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RIZAL AND HIS TIMES

To appreciate and understand the life


of Dr. Jose P. Rizal, it is necessary to
know the historical background of the
world and the Philippines during his
times.
It was 19th Century…

When Rizal lived with a ferment of events


caused by variants tides of leadership,
changes in government, liberation, violence
and war which significantly affecting the
lives and fortunes of mankind.

Such as….
The conflict over the Negro slaves
compelled President Lincoln to issue his
Emancipation Proclamation on 1863.
In the Philippines…

The Filipino people agonized beneath the


yoke of Spanish misrule, for they were
unfortunate victims of the evils of an
unjust, bigoted and deteriorating colonial
power.

and….
Rizal could attest on the evil events that
made Filipinos felt marginalized,
discriminated and poorly administered.
1. Rizal lived with a ferment of events caused by
variants tides of leadership, changes in
government, liberation, violence and war which
significantly affecting the lives and fortunes of
mankind.

Give the exact date when Jose Rizal was baptized and
welcomed by his family to the Christian world.
2. It was 1863 when the Negro slaves where
emancipated by a decree by this American
President.

Who decreed the emancipation?


INSTABILITY OF COLONIAL
ADMINISTRATION

The political turmoil that Spain


experiencing during that time was of great
effect to administer its colonized countries.

It brought frequent periodic shifts in


colonial policies and a periodic rigodon of
colonial officials.
For example, from 1834 – 1897, the
Philippines was ruled by 50 governors
general , that at one time a period of less
than a year, there were four Governor
Generals.

Hardly had one governor-general begun his


administration when he was soon replaced
by his succesor.
CORRUPT COLONIAL OFFICIALS

With few exceptions, the colonial officials


sent by Spain in the 19th century were a far
cry from their able and dedicated
predecessors of the 16th, 17th, 18th
centuries.

The “Siglo de Oro” of the Spaniards which


produced Miguel Cervantes, Lope de Vega
and other glories of the Hispanic nation.
General Rafael Isquierdo, a ruthless
governor general, aroused the anger of the
Filipinos by executing the innocent
GOMBURZA.

General Valeriano Weyler, a cruel and


corrupt governor general, arrived in Manila
a poor man and returned to Spain
millionaire. He was called “tyrant” because
of his brutal persecution of the Calamba
tenants.

For some, accepting brides and gifts to


favor someone.
3. Cuban people gave him the name as “the
TYRANT”, who ruthlessly executing Cuban people
during his reign.

And when he became the Governor General in the


Philippines , he’s the one who persecuted the
Calamba people.

Who was he?


4. The periodic rigodon of Spanish officials in the
Philippines was only the result of political turmoil
in our country.
TRUE or FALSE

5. The political instability in Spain adversely


affected Philippines affairs because it brought
about frequent periodic shifts in colonial policies
and a periodic rigodon of colonial officials.
TRUE or FALSE
PHILIPPINE REPRESENTATION IN THE
SPANISH CORTEZ

The first Philippine representation was with


Ventura delos Reyes, took active part to
represent concerns and issues to the
CORTEZ.

Also, in his representation he achieved to


speak on the issue of the galleon trade that
later on he managed to abolish it.
6. It was a delegation of different colony
representatives of Mother Spain.

For once, Philippines had a representative


in this delegation. Who was he?
7. It was a delegation of different colony
representatives of Mother Spain.

For once, Philippines had a representative


in this delegation. Who was the Filipino
representative described as the?
true representative?
The first Philippine representation was
fruitful with beneficient results for the
welfare of the economy.

However, the second period of


representation and the third was less
fruitful. And it was not represented by a
Filipino oriented leader.
Unfortunately, the representation of the
overseas colonies in the Spanish Cortes
was abolished in 1837. From there,
Filipinos had no way to expose the
anomalies perpetrated by the colonial
officials.
HUMAN RIGHTS DENIED TO FILIPINOS

NO EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW

With the Christian doctrines that,


irrespective of color and race, that all men
are children of God.

Filipinos were fascinated by this noble


concept of human relations, that is why
they chose to become Christians.

But in practice, Spaniards arrogantly -


regarded the brown-skinned Filipinos as
inferior beings.
8. Spanish friars believed in the doctrine
that all men are equal before God.
TRUE or FALSE

9. But in practice, Spaniards arrogantly -


regarded the brown-skinned Filipinos as
inferior beings.
TRUE or FALSE
To the Imperialist way of thinking, brown
Filipinos and white Spaniards may be equal
before God, but not before law and
certainly not in practice

The Spanish Penal Code, imposed heavier


penalties on native Filipinos or mestizos
and lighter penalties on white Spaniards.

Wealth, social prestige, and color of skin


were preponderant factors in winning a
case in court. Irrespective of the weight of
evidence, skin white can easily achieved
victory in any litigation –
MALADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
10. Wealth, social prestige, and color of skin were
preponderant factors in winning a case in court. Irrespective
of the weight of evidence, skin white can easily achieved
victory in any litigation –

Thus, Filipinos can easily grab equal chances on the law.


TRUE or FALSE
RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

Racial prejudice was prevalent everywhere-


in government offices, in the courts of
justice, in the armed forces and even in the
educational institutions and in the
ecclesiastical hierarchy.
FRAILOCRACY

So named because it was a “government of


the friars”

The friars practically ruled the Philippines


through a façade of civil government. The
colonial authorities, from the governor
general down to the Alcaldes Mayores,
were under the control of the friars.
FORCED LABOR

Known as the “polo”, it was the


compulsory labor imposed by the Spanish
colonial authorities on adult Filipino males.

The well-to-do Filipinos were able to escape


this manual labor by paying the “falla”,
which was a sum of money paid to the
government to be exempted from rendeing
services.
11. They were called as the workers of
FORCED LABOR. __________________

12. No person shall be exempt from


rendering services in Forced Labor.
TRUE or FALSE
13. The will of the Priest is the primodial
rule against others. They (friars) were the
government and acted like a King that all
favors are on to them.

What particular term is being described as


the authority of the friars?
HACIENDAS OWNED BY THE FRIARS

Spanish friars belonging to different


religious orders were the richest landlords,
for they owned the best haciendas.

The rural folks, who had been living in


these haciendas and cultivating them
generation after generation became
tenants.
No wonder, these friar haciendas became
hotbeds of revolts. In as much as the
Filipino tenants regarded the friar owners
as usurpers of their ancestral lands.

Rizal, whose family and relatives were


tenants of the Dominican Estate of
Calamba, tried to initiate agrarian reforms
in 1887,but in vain. His advocacy of
agrarian reform ignited the wrath of the
Dominican friars, who retaliated by raising
the rentals of lands leased by his family
and other Calamba tenants.
The GUARDIA CIVIL

While it is true that the Guardia Civil had


rendered meritorious services in
suppressing the bandits in the provinces,
they later became infamous for their
rampant abuses.

Rizal actually witnessed the atrocities


committed by the Guardia Civil on the
Calamba folks. He himself and his mother
had bee victims of the brutalities of the
lieutenant of the Guardia Civil.