

water. Assume the heat losses from the mixing chamber to be negligible

and the mixing to take place at a pressure of 150 kPa.

5. Refrigerant-134a is to be cooled by water in a condenser. The refrigerant

enters the condenser with a mass flow rate of 6 kg/min at 1 MPa and 70ºC

and leaves at 35°C. The cooling water enters at 300 kPa and 15°C and

leaves at 25ºC. Neglecting any pressure drops, determine (a) the mass

flow rate of the cooling water required and (b) the heat transfer rate from

the refrigerant to water.

59

MEC 451 – THERMODYNAMICS

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