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IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST

BENEFICENT, THE MOST MERCIFUL.

1
IRRIGATION ENGINEERING
(CE-402)

Lecture # 5

Prepared by:
Engr. Ateeq-ur-Rauf 2
Lecture # 5

Regime
Channels
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 3
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Regime Channel
Def “ A channel is said to be in a regime channel if it
produces a non- silting and non- scouring velocity for
the given discharge and sediment load.” Also called as
Stable channel.
Some Important Definitions
Alluvium
“ The soil being brought by a water channel along its
flow”
Incoherent Alluvium
“ Soil composed of loose granular graded material
which can be scoured with the same ease with which it
is deposited” Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Ateeq ur Rauf Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 4
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Regime silt charge
“ The minimum transported sediment load consistent
with fully active bed”

Regime Silt Grade


“Indicates the gradation between the small and big
particles. It should not be taken to mean the average
mean diameter of a particle.

Bed Load
“ The load of bed material in the bed layer where
suspension is impossible for the fluid dynamic reasons”
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 5
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
• Sediment grains in the bed layer are not vertically
supported by the flow, but rest on the bed almost
continuously while sliding, rolling and jumping
along(Stationary or dead bed).
Suspended Load
“The sediments suspended in the fluid which is
supported by the surrounding fluid is known as
suspended load.”
• Particles have a certain settling velocity Vs .
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 6
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
• The particles are kept in suspension only because the
flow provides an upward motion due to turbulent
exchange due to which a fluid is continuously
exchanged over definite distance between horizontal
layers.

• Suspended load causes an additional hydrostatic


pressure on the bed.
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 7
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Silt Theories (for Alluvial Channels)
“Silt theories are developed in search of Stable or
Regime Channel.”
Kennedy’s Theory
Definition for Regime Channel. “A regime channel is one
which develop a non-silting & non-scouring velocity”

• Collected data from 22 channels of Upper Bari Doab


Canal system.
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 8
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Concluded from his research
• Silt transported power of channel, x-section was
mainly dependent upon the generation of eddies rising
to the surface
• Eddies are generated due to friction of the flowing
water.
• Vertical component of eddies, generating from the
channel keep the sediments in suspension.
• Eddies generating on the sides of the channel have
horizontal movements for greater part & therefore did
not have the sediment supporting power.
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 9
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
• Mean that “ the sediment supporting power of a channel is
proportional to its width & not wetted perimeter.
• From his observations, he developed the relation
V0  0.55y 0.64      (1)
V0 = Critical velocity (m/sec) ;Non-Silting & non-Scouring velocity
y = depth of flow (m)
Equation (1) is only for upper Bari Doab Channel
Modified Equation After recognizing the effect of sediment size
or silt grade on critical velocity, he gave the following equation.
V  0.55my 0.64      (2)
Where m = critical velocity ratio ( CVR)
m = V/V0
V = Critical Velocity for all silt grade.
Vo = Critical velocitty for Upper Bari Doab Canal Sediment
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 10
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
• Kennedy has not given any relation for slope of the
regime channel.
• Suggested to use kutter’s equation or Manning's
equation .
• Manning's equation V  1 .R 2/3 .S 1 2
O
n
Where So is the Longitudinal slope.
• Kutter’s Equation
Where S is the  1 0.00155 
Longitudinal  23   
V   n S  RS
slope.
1   23  0.00155  n  
m

  S
  
 R  
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 11
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Recommended values for CVR .(m)

S.no Types of Silt Values of


CVR (m)
1 Silt of river Indus 0.7

2 Lightly Sandy Silt 1.0

3 Lightly Silty sand, little coarse 1.1

4 Sandy Loamy silt 1.2

5 Debris hard Soil 1.3

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,


Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 12
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Design Procedure for a channel (By Kennedy)
• Design Procedure based on Kennedy’s theory involves
trials.

• Step # 1. For known Q, n, m & So (bed slope), assume


the trail values of ‘y’ (depth of flow) & obtain the C.V ‘V’
from Kennedy's equation (2)

V  0.55my 0.64      (2)


Give V
• Step # 2. From continuity equation Q = AV, calculate
the area of x-section A & then fined the value of bed
width b for the assumed value of ‘y’. Give A
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 13
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Step # 3
Using the value of ‘b’ & ‘y’ compute the mean velocity
from Manning equation or Kutter’s equation.
 
1 2/3 1 2  23 
1

0.00155

V  .R .SO Vm  n S 
1   23  0.00155  n  
RS
  
n 
  S  R 

Step # 4 Give ‘b’ and ‘y’


If the value of mean velocity, match with the value of
C.V obtained earlier (from Kennedy's equation) the
assumed value of ‘y’ & then computed value of ‘B’
provide the channel dimensions. If the two values of
velocities do not match, assume another value of ‘y’ &
repeat calculation.
Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Ateeq ur Rauf 14
Peshawar(Bannu Campus)
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Problem # 1
Given Data:
Discharge = Q = 30 cumecs
m = CVR =1
Co-efficient = n= 0.0225
Bed Slop = So = 1/5000

Required: Design a Channel

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,


Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 15
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Problem # 2.
An irrigation canal having side slop 1:1 has bottom
width of 3m. It runs at a depth of 1m with a bed slope of
1 in 2500. Manning’s value of n = 0.028. Determine
whether the canal will be silting or scouring or remain
stable. Use Manning’s and Kennedy’s equations.
Solution:

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,


Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 16
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Problem # 3.
Design an irrigation canal in clayey alluvial soil for full
supply discharge = 35 cumecs, coefficient of roughness
0.025, canal side slope 1:1, longitudinal slope 1 in 5000.
Also check for critical velocity ratio, allowable CVR is 0.9
to 1.1
Solution:

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,


Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 17
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Lacey’s Theory
According to Lacey
“Dimension of a channel (width, depth & Slope) of the
regime channel to carry a given water discharge &
sediments are fixed by nature”.
Kennedy stated. “regime channel neither silting
nor scouring”.
But Lacey. “ even channel showing no silting or scouring
actually not be in regime (stable). Channel in initial regime
is not stable even though
He divided the regime in two showing temporarily no
silting no scouring.
i) Initial regime
ii) Final regime (true regime)
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 18
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
• The Channel is stable when it is in true regime
Conditions for True Regime
i) The flow (Q) through channel is constant.
ii) The characteristics or silt grade (type of soil) & silt
charge (discharge of sediment) are constant.
iii) The channel flow uniformly in incoherent alluvium.

• Now Definition of Regime Channel by Lacey “A


channel will be in regime if flow through
incoherent unlimited alluvium of the same
character as that of transported and silt grade and
silt charge are constant.”
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 19
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Initial Regime (Condition)
• There should be freedom to the channel , to form its
own section.
Def: “State of the channel that has formed its section
only and yet not secured the longitudinal slope.”
Final Regime
• when a channel is formed with a defective side
slopes, the channel tries to throw (erode) off the
incoherent silt on the bed to increase their slopes.
• Channel forms its section before the bed slope.
• The channel after attaining its section and longitudinal
slope, is said to be in true or final regime.
20
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
• Regime theory is applicable to such channel which are
only in true regime.

• Final regime channel has a tendency to resume a


semi-elliptical shape.
width
width
depth

Medium Silt
depth width
depth
Coarser Silt

Department of Civil Engineering, UET,


Fine Silt Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 21
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Lacey Concluded from his Research:
• “ Silt supporting eddies generated from the bottom as
well as from the sides of the channel”

• “ the eddies are generated from bed & sides, both


normal to the surface of generation.”

• “ Vertical component of eddies generated from the


sides will also support the silt.”
Silt
supporting

R Eddies

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,


Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 22
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
• Assumed hydraulic mean depth, R as variable.
• Assumed semi -ellipse as the cross section of regime
channel. So, assumption R as a variable seems to be
more logical
• Lacey found that “ critical velocity of regime channel
is proportional to the wetted perimeter, not to the depth
of the channel.”
• He has given more importance to size of the grain of
material forming the channel.
• Introduced a factor ‘ f ’ called “Lacey’s silt factor” for
the size & grade of silt.
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 23
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Design Procedure by Lacey’s Theory
1 6
Step # 1.Calculate the velocity of flow V  Qf 2 
o           (1)
 140 
f  1.75 d mm        (2)
d mm  average partical size in mm
Q  discharge in cumecs
5V 2
Step # 2. Workout hydraulic radius R               (3)
2f
Lacey regime scour depth

d  1.35 q 2 f 
1 3
         ( 4)
q  diacharge/ unitwidth
Step # 3. Workout Area Q  AV
A  Q/V - - - - - - - - - - - -(5)

Step # 4. Work out Perimeter P  4.75 Q      (6)


Find flow depth y and bed width b?

 f53 
Step # 5. Workout Bed Slope S 1 6 
   (7 )
 3340  Q  24
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Problem # 4.
Design an irrigation canal in alluvium for maximum
discharge = 35 cumecs, coefficient of roughness 0.025,
canal side slope 1:1, longitudinal slope 1 in 5000. Use
Lacey’s theory.

Solution:

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,


Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 25
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Problem # 5.
Design a canal by Lacey’s theory for 40 cumecs , discharge and
f = 0.9.
Solution:

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,


Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 26
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Problem # 6.
Prepare discharge table of a canal, the observed
discharge at gauge 1.42m is 8.8 cumecs and 5.7
cumecs at 1.17m gauge. Is the canal silted or scoured?

Solution:

Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,


Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 27
Lecture # 5

Regime Channels
Munir & Qurashi Theory
• One of the recent attempt in the design of unlined canals
carrying sediment laden water.
• The results were based on laboratory flume experimental data.
• Some of the parameters used in the Canal design have been
quantified thus avoiding trial & error to reach an objective
conclusion
Design Procedure
• Have developed there own design procedure for stable
channel design
Ateeq ur Rauf Department of Civil Engineering, UET,
Peshawar(Bannu Campus) 28
THE END
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