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Principles of High

Quality Assessment
Prepared by: Sharon C. Caringal
Teacher-made test
• Means that the teacher design them to
assess students learning
• These test are associated with the grades
on report cards
• Help measure students progress
• Test scores maybe used for a portion of
students’ mark (Williams and
Some suggestions that can be helpful in
constructing tests:

1.) Testshould be balanced

2.) Students should not be penalized with a
low mark because they are weak in reading &
3.) The teacher might choose to use format
different from conventional test
There should be no surprises when it comes to students evaluation
Students should always be aware of evaluation criteria
and procedures
They should have a role in the evaluation
They should receive regular feedback as to “how they
are doing”
According to Stiggins (2001)
“The purpose of the classroom test vary, but prior to
constructing any test, teachers should first identify the
kinds of instructional decisions will be made based on
test results, and the kinds of score-based inferences
needed to support those decisions”
Clarity of the Learning Target
Suggested the following sequence of instruction (Popham, 2000)
 Determine the specific learning targets and their sequence for

 A standard may be composed of one learning target

 Each learning target typically has a sub- unit

 Contents
 Skills
 Assessment for learning that will be used to keep students
 The lesson designed to teach students the learning targets
Three building Blocks of well written objectives
 Conditions- define the materials that will be
available ( or unavailable) when the objective is
Behavior- is a verb that describes an observable
activity- what the students will do (action verb)
Criterion (also referred to as Degree)- is the
standard that is used to measure whether or not
the objective has been achieved
Learning Targets
states clearly what the
child will be learning in all
subject areas these includes:

 Reading
 Language Arts  Music
 Mathematics  Physical Education
 Science  Health
 Social Studies  Art; and
 School Counseling
Set of Guiding Principles for High Quality Assessment
 Students Are the Key Assessment Users
Clear and Appropriate Targets are Essential
Accurate Assessment Is a must
High quality assessment is essential in all assessments
Sound assessments arise from clear achievement targets
Valid assessments reflect clear achievement targets
Begin any assessment design with a clear sense of Why
you are conducting the assessment
Benefits based on the existence of learning that clears and
 Knowledge Targets
Procedural Knowledge targets
 Reasoning Targets
Types of Reasoning
 Inductive reasoning uses specific facts or evidence to infer general
 Deductive Reasoning begins with general rule or principle to infer specific
conclusions or solutions
 Analytical Reasoning requires examining components or structure of
 Comparative Reasoning describes similarities and differences between two
or more items
 Performance Skills Targets
requires the students to demonstrate their
mastery of learning and to be observed
 Product targets are not to used as frequently as
other types but highly valued calling for creation
of a product.
 Dispositional Targets rarely show up on state
standards but are important because they reflect
students’ attitude about school and learning.
Establishing Learning Goals
Educational Goals – general statements of what
students will know and be able to do.
Educational Learning Objectives
 more specific statements of what students will
know and be able to do
Types of Learning Targets
( Marzano and Kendall (1996) identified five types of
learning targets:

 Knowledge and Simple Understanding- includes mastery of facts

and information, typically through recall, as well as simple
 Deep Understanding and Reasoning- includes problem solving,
critical thinking, synthesis, comparing, higher order thinking skills
and judgement
 Skills-involves something that a student must demonstrate in a way
other than answering questions
 Products- includes a sample of students work that demonstrates the
ability knowledge, understanding, reasoning and skills
 Affective- includes attitudes, values, interests, feelings and beliefs
Sources of Learning Targets
o Bloom’s Taxonomy
o National, Regional, and District Standards
o Textbooks
Blooms’ Taxonomy
o Cognitive – mental skills ( knowledge)
o Affective – growth in feelings or emotional areas
o Psychomotor- manual or physical skills ( Skills)
Stating General Learning Outcomes

The learning outcomes to be measured are useful

in test construction when they are stated as terminal
performance which are observable. It means that they
should clearly indicate the student performance to
demonstrated at the end of learning experience.

Next is for the teacher to list specific types of

performance that are to be accepted as evidence that
the outcomes have been achieved
Cognitive Domain
involves knowledge and development of the
intellectual skills. This is to recall or recognition of specific
facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serves in the
development of intellectual abilities and skills.
1.) Knowledge- recall data or information
2.) Comprehension- understand the meaning,
translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instruction or
3.) Application- use concept in new situation or
unprompted use of an abstraction
4.) Analysis- separates material or concepts into
components so that its organizational structure may be
5.) Synthesis- build a structure or pattern from diverse
6.) Evaluation- make judgments about the value of
ideas or materials
Psychomotor Domain
includes physical movement, coordination, and use of
motor skills areas.
1.) Perception- ability to use sensory cues to guide motor
2.) Set- readiness to act
3.) Guided Response- the early stages in learning a complex
skill that includes imitation and trail and error
4.) Mechanism- is the intermediate stage in learning a complex
5.) Complex Overt Response- the skillful performance of motor
acts involve complex movement
6.) Adaptation- skills are very well developed and the
individual can modify movement patterns to fit specials
7.) Organization- creating new movement patterns to fit a
particular situation or specific problems