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B Y:

DR. MANOJ KUMAR SHUKLA


PROFESSOR
D E P T. O F E L E C T R O N I C S E N G I N E E R I N G
REGISTRAR
H A R C O U RT B U T L E R T E C H N I C A L U N I V E R S I T Y
KANPUR
Content
 Need of underwater communication
 OVERVIEW
 Main parts of the technique
 IDMA Scheme
 OFDM Scheme
 MIMO Systems
 Comparison of detection method
 Characteristics of Underwater channel
 Modulation techniques
 Challenges in underwater communication
 Parameter used in simulation
 Results
 Future scope of thesis
 Conclusion
 Reference
NEED OF UNDER WATER
COMMUNICATION

Applications of Underwater Communication


 Off-shore control of shore oil industry
 Pollution monitoring
 Under sea disaster response
 Collection of scientific data recorded at ocean bottom
 Discovery of new resources (3/4th of earth is water)
OVERVIEW

Important problems associated with underwater


communication
 High Fading due to salinity, turbulence etc.

 Slow data rate

Possible Solutions:
 OFDM technique employed for combating fading problem.

 MIMO architecture employed for improving data rate.


Objective of Work

 To Simulate IDMA and OFDMA scheme in Acoustic


Channel in 1Tx and 1 Rx. mode
 To simulate MIMO system with OFDM-IDMA
Scheme
B Y:
P R O F. M A N O J K U M A R S H U K L A
PROFESSOR
D E P T. O F E L E C T R O N I C S E N G I N E E R I N G
H A R C O U RT B U T L E R T E C H N I C A L U N I V E R S I T Y
KANPUR
IDMA Scheme

Interleavers are used to separate the different users.

Inherits all the merits if CDMA scheme.

Sufficient immunity against fading.


OFDMA Scheme:
 Divides a single high
data rate stream into
number of lower stream
before transmission

 Efficient for very highly


fading channel

 Efficient utilization of
bandwidth
 Serial data converted
into parallel data

 IFFT ensures the


orthogonality between
parallel data.

 Cyclic prefix employed to


eliminate the ISI
PAPR (peak to average power ) Problem

 High PAPR add noise and increase the BER when goes
to non linearity amplifier.

 Methods to reduce PAPR


(1) Clipping: clip the signal at desired level ( results in
distortions and ICI)
(2) Selective Mapping: Multiply the data set of codes
and then perform IIFT , selecting the one with least
PAPR
(3) LDPC Coding: reduces the problem of high PAPR
MIMO Systems

 Single transmitter takes


multiple time slots for
transmission

 In MIMO Systems, signal


streams can be grouped for
available transmitters.
Detection technique for MIMO Systems

 Zero forcing detection


 Sorted zero forcing detection
 Minimum mean error squared
 Maximum like hood detector

In zero forcing when a layer is detected ,the


interference coming from other undetected layer is
suppressed.
Comparison of different detection method
Why Acoustic Waves ?

In underwater Communication
 Large attenuation for EM waves due to conductivity of
sea water
 Optical waves affected by scattering
 Optical signals requires in pointing the narrow laser
beam
 Radio wave have low frequency so required large antenna
and high transmitter power

 So acoustic waves remain single best solution


Parameters in Underwater channel

AMBIENT NOISE SIGNAL LOSS


Ambient noise caused
by biological creature, Attenuation occurs due to
seismic and water
movement and Water
bubbles  Spreading
 Absorption
1  Reflection
Ambient Noise 
Frequency
Thermal Noise  Frequency
Speed of sound

 Varies according
temperature salinity, depth
 At surfaces sound depend
environment
 In thermocline layer sound
speed as temperature
 In isothermal layer speed
increase due to increase
pressure.
 Min speed is suitable for
transmission of low
frequency
Modulation Techniques in Underwater
Communication

 In past non coherent FSK used due to advantage of


no phase tracking required.

 FSK have high power efficiency but low bandwidth,


problem for high data rate.

 For high data rate, PSK and QAM used.


Challenges in Underwater Communication

 Limited bandwidth

 Multipath and fading

 High propagation delay

 Limited battery power and problem of its recharging


/replacement

 Sensors are costly and more prone to failure


PARAMETER USED IN SIMULATION

 The no. of users are 16 ,32, 64 ,128 ,512.


 Two transmitter and two receiver structure.
 BPSK modulation.
 LDPC coding .
 FFT for generating orthogonal signal.
 Random interleaver.
 MMSE detection method.

 Spreading length = 24
 Water Depth =40 meter
 Data length of each user =512 bits
 Salinity of water =3 %
 Water temperature =14 degree Celsius
 Water PH level =6
 Wind speed= 14 m/s
SIMULATION RESULTS
BER performance of MIMO-IDMA System

With increment in user


count, BER increases
Variation in iteration count at Receiver

 Iteration=1,5,10,15

For 10 iterations,
satisfactory BER
achieved
Variation in data length

 Iteration count= 10

 Data length =
128,256,512,1024 bits

With higher data


length, the BER is
improved due
availability of higher
count of random
interleavers
Variation in spreading length

 Spreading length=
8,16,24,32

BER performance
improves as
spreading length
increases due
availability of higher
count of random
interleavers
Varying Block length

 Block length= 5,10,


15, 20,200,500

With higher block length


,BER improves due
availability of higher
count of random
interleavers
Optimised Result

The MIMO-OFDM and


IDMA scheme simulated
for optimized value of
parameters

It=10,sp=24,block
length=200,data length=
256 and user =16.

Improvement in BER
performance
Using three transmitter three receiver
Architecture MIMO Systems

 BER increases on
increasing transmitter
and receiver count

 However with increment


in transmitter and
receiver count, the cost
of system increases
FUTURE SCOPE

 Some other method can be explored for avoiding


PAPR problem.

 The other interleaver such as tree based interleaver,


prime interleaver can be used.

 Higher modulation stage can be used.


Conclusions

 Low bandwidth and low data rate are two major problem
associated with underwater communication.
 In this case MIMO-OFDM and IDMA scheme provide
satisfactory result.
 The BER performance improves by triple factor in
comparison to MIMO-IDMA scheme.
 LDPC coding overcome PAPR problem to some extent.
 Using higher no of transmitter and receiver, bit rate
increase but noise level also increased due to
interference.
References

[1]M. Shukla, V.K. Srivastava, S. Tiwari, “Analysis and Design of


Optimum Interleaver for Iterative Receivers in IDMA Scheme,”
Wiley Journal of “Wireless Communications and Mobile
Computing” Vol 9. Issue 10, pp. 1312-1317, 2009
[2] Dr.Manoj Kumar Shukla, “Performance Evaluation of IDMA
Scheme in Wireless Communication,” PhD thesis, Nov. 2010
[3]R. F. W. Coates, Underwater Acoustic Systems. Wiley, 1989.
[4] R. S. H. Istepanian and M. Stojanovic, Underwater acoustic
digitalsignal processing and communication systems. Kluwer
Academic Pub.,2002.
[5] L.J. Cimini, Jr., \Analysis and simulation of a digital mobile
channel using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IEEE
Trans. on Communications.,vol. 33, pp. 665-675, July 1985.
[6] M. L. Doelz, E. T. Heald, and D. L. Martin.Binary transmission
techniques for linear systems.In Pro.IRE' 1957, volume 45, pages
656{661, May 1957.
[7] S. B. Weinstein and P. M. Ebert. Data Transmission by Frequency
Division Multiplexing Using the Discrete Fourier Transform. IEEE
Trans. Commun., 19:628{634, Oct. 1971.
[8] DAB Document. Digital audio broadcasting (DAB)—overview and
summaryof the DAB system. Download available at
http://www.worlddab.org/gendocs.aspx, last accessed: 07/23/2014.
[9] U. Reimers. Digital video broadcasting.IEEE Communications
Magazine,36(6):104–110, June 1998.
IEEE Standard 802.16-2001. IEEE standard for local and
metropolitan areanetworks part 16: Air interface for fixed
broadband wireless access systems.2002.
[10] P. Kumar, “DCT Based OFDM for Underwater Acoustic
Communication,” 1st International Conference on Recent Advances
in Information Technology, Dhanbad, 15-17 March 2012, pp. 170-
176
[11] Liberti J.C., and Rappaport T.S., “Smart Antennas for Wireless
Communications: IS-95 and Third Generation Applications”,
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1999.
[12] Pingzhi Fan, “Multiple Access Technologies for Next Generation
Mobile Communications,” in Proc. 6th International Conference on
ITS Telecommunications, pp. 10-11. 2006
[13] Li Ping, Lihai Liu, Keying Wu, W. Leung, “Interleave Division
Multiple Access,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications,
vol. 5, pp. 938-947, April 2006.
[14] I. Pupeza, A. Kavcic, and L. Ping, “Efficient generation of
interleavers for IDMA,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on
Communications, ICC 2006, vol. 4, pp. 1508-1513, June 2006
SC-FDMA-IDMA SCHEME FOR LTE
UPLINK IN UNDERWATER
COMMUNICATION

B Y:
P R O F. M A N O J K U M A R S H U K L A
PROFESSOR
D E P T. O F E L E C T R O N I C S E N G I N E E R I N G
H A R C O U RT B U T L E R T E C H N I C A L U N I V E R S I T Y
KANPUR
OBJECTIVE
 Simulation of SC-FDMA-IDMA
34 scheme in
underwater channel.

 Optimization of simulation parameters such as block


length, data length, iteration count and spreading
length etc.

 Performance Comparison of SC-FDMA-IDMA and


OFDM-IDMA Schemes in terms of BER for the
signal uplink transmission.

5/20/2019
OUTLINE
 Introduction 35

1. Underwater communication
2. Various multiple access schemes
3. Hybrid multiple access scheme

 3GPP (LTE) Long term Evolution

 Modulation of SC-FDMA scheme and OFDM scheme.

 System model of SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme and OFDM-IDMA


scheme over underwater channel

5/20/2019
OUTLINE
36

 Concept of Subcarrier mapping

 Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) analysis

 Bit Error Rate (BER) analysis

 Results and discussions

 Conclusions

 References
5/20/2019
INTRODUCTION TO UNDER WATER
COMMUNICATION
37 (UWC)
 Complex channel

 Frequency used between 10 Hz to 1 MHz

 Problems occurs in UWC [4]


1. Multi path propagation
2. Small available bandwidth
3. Strong Signal attenuation

 Acoustic waves in sea water

 Absorption of acoustic waves

 Propagation of sound
5/20/2019
Long Term Evolution (LTE)
38

5/20/2019
39

5/20/2019
INTRODUCTION TO OFDM-IDMA
AND SC-FDMA-IDMA SCHEMES
40 OFDMA as well as IDMA
 Hybrid scheme with features of both
scheme.

 OFDMA is a scheme used for digital multi carrier modulation.


 IDMA technique mitigates the MAI and ISI.

 The SC-FDMA –IDMA scheme utilizes single carrier modulation and


frequency multiplexing with addition of merits of IDMA.

 SC-FDMA-IDMA=OFDM-IDMA + DFT sequence

 An important implication of DFT Spreading is that the independent


parallel sub-channels between the data symbols no longer exist.

5/20/2019
3rd Generation Partnership Project
(3GPP) Long term Evolution (LTE)
41 with Cyclic Prefix (CP) in the
 LTE is based on OFDM scheme
Downlink and SC-FDMA scheme with CP in the uplink .

Figure 1 – Frame/slot structure of 3GPP LTE for SC-FDMA5/20/2019


uplink
[27]
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SC-FDMA AND OFDMA
SCHEMES
42

Data in

Data out

Figure 3- SC-FDMA and OFDMA Based Transmitter and Receiver [27]


5/20/2019
COMPARISON BETWEEN SC-FDMA
AND OFDMA SCHEMES
43

SCHEMES OFDMA SC-FDMA

PARAMETERS

NAME Original OFDMA DFT Pre coded


OFDMA

BER low Comparatively high

PAPR low Comparatively high

5/20/2019
SYSTEM MODEL OF SC-FDMA-IDMA AND
OFDM-IDMA SCHEMES
44

Figure 4-Uplink transmitter and receiver structures of SC-FDMA-IDMA


scheme and OFDM-IDMA scheme (Except the blue frame models) [1] 5/20/2019
SUBCARRIER MAPPING
 DFT output of the data symbol mapped to a subset of
subcarrier , this process is called
45 subcarrier mapping.
 Types of subcarrier mapping-
1. Localized mapping
2. Distributed mapping

Figure 5-Subcarrier allocation methods for multiple users (3 users,12subcarriers,


and 4 subcarriers allocated per user).[27] 5/20/2019
CONTD..
Localized Frequency Division Multiple Access (LFDMA)
Interleaved Frequency Division Multiple Access (IFDMA)
46

FIGURE 6-An example of SC-FDMA transmit symbols in the frequency domain for N = 4
subcarriers per user, Q = 3 users, and, M = 12 subcarriers in the system.[26]
5/20/2019
PAPR ANALYSIS
1 n 1
PAPR  max X /  X n 472 2
n
n  0,1.... N 1 N n 0
 Low because of its single carrier structure.

 As PAPR is a major concern at the user terminals, low PAPR


makes the SC-FDMA the preferred scheme for the uplink
transmission.

 PAPR relates to the power amplifier efficiency at the transmitter,


and the maximum power efficiency is achieved in SC-FDMA-
IDMA scheme.

5/20/2019
Bit Error Rate (BER) ANALYSIS
48
 Improved BER in OFDM-IDMA scheme.

 SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme has more BER than the OFDM-


IDMA scheme in downlink.

 SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme is useful only for LTE uplink


transmission due to its lower PAPR.

 Results based on base paper and further simulation are given


in next slides.

5/20/2019
CONTD ….

49

Figure 9- PAPR Performance comparison between OFDM-IDMA


scheme and SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme [1] 5/20/2019
CONTD….

With higher user 50


count, BER
increases

Figure 8- BER Performance of SC-FDMA-


IDMA scheme with different user numbers5/20/2019
[1]
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
51
 A comparison is demonstrated the effectiveness of the SC-FDMA-IDMA
scheme over AWGN channel and underwater channel.
 The comparison is done on the basis of following terms-
1. BER
2. PAPR
 By these parameter the BER performance of SC-FDMA-IDMA is
evaluated

1. Number of user=8, 16 7. Cutoff frequency=25 KHz


2. Spreading length=16 8. Depth of water =40 m
3. Frame length=256 9. Salinity=30 % [29]
10.Temperature=14 degree Celsius
4. Number of iterations=5 11. PH level=6 [28]
5. Block length=5 12. Speed of wind =10 m/s
6. Data length=512

5/20/2019
CONTD….

With higher user count,


52
more BER is observed.

Higher error occurs in


acoustic channel than
AWGN channel

Figure 7- BER Performance of SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme with


5/20/2019
Values of BER at different no. of users vs. Eb/N0 in SC-
FDMA-IDMA (LFDMA) scheme
AWGN AWGN UWA UWA
BER N=8 N=16 N=8 N=16
Value of
Eb/No
1 10-3 10-0.8 10-3 10-0.8

2 10-3.9 10-0.81 10-3.8 10-0.81

3 10-3.8 10-0.81 10-3.8 10-0.81

4 0 10-4 0 10-4

5 0 10-0.8 0 10-0.89

6 0 10-0.95 0 10-1.2

7 0 53 10-3 0 10-2.9
5/20/2019
CONTD….

With increment in receiver 54


iterations, the BER decreases

Figure 8- BER Performance comparison between OFDM-IDMA scheme


5/20/2019
and SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme with different iterative numbers
With higher user count, 55 performance of IFDMA scheme for variation no users over UWA channel
BER
more BER is observed. 0
10
SC-FDMA-IDMA(ifdma),q=2,n=8,it=3block=5
SC-FDMA-IDMA(ifdma),q=2,n=16,it=3block=5
-1
10

-2

Bit Error Rate


10

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Eb/No
Figure-10 BER performance of SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme with IFDMA
mode for variation of number of user over UWA channel 5/20/2019
CONTD ….

56 BER performance of OFDM-IDMA scheme for user variation


0
10

 With higher user count, more -1


10
BER is observed.

OFDMA-IDMAawgn,q=2,n=8,it=5block=5
-2

Bit Error Rate


10 OFDMA-IDMAawgn,q=2,n=16,it=5block=5
OFDMA-IDMAuwa,q=2,n=8,it=5block=5
 Higher error occurs in acoustic OFDMA-IDMAuwa,q=2,n=16,it=5block=5
channel than AWGN channel -3
10

-4
10

-5
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Eb/No

5/20/2019
Figure 11- BER Performance of OFDM-IDMA scheme for different users
With higher user data, more 57
BER is observed.

Higher error occurs in


acoustic channel than
AWGN channel

5/20/2019
Figure 12 BER performance of SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme on more no. of users
SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme 58
performs better BER

Figure 13-Comparison of LFDMA, IFDMA and OFDM-IDMA schemes in 5/20/2019


UWA
COMPARISON OF LFDMA, IFDMA AND OFDM-IDMA
SCHEME WITH UNDERWATER CHANNEL (BER VS EB/NO)-

BER
OFDM- LFDMA IFDMA
Values of
Eb/No IDMA
1 10-0.7 10-0.8 10-0.9
2 10-0.7 10-0.9 10-1
3 10-0.7 10-8 10-1.2
4 10-0.8 10-0.9 10-1.3
5 10-0.9 10-1.1 10-1.4
6 10-0.9 10-1.2 10-2
7 10-0.9 10-1.8 10-2.5
8 10-0.92 10-2.2 10-2.8
9 10-0.95 59 10-2.8 105/20/2019
-3.8
With increment in receiver 60
iterations, the BER decreases BER performance of LFDMA for variation of no. of iteration
0
10

-1
10
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=1block=200
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=5block=200
-2 SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200

Bit Error Rate


10
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=15block=200
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=20block=200

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Eb/No
Figure 14 BER performance of LFDMA scheme for different number of iteration at higher
block length 5/20/2019
With increment in data 61 BER performance of LFDMA for variation in data length
0
lengh, the BER decreases 10

-2
10

Bit Error Rate


-4
10

-6 SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200,DL=128
10
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200,DL=256
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200,DL=512
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200,DL=1024
-8
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Eb/No
Figure 15 BER performance of SC-FDMA-IDMA in LFDMA mode for variation in
data length 5/20/2019
With increment in 62 BER performance of LFDMA for variation in spreading length
spreadlengh, the BER 0
10
decreases

SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200,sl=4
-2
10 SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200,sl=8
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200,sl=16
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200,sl=24

Bit Error Rate


SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200,sl=32
-4
10

-6
10

-8
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Eb/No
Figure 16 BER performance of SC-FDMA-IDMA with LFDMA mode for variation
5/20/2019
in spreading length
With increment in block 63 BER performance of LFDMA for variation in block length
0
length, the BER decreases 10

-2
10

Bit Error Rate


-4
10
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=500
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=20
-6
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200
10

-8
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Eb/No
5/20/2019
Figure 17 BER performance of LFDMA scheme for variation in block length
Higher BER in Acoustic 64
BER performance of LFDMA for variation in no.of block
channel 0
10

-1
10

SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)uwa,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200
-2
Bit Error Rate

10

-3
10

-4
10

-5
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Eb/No

Figure 18 BER performance of LFDMA scheme for AWGN channel and underwater
channel with optimised values 5/20/2019
With increment in receiver 65
iterations, the BER decreases -1
10
BER performance of LFDMA for uwa channel

SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=50
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=8,it=10block=50
-2
10

-3
10

Bit Error Rate


-4
10

-5
10

-6
10

-7
10
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
Eb/No
Figure 19 BER performance of SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme with LFDMA mode for
underwater channel 5/20/2019
0
BER performance of LFDMA for variation in no.of block
10 66
Bit Error Rate

SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)uwa,q=2,n=16,it=10block=100
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)uwa,q=2,n=16,it=10block=5
SC-FDMA-IDMA(LFDMA)uwa,q=2,n=16,it=10block=50

-5
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Eb/No
Figure 20 BER performance of SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme with LFDMA mode
5/20/2019
in underwater channel for variation in number of block
0
BER performance of OFDM-IDMA
67 for AWGN channel
10

-2 OFDMA-IDMA awgn,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200
10 OFDMA-IDMA uwa,q=2,n=16,it=10block=200
Bit Error Rate

-4
10

-6
10

-8
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Eb/No

Figure 21 BER performance of OFDM-IDMA scheme for AWGN channel


5/20/2019
CONCLUSIONS
68

 Demonstrated BER performance of SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme in LFDMA and


IFDMA mode.

 Performed simulation on the basis of user, block length, spreading length, data
length and iteration variation.

 Comparative simulation has been done between SC-FDMA-IDMA (LFDMA


and IFDMA mode) and OFDM-IDMA scheme.

 Observed that the performance of SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme is better than the


OFDM-IDMA scheme in terms of PAPR for uplink.

5/20/2019
FUTURE WORK
69
 In future, this thesis can be extended by evaluating the
performance of SC-FDMA-IDMA scheme taking
other type of noise and demonstrating the effect of
various type of noises over the system.

 Thesis can also be extended by employing Multi-Input


Multi-Output System (MIMO) system, various type of
channel and different codes.

5/20/2019
REFERENCES
[1]. Xingzhong Xiong and Zhongqiang Luo, “SC-FDMA-IDMA: A Hybrid MultipleAccess
70
Scheme for LTE Uplink” ©2011 IEEE.

[2]. Li Ping, Lihai Liu, Keying Wu and W. K. Leung, “Interleave-Division Multiple-Access” IEEE
Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 5, no. 4, April 2006.

[3] Hyung G. Myung “INTRODUCTION TO SINGLE CARRIER FDMA”, in Proc. of 15th


European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2007), Poznan, Poland, September 3-7, 2007,
copyright by EURASIP.

[4] N. Baldo, P. Casari and M. Zorzi, "cognitive spectrum access for underwater acoustic
communications," in Proc. of IEEE Oceans Conference, Quebec City, Canada, Project No. 2007-
R/RT-2/RCM-21 September 15-18, 2008.
[5] Ethem M. Sozer, Milica Stojanovic, and John G. Proakis, Life Fellow, IEEE “Underwater
Acoustic Networks” IEEE journal of oceanic engineering, vol. 25, no. 1, january 2000.
[6] J. G. Proakis, E. M. Sozer, J. A. Rice, and M. Stojanovic, “Shallow water acoustic networks,”
IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 114–119, Nov. 2001.
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