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Allergic

Disorders
Urticaria, Angioneurotic Edema,
Hereditary Angioedema
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Urticaria
Type I hypersensitive allergic reaction of
the skin
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Urticaria
Also known as hives

• An allergic reaction characterized by the


sudden appearance of pinkish,

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edematous elevations that vary in size
and shape, itch and cause local
discomfort

• Hives that are present daily or


intermittently over a period of less than
6 weeks are termed Acute Urticaria

• More than 6 weeks – Chronic


Urticaria
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Angioneurotic
Edema

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• Deep- seated swelling of tissue

• The regions most often involved are the


lips, eyelids, cheeks, hands, feet, genitalia
and tongue.

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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_2stYfwAog

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Causes
• Allergy- induced Urticaria
 Food
 Drugs (aspirin and antibiotics)

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 Insect Bites (especially bees and fire ants)

• Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria


 activation of autoantibodies (immune proteins that target the body’s own
cells) may also trigger the release of histamine

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Hereditary
Angioedema
Rare, autosomal dominant genetic
disease that causes swelling of the skin
and tissue just beneath the skin. 8
TYPES
There are three forms or types of hereditary angioedema.

They are distinguished by laboratory tests and genetic testing. The disease is

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inherited as autosomal dominant gene, meaning only one abnormal gene is
required from a parent for the offspring to inherit the disease.

• Type I HAE is caused by low levels of C1 inhibitor protein.


• Type II HAE is characterized by normal or elevated levels of dysfunctional C1
inhibitor protein.
• Type III is identified as an estrogen-dependent form of angioedema occurring
mainly in women and is a result of mutations in the gene for coagulation factor
XII. 9
Most Common Areas

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SYMPTOMS
•Swelling of the skin (most common
symptom)
•Swelling of the hands and feet

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•Fatigue
•Headache
•Muscle aches
•Abdominal pain (sometimes severe)
•Nausea and vomiting
•Hoarseness
•Shortness of breath
•Mood changes
•Laryngeal edema (medical emergency)

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SYMPTOMS
• Typically begin in childhood

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and worsen during puberty

• On average, untreated
individuals have an attack
every 1 to 2 weeks, and most
episodes last for about 3 to
4 days

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CAUSES
• Autosomal dominant gene is that it
does not produce enough C1

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inhibitor (a protein that inhibits
the complement system from self-
activation) so that the body allows
fluid to escape from tiny blood
vessels into many different areas.

• Males and females have about a 50-


50 chance of inheriting the disease if
one of their parents has HAE.
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Jens Martensson
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbhcvFzLpFo

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