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Overview:
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1. Introduction to CT
2. Structure of CT
3. Equivalent circuit of a CT
4. Specification and Accuracy
5. Applications
Introduction:
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 Current transformer or CT is a
type of instrument transformer
that is used in power system for
measurement, detection, and
protection the system.

 It is a device used to measure


large current by scaling large
primary currents to a smaller,
easy to measure, secondary
currents.
Introduction:
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Brief history:
 Measuring instruments, such as ammeters, voltmeters,
kilowatt-hour meters, etc , whether electromechanical or
electronic, meet insuperable design problems if faced with
the high voltages or high currents.
 For these reasons the use of instrument transformers (CT
and PT) followed very soon by the development of AC
power circuits. Such transformers were developed by a
number of workers during the nineteenth century and by
1900 had come into fairly general use.
Introduction:
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In power distribution
system, high voltage and
high intensity of current
always present.

Special instruments are


needed
Introduction:
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Equipments, Problems (Isolation, large size of


With high voltage instrument,…)
and current
Solution

isolate the instruments from


the power circuits
CT is used to

reduce the current to lower


level to be measured more
easily.
Structure:
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There are four basic types of current


transformers:
 window-type CT
• contain no primary winding. Instead,
the wire that carries the current is
threaded through a window in the
Donut-shaped CT(window-
toroidal transformer.
type CT) Bar-Type CT
•The bar-type CT is a window-type CT
with a primary bar inserted straight
through the window.

Bar-type CT
Structure:
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 Split-Core Type CT
• The split-core type CT is a special case
of window-type CT. Its winding and
core construction is such that it can hinge
open, or totally separate into two parts
Split-core type CT
 Wound CT
• consist of an integral primary winding
that is inserted in series with the
conductor that carries the measured
current.
Structure:
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Window-type CT Wound CT
Structure:
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 Current transformer is a step up transformer.


 The current is stepped down in a known ratio called current
ratio.

For example, a CT with a current


5A ratio of 300:5 will produce 5 amps
of secondary current when 300
amps flows through the primary.
300A
Current = ratio × ammeter reading
Equivalent circuit:
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 The equivalent circuit of a CT is that of a typical


transformer; however, the parameters of the circuit are
different.

Zb: the burden impedance


Equivalent circuit:
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 R1 and leakage inductance xl1 can be omitted since


I1 is determined by the external line load.
 The circuit is simplifies to:
Equivalent circuit:
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I’1 = I1/a ; I’M = (a^2)*IM

I’1 = I’M + Ib

According to this equation Ib is smaller than I1/a

The error is caused by the magnetizing current.


Phase diagram:
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I’1=I1/a

Ib

Phase shift

I’M
Specification:
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 Current Transformer’s performance specifications, includes


primary current, secondary current, Ratio, insulation voltage,
accuracy, and burden.
 Primary current, the load of the current transformer, is the
measured current. Secondary current is the range of current
outputs.
 The CT ratio is the ratio of primary current input to
secondary current output at full load. For example: 300:5
 Insulation voltage represents the maximum insulation that
current transformers provide when connected to a power
source.
Specification:
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 Accuracy is the degree of certainty with which the measured


current agrees with the ideal value.
 Burden is the maximum load that devices can support while
operating within their accuracy ratings. Typically, burden is
expressed in volt-amperes (VA), the product of the voltage
applied to a circuit and the current.

0.3 B 0.2

Accuracy in % CT Class Maximum Burden in


(B for metering Ohms
application, C, T ,H, L for
relaying application)
Accuracy:
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 The accuracy of the current ratio of a CT is affected by a


number of factors including:
Burden
Saturation class
External electromagnetic fields
Temperature and
Physical configuration.
Safety Precautions:
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 It is important to ensure that the secondary of any CT is not left


disconnected while the primary supply is on.
 In this condition, high voltage spikes are produced in the
transformer secondary, often thousands of volts, sufficient to
break down the transformer insulation, or affect the accuracy
of the transformer.
Hence the secondary of current transformer is never left
open.
Applications:
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 Current transformers safely isolate measurement and control


circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit
being measured.
 They are commonly used in the electrical power industry for:
 Measurement:
• measure current for power measurement and control. (In
this case, accuracy is very important.)
 Protection of power system:
• perform circuit control, perform roles for safety
protection and current limiting.
Applications:
Current Transformers in measurement application:

110 kV grid
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Applications:
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CTs
 CTs used in power
control circuit:

Circuit Breaker
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CT
Relay

Motor

23 3 phase ground fault detection


Applications:
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 CTs also can also be found in small power application such as:
Current clamp or current
probe is an electrical
device having two jaws
which open to allow
clamping around an
electrical conductor.

Residual current device


(RCD),or ground fault
circuit interrupter (GFCI)
CT

CT

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THANK YOU

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