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1

IRRIGATION ENGINEERING

(CE-402)

Lecture # 5

Prepared by:

Engr. Ateeq-ur-Rauf 2

Lecture # 5

Regime

Channels

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 3

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Regime Channel

Def “ A channel is said to be in a regime channel if it

produces a non- silting and non- scouring velocity for

the given discharge and sediment load.” Also called as

Stable channel.

Some Important Definitions

Alluvium

“ The soil being brought by a water channel along its

flow”

Incoherent Alluvium

“ Soil composed of loose granular graded material

which can be scoured with the same ease with which it

is deposited” Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Ateeq ur Rauf Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 4

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Regime silt charge

“ The minimum transported sediment load consistent

with fully active bed”

“Indicates the gradation between the small and big

particles. It should not be taken to mean the average

mean diameter of a particle.

Bed Load

“ The load of bed material in the bed layer where

suspension is impossible for the fluid dynamic reasons”

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 5

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

• Sediment grains in the bed layer are not vertically

supported by the flow, but rest on the bed almost

continuously while sliding, rolling and jumping

along(Stationary or dead bed).

Suspended Load

“The sediments suspended in the fluid which is

supported by the surrounding fluid is known as

suspended load.”

• Particles have a certain settling velocity Vs .

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 6

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

• The particles are kept in suspension only because the

flow provides an upward motion due to turbulent

exchange due to which a fluid is continuously

exchanged over definite distance between horizontal

layers.

pressure on the bed.

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 7

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Silt Theories (for Alluvial Channels)

“Silt theories are developed in search of Stable or

Regime Channel.”

Kennedy’s Theory

Definition for Regime Channel. “A regime channel is one

which develop a non-silting & non-scouring velocity”

Canal system.

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 8

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Concluded from his research

• Silt transported power of channel, x-section was

mainly dependent upon the generation of eddies rising

to the surface

• Eddies are generated due to friction of the flowing

water.

• Vertical component of eddies, generating from the

channel keep the sediments in suspension.

• Eddies generating on the sides of the channel have

horizontal movements for greater part & therefore did

not have the sediment supporting power.

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 9

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

• Mean that “ the sediment supporting power of a channel is

proportional to its width & not wetted perimeter.

• From his observations, he developed the relation

V0 0.55y 0.64 (1)

V0 = Critical velocity (m/sec) ;Non-Silting & non-Scouring velocity

y = depth of flow (m)

Equation (1) is only for upper Bari Doab Channel

Modified Equation After recognizing the effect of sediment size

or silt grade on critical velocity, he gave the following equation.

V 0.55my 0.64 (2)

Where m = critical velocity ratio ( CVR)

m = V/V0

V = Critical Velocity for all silt grade.

Vo = Critical velocitty for Upper Bari Doab Canal Sediment

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 10

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

• Kennedy has not given any relation for slope of the

regime channel.

• Suggested to use kutter’s equation or Manning's

equation .

• Manning's equation V 1 .R 2/3 .S 1 2

O

n

Where So is the Longitudinal slope.

• Kutter’s Equation

Where S is the 1 0.00155

Longitudinal 23

V n S RS

slope.

1 23 0.00155 n

m

S

R

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 11

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Recommended values for CVR .(m)

CVR (m)

1 Silt of river Indus 0.7

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 12

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Design Procedure for a channel (By Kennedy)

• Design Procedure based on Kennedy’s theory involves

trials.

the trail values of ‘y’ (depth of flow) & obtain the C.V ‘V’

from Kennedy's equation (2)

Give V

• Step # 2. From continuity equation Q = AV, calculate

the area of x-section A & then fined the value of bed

width b for the assumed value of ‘y’. Give A

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 13

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Step # 3

Using the value of ‘b’ & ‘y’ compute the mean velocity

from Manning equation or Kutter’s equation.

1 2/3 1 2 23

1

0.00155

V .R .SO Vm n S

1 23 0.00155 n

RS

n

S R

If the value of mean velocity, match with the value of

C.V obtained earlier (from Kennedy's equation) the

assumed value of ‘y’ & then computed value of ‘B’

provide the channel dimensions. If the two values of

velocities do not match, assume another value of ‘y’ &

repeat calculation.

Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Ateeq ur Rauf 14

Peshawar(Bannu Campus)

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Problem # 1

Given Data:

Discharge = Q = 30 cumecs

m = CVR =1

Co-efficient = n= 0.0225

Bed Slop = So = 1/5000

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 15

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Problem # 2.

An irrigation canal having side slop 1:1 has bottom

width of 3m. It runs at a depth of 1m with a bed slope of

1 in 2500. Manning’s value of n = 0.028. Determine

whether the canal will be silting or scouring or remain

stable. Use Manning’s and Kennedy’s equations.

Solution:

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 16

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Problem # 3.

Design an irrigation canal in clayey alluvial soil for full

supply discharge = 35 cumecs, coefficient of roughness

0.025, canal side slope 1:1, longitudinal slope 1 in 5000.

Also check for critical velocity ratio, allowable CVR is 0.9

to 1.1

Solution:

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 17

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Lacey’s Theory

According to Lacey

“Dimension of a channel (width, depth & Slope) of the

regime channel to carry a given water discharge &

sediments are fixed by nature”.

Kennedy stated. “regime channel neither silting

nor scouring”.

But Lacey. “ even channel showing no silting or scouring

actually not be in regime (stable). Channel in initial regime

is not stable even though

He divided the regime in two showing temporarily no

silting no scouring.

i) Initial regime

ii) Final regime (true regime)

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 18

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

• The Channel is stable when it is in true regime

Conditions for True Regime

i) The flow (Q) through channel is constant.

ii) The characteristics or silt grade (type of soil) & silt

charge (discharge of sediment) are constant.

iii) The channel flow uniformly in incoherent alluvium.

channel will be in regime if flow through

incoherent unlimited alluvium of the same

character as that of transported and silt grade and

silt charge are constant.”

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 19

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Initial Regime (Condition)

• There should be freedom to the channel , to form its

own section.

Def: “State of the channel that has formed its section

only and yet not secured the longitudinal slope.”

Final Regime

• when a channel is formed with a defective side

slopes, the channel tries to throw (erode) off the

incoherent silt on the bed to increase their slopes.

• Channel forms its section before the bed slope.

• The channel after attaining its section and longitudinal

slope, is said to be in true or final regime.

20

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

• Regime theory is applicable to such channel which are

only in true regime.

semi-elliptical shape.

width

width

depth

Medium Silt

depth width

depth

Coarser Silt

Fine Silt Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 21

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Lacey Concluded from his Research:

• “ Silt supporting eddies generated from the bottom as

well as from the sides of the channel”

normal to the surface of generation.”

sides will also support the silt.”

Silt

supporting

▼

R Eddies

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 22

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

• Assumed hydraulic mean depth, R as variable.

• Assumed semi -ellipse as the cross section of regime

channel. So, assumption R as a variable seems to be

more logical

• Lacey found that “ critical velocity of regime channel

is proportional to the wetted perimeter, not to the depth

of the channel.”

• He has given more importance to size of the grain of

material forming the channel.

• Introduced a factor ‘ f ’ called “Lacey’s silt factor” for

the size & grade of silt.

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 23

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Design Procedure by Lacey’s Theory

1 6

Step # 1.Calculate the velocity of flow V Qf 2

o (1)

140

f 1.75 d mm (2)

d mm average partical size in mm

Q discharge in cumecs

5V 2

Step # 2. Workout hydraulic radius R (3)

2f

Lacey regime scour depth

d 1.35 q 2 f

1 3

( 4)

q diacharge/ unitwidth

Step # 3. Workout Area Q AV

A Q/V - - - - - - - - - - - -(5)

Find flow depth y and bed width b?

f53

Step # 5. Workout Bed Slope S 1 6

(7 )

3340 Q 24

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Problem # 4.

Design an irrigation canal in alluvium for maximum

discharge = 35 cumecs, coefficient of roughness 0.025,

canal side slope 1:1, longitudinal slope 1 in 5000. Use

Lacey’s theory.

Solution:

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 25

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Problem # 5.

Design a canal by Lacey’s theory for 40 cumecs , discharge and

f = 0.9.

Solution:

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 26

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Problem # 6.

Prepare discharge table of a canal, the observed

discharge at gauge 1.42m is 8.8 cumecs and 5.7

cumecs at 1.17m gauge. Is the canal silted or scoured?

Solution:

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 27

Lecture # 5

Regime Channels

Munir & Qurashi Theory

• One of the recent attempt in the design of unlined canals

carrying sediment laden water.

• The results were based on laboratory flume experimental data.

• Some of the parameters used in the Canal design have been

quantified thus avoiding trial & error to reach an objective

conclusion

Design Procedure

• Have developed there own design procedure for stable

channel design

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,

Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 28

THE END

29

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