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# FLEXURAL ANALYSIS

AND DESIGN OF
REINFORCED
CONCRETE BEAMS
FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS
ASSUMPTIONS REGARDING FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR
Following assumptions are considered to simplify the
flexural behaviour of beams, to study the basic
concepts and to derive the basic formulae for
analysis and design.
 Plane section remains plane after bending. This may
not be exactly true closer to ultimate condition.
 There exist a perfect bond between concrete and
steel and hence the strain in steel is exactly equal to
strain in surrounding concrete. This assumption may
not be exactly satisfied after cracking.
 Hooks law is applicable. The stresses in concrete
FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS
and steel may be estimated from corresponding
strain using stress strain curve and modulus of
elasticity.
 The external forces acting at any cross section are
balanced by the internal resistive forces. This
condition remains valid up to failure of structure.
 After the appearance of first hairline or visible crack,
the concrete strength in tension is neglected.
 The stress strain relationship of concrete and steel
are simplified to study the complex interaction of two
materials in reinforced concrete member, particularly
closer to the collapse when the materials are in their
inelastic ranges.
 Concrete is assumed to be crushed at strain of 0.003
NOTATIONS
As = Area of steel on tension side
b = width of compression face of the beam
d = Distance of centroid of tension steel from
extreme compression fibre
h = total depth of member
f’c = specified compressive strength of concrete
fc = Allowable stress in concrete, f’c/FOS
fy = Yield strength of steel
fs = Allowable stress in steel, fy/FOS
jd = lever arm between comp and tensile force
kd = depth of neutral axis from extreme comp fibre
ϵc .ϵs =Strain in concrete / steel ϵcu =0.003
ρ = steel ratio =As/bd
Cc/T = Resultant compressive /tensile force
fct = tensile stress in concrete ≤ fcr
BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED
 Consider the reinforced concrete beam shown in
CONCRETE BEAM
fig. 3.2 (a). When the load on such a beam is
gradually Increased from zero to the magnitude that
will cause the beam to fail, several different stages
of behaviour can be clearly distinguished.
 At low loads, as long as the maximum tensile stress
in concrete is smaller than the modulus of rupture,
the entire concrete is effective in resisting stresses,
in compression on one side and in tension on the
other. In addition, the reinforcement, deforming the
same amount as the adjacent concrete is also
subject to tensile stresses. At this stage, all stresses
are small and proportional to strain. Distribution of
Fig. 3.2 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam under Increasing Loads
strains and stresses in concrete and steel over the
depth of the section is shown in fig. 3.2 (c)
 When the load is further increased, the tensile
strength of concrete is soon reached and tension
cracks develop. These cracks propagate upwards
or close to the level of neutral plane, which in turn
shifts upward with progressive cracking. The
general shape and distribution of these tension
cracks is shown in fig. 3.2 (d). The width of these
cracks is very small (hair line cracks) and not
objectionable from view point or appearance. At a
cracked section, say at section a-a the concrete
does not transmit any tensile stress and the steel is
called upon to resist entire tension. At moderate
loads, if the concrete stress does not exceed approx
Fig. 3.2 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam under Increasing Loads
f’c/2, the stress and strain continue to be closely
proportional. The distribution of strains and stresses
at or near a cracked section is that shown in fig. (e).
 When the load is still further increased, the stress
and strain rise correspondingly and are no longer
proportional. The nonlinear relation between
stresses and strains is that given by the concrete
stress strain curve. Fig.3.2 (f) shows the distribution
of strains and stresses close to ultimate load.
 When the load carrying capacity of the beam is
reached, failure can be caused in one of the two
ways. If relatively moderate amount of steel is used,
at some value of load, the steel will reach its
yield point. At that stress, the reinforcement yields
suddenly and stretches a large amount ( see stress
strain curve of steel) and the tension cracks in the
concrete widen visibly and propagate upward, with
simultaneous significant deflection of beam. When
this happens, the strain in the remaining
compression zone of the concrete increase to such
a degree that crushing of concrete occurs causing
“secondary compression failure” at a load only
slightly larger than that which caused the steel to
yield. Such yield failure is gradual and is preceded
by visible sign of distress, such as widening and
lengthening of cracks and marked increase in
deflection.
 If large amount of reinforcement is used, the
compressive strength of concrete may be exhausted
before steel starts yielding. Concrete will fail by
crushing when strain becomes large enough to
disrupt the integrity of concrete – normally in the
range of 0.003 - 0.004. Compression failure of
concrete is sudden, of an almost explosive nature
and without warning. For this reason it is always
desirable to proportion a beam such that if
overloaded, failure should be initiated by yielding of
steel and not by crushing of concrete.
Stresses Elastic and Section uncracked
 As long as tensile stresses in the concrete beam is
smaller than modulus of rupture, no tension crack
develops and stress strain distribution is as in elastic
homogeneous beam. The only difference is the
presence of another material, i.e. the steel
reinforcement.
 For equal strain in steel and surrounding concrete
the following can be written:
ϵs = ϵc
fs/Es = fc/Ec
fs = (Es/Ec).fc = n.fc
This means that, before cracking of concrete, the
steel stress is equal to the stress in adjoining
concrete multiplied by the modular ratio. If steel
area is to be replaced with an equivalent concrete
area, an additional concrete area equal to (n-1)As is
to be used.
 One can take account of this fact in calculation by
replacing the actual steel and concrete cross
section with a fictitious section thought of as
consisting of concrete only and is called as
“transformed section”. In this “transformed section”
the actual area of steel is replaced with an
equivalent concrete area equal to n.As located at
the level of the steel. Fig.3.3 shows the uncracked
transformed area of the beam.
 Once transformed section is obtained, the usual
method of analysis of elastic homogeneous beam
apply. The section properties like location of neutral
axis, moment of inertia, section modulus are
calculated and stresses are computed as usual.
Fig. 3.3 Uncracked Transformed Section

EXAMPLE-1
EXAMPLE-1
A rectangular reinforced concrete beam has a
width b = 10”, total depth, h = 25” and effective
depth d = 23”. It is reinforced with 3#8 bars on the
tension side. f’c= 4000 psi, fy = 60000 psi.
Assuming the section as uncracked, determine the
stresses caused by a bending moment of 45 kip ft.
b =10”

d = 23” h = 25”

3# 8
● ● ●
STRESSES ELASTIC AND SECTION CRACKED
 Consider a reinforced concrete beam subject to
exceeds the modulus of rupture, cracks are formed.
If the concrete compressive stress is less than
approx ½f’c and the steel stress has not reached
the yield point, both materials continue to behave
elastically. This situation generally occurs in
structures under normal service condition and
loads. The stress strain under such conditions is as
shown below.
 To compute the stresses and strain, transformed
section as shown in fig.3.5 can be used. To
determine the location of neutral axis, the moment
of tension area about the axis is equated to the
moment of the compression area i.e.
b(kd)2/2 – n.As (d - kd) = 0 -------- (eqn 1)
Having obtained kd by solving this quadratic eqn,
moment of inertia and other properties of
transformed section can be obtained.
Fig 3.5 Cracked transformed section of beam section
 The value of k can also be found from the strain
diagram as under,
From similar triangles ABC and ADE,
B ϵc C
ϵs/ϵc =(d-kd)/kd =(1-k)/k
ϵs= (1-k)/k. ϵc kd
C=T A
d
½fc.b.kd = As. fs=ρbd.єsEs d-kd
½ϵc.Ec.bkd =ρbd.[(1-k)/k].ϵc.Es E ϵ D
s
½k = nρ(1-k)/k
2
Strain Diagram
k +2nρk -2nρ = 0
k =√[ (ρn)2+2ρn]-ρn
Minimum reinforcement in beams
 If the flexural strength of the cracked section is less
than the moment that produced cracking of the
previously uncracked section, the beam will fail
immediately without warning of distress upon
formation of first flexural crack. To prevent such
failure, ACI Code 10.5.1 requires certain minimum
reinforcement to be provided in beams. The amount
of steel should not be less than:
Asmin = 3(√f’c/fy) bw.d ≥ (200/fy) bw.d

## where bw = width of beam web.

 For a statically determinate T beam with flange in
tension, Asmin shall not be less than;
Asmin = (6√f’c/fy).bw.d
Permissible stresses in concrete and steel
 The following maximum permissible stresses will be
used in concrete and steel while using working
stress method.
Maximum extreme fibre stress in comp= 0.45 f’c
Maximum extreme fibre stress in tension = 6√f’c
Permissible stress in grade 40 steel= 20,000 psi
“ “ “ “ 60 “ “ = 24,000 psi
fs for # 3 bar in one way slabs of less than 12 ft span
= 0.5 fy
Design Value of Factor k
 In design problems, the area of steel is not known.
The depth of the neutral axis may be calculated by
● Assuming simultaneous occurrence of maximum
permissible concrete and steel stresses.
● Using maximum allowed steel ratio.
 In the first case, under reinforced behaviour is
ensured by the code. The code specifies suitable
value for allowable stresses considering the under
reinforced behaviour, which means that yielding of
steel should occur before crushing of concrete.
 Simultaneous Failure of Concrete and Steel
●The strain diagram is used to calculate the value
of k, assuming that maximum permissible concrete
strain(ϵc) is reached when steel reaches the permissible
strain(ϵs).
єc C
B
kd
N.A N.A A
d
d - kd
As
D
ϵs
E

## Triangle ABC and AED are similar,

ϵc/kd = ϵs/(d-kd)
ϵc(d-kd) = ϵs.kd
fc(d-kd)/Ec = fs.kd/Es (ϵ = f / E)
fc(d-kd) = fs.kd/n (n=Es/Ec)
fc.d=fc.kd+fs.kd/n=kd(fc+fs/n)
fc=k(n.fc+fs)/n
k=n.fc/(n.fc+fs)
 Using selected steel ratio. The maximum steel
ratio permitted by ACI Code is given below. A
steel ratio(ρ) equal to ρmax or a fraction of ρmax
but greater than ρmin is selected. The value of
“k” is then calculated using expression already
developed.
ρmax = 0.318xβ1xf’c/fy
k=√[(ρn)2 +2ρn] – ρn
Value of “k” calculated corresponds to max possible depth of N.A. and
may conservatively be used.
EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE-2
A rectangular reinforced concrete beam has a
width b = 10”, total depth, h = 25” and effective
depth d = 23”. It is reinforced with 3#8 bars on the
tension side. f’c= 4000 psi, fy = 60000 psi.
Determine the stresses caused by a bending
moment of 90 kip ft.
b =10”

d = 23” h = 25”

3# 8
● ● ●
Comparison of Result of Example 1 and 2

## 90 7.59 1390 22262 5960

FLEXURAL STRENGTH
 It is also important to predict the ultimate strength of
the beam so that an appropriate margin of safety
can be assured by making this strength larger than
of the structure. At or near the ultimate loads,
stresses are no longer proportional to strain.
 Fig.3.6 represents the distribution of internal
stresses and strains when the beam is about to fail.
Beam will fail either by tension yielding of steel
(fs=fy) or by crushing of concrete at outer
compression fibre (єu=0.003). In addition to these
two criteria, it is not really necessary to know the
Fig 3.6 Stress and Strain Distribution at Ultimate Load
exact shape of stress distribution. It is important to
know, for a given distance “c” of the neutral axis, the
total resultant force “C” and its vertical location i.e.
distance from the outer compression fibre.
 In a rect beam, the area under compression is “b.c”
and total compression force C = fav.b.c. The fav that
can be developed depends on cylinder strength f’c.
if fav= α f’c, then C = α.f’c.b.c. For a given distance
“c” to the neutral axis, the location of “C” can be
defined as some fraction β of this distance.
 From extensive testing, it has been found that;
α = 0.72 for f’c ≤4000 psi and decreases by 0.04 for every 1000 psi above 4000
up to 8000 psi and for f’c > 8000 psi, α =0.56
β= 0.425 for f’c ≤ 4000 psi and decreases by 0.025
for every 1000 psi above 4000 up to 8000 psi and
for f’c>8000 psi, β = 0.325
EQUIVALENT RECTANGULAR STRESS DISTR.
 In 1937, C.S. Whitney, proposed the replacement of
stress distribution by an equivalent rect. stress
distribution at ultimate load as shown in fig.3.8.

## Actual and Equivalent Stress Distribution

 From fig.3.8,
C=α.f’c.c.b=Ƴ.f’c.a.b from which Ƴ=α.c/a
with a=β1.c, this gives Ƴ=α/ β1.
Stress intensity factor Ƴ, is independent of f’c and
can be taken as 0.85.(ACI Code 10.2.7.1)
C = 0.85 f’c.a.b
If location of force “C” is to remain same then,
β.c=a/2 or a=2 β.c and with c=a/β1 gives us
β1=2β and according to ACI Code 10.2.7.3
β1=0.85-0.05(f’c-4000)/1000 and 0.65≤β1≤0.85
 The equivalent rect stress distribution can be used
for deriving the equations. The failure criteria is
same i.e. yielding of steel at fs=fy and crushing of
concrete at єu=0.003.(ACI Code 10.2.3)
Balanced strain condition.
 A balanced strain condition exist at a cross section
when steel strain is equal to єy when the strain in
concrete simultaneously reaches єu=0.003. ACI
code 10.3.2. From similar triangles,
c/d = єu/(єu+ єy) єu
c = єu.d/(єu+ єy) ----- (I)
c
for equilibrium, T= C
As.fy=ρb.b.d.fy=0.85f’c.a.b d
=0.85f’c. β1c.b
put value of c from (I) above,
ρb= 0.85 β1.f’c/fy.(єu/ єu+ єy) єy
For Es= 29x106 psi and єu= 0.003, we get
ρb= 0.85 β1.f’c/fy.(87000/87000+ fy)
 At the final stage, when the steel is yielding and the
concrete is about to be crushed, we may calculate
the depth of N.A. from compression face.
C=T
0.85 f’c.b.a = As.fy
a = As.fy/(0.85 f’c.b) -------- (I)
Taking moment about resultant force C, the nominal
flexural strength Mn of the section,
Mn = T.la=As.fy (d - a/2) ---------- (II)
if moment is taken about tension steel,
Mn =C.la=0.85 f’c.b.a.(d-a/2)
Putting value of “a” in (II) from (I), We get,
Mn=ρbd2 fy(1 - 0.59ρfy/f’c)
Types of Sections Based on Flexural Behaviour
 The sections may be classified into three types
depending upon how much ductility is provided by
them. The strength reduction factor ɸ, is accordingly
different for these types of sections.
 Tension Controlled Section. The section in which
the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is
equal to or greater than 0.005, when the
corresponding concrete strain in compression just
reaches a strain of 0.003. ACI Code 10.3.4
Let dt= depth of steel closest to tension face from
the compression face.
And ϵt= strain in steel closest to tension face on
outer side of bar.
ϵt/0.003 = (dt-c)/c Єu=0.003
ϵt= 0.003 (dt-c)/c
c
 If this strain is greater than
or equal to 0.005, the section dt
dt-c
is tension controlled.
єt
0.003 (dt-c)/c ≥ 0.005
0.003 {(dt/c)-1} ≥ 0.005
0.003dt/c ≥0.005+0.003
dt/c ≥8/3 or
c/dt ≤ 3/8
The net tensile strain does not include strain due to
prestress, creep, shrinkage or temperature.
 Compression Controlled Section. Sections where
net tensile strain in extreme tension steel is less
than or equal to its yield strain, ϵy, when the
concrete strain in compression just reaches a strain
of 0.003. ϵy may be taken equal to 0.002 for grade
60 steel.
0.003(dt-c)/c ≤ ϵy
c/dt ≥ 0.003/(ϵy +0.003) ≥ 0.60
 Transition Section. When the tensile strain in
extreme tension steel is between the limiting values
for compression controlled and tension controlled
sections, the section behaves as a transition
between the two types of sections. The ɸ factor in
such cases is varied linearly for smooth transition
from compression controlled to tension controlled
section.
For member with ties,
ɸ=0.65+{0.25/(0.005-єy)}x(єt-єy)
the value of ɸ must be between 0.65 and 0.90
For grade 60 steel the equation can be simplified as
follows.
ɸ = 0.65 +(ϵt-0.002) 83.33
= 0.483 + 83.33 ϵt
MAXIMUM STEEL RATIO
 To make sure that every flexural member fails by
yielding of steel by sufficient warning before failure,
ACI Code 10.3.5 require that if axial load on the
member is less than 0.1f’c.Ag, the net tensile strain
at nominal strength should not be less than 0.004
i.e. ϵst ≥ 0.004 which means
0.003 (dt-c)/c ≥ 0.004
(dt/c)-1 ≥4/3 or dt/c ≥7/3 or
c/dt≤3/7 a/dt≤ β1x3/7 ----- (i)
For singly reinforced beams with one layer of steel
reinforcement, dt=d
For C = T, 0.85 f’c.b.a=As.fy=ρb.d.fy
ρ = 0.85(f’c/fy).a/d=0.85(f’c/fy).β1.3/7
ρmax=0.364 β1.f’c/fy

##  For design, it is better to keep the minimum strain

equal to 0.005 to give some margin against the
possibility of being below the strain limit of 0.004,
while steel bars are selected. Also, due to reduced
factor of safety at a strain of 0.004, no considerable
economy is obtained. The maximum steel ratio for
singly reinforced section with limiting strain of 0.005
may be found as under;
єt ≥ 0.005 (from strain diagram)
0.003x(dt-c)/c ≥ 0.005
(dt/c) -1 ≥ 5/3, dt/c ≥ 8/3
(c/dt) ≤ ⅜ or (a/dt) ≤ β1. ⅜
For singly reinforced beam with one layer of
steel, dt=d
ρ=.085(f’c/fy).(a/d)
≤ 0.85β1x⅜xf’c/fy

## ρmax= 0.318 β1.f’c/fy. ----- for tension controlled

section
Net tensile Strain and c/dt Ratio
UNDER – REINFORCED OR TENSION FAILURE.
 In a reinforced concrete beam, the failure that is
initiated by yielding of tension steel is known as
tension failure and the section is called under –
reinforced section. It is further divided into a tension
controlled section and transition section. The
capacity of such a section is derived below.
● Maximum strain in concrete = 0.003
● Extreme fibre concrete stress = 0.85 f’c
● Stress in steel = fy

## ● Strain in steel = єs > єy = fy/Es

 Refer to figure
C = T »0.85 f’c.b.a = As.fy
a C
a= As.fy/(0.85 f’c.b) ---(I)
The nominal moment capacity
d d-a/2
of beam can be determined
from steel strength and not
T
from concrete strength.
Mn=As.fy(d - a/2) ---(II) Stress and force diagram
put value of “a” from (I) in (II)
Mn=As.fy{d-As.fy/(2x0.85 f’c.b)} ---- (III)
put As=ρ.b.d in eqn (III), we get
Mn= ρ.b.d.fy {d- ρ.b.d .fy/(1.7 f’c.b)}
Mn = ρ.b.d2.fy{1.0.59ρ.fy/f’c} ----- (IV)
 For perfect and most economical design, Mu=ɸ.Mn.
Where ɸ= Strength (capacity) reduction factor and
its value is 0.90 when tensile steel strain is ≥0.005.
 Minimum depth of rectangular section. It may be
determined by calculating the moment of resistance
when ϵt=0.005. It is also approx valid for ϵt=0.004.
At ϵt ≥ 0.005, a= ⅜β1.d
Mu= ɸMn=0.9x0.85 f’c.b.a(d-a/2)
=0.765 f’c.b(0.375 β1.d){d-(0.375 β1.d/2}
For f’c ≤ 4000 psi, β1=0.85
=0.205 f’c.b.d2
dmin=√Mu/(0.205 f’c.b).
 If effective depth of beam is selected ≥dmin, the
beam will behave as under-reinforced section and ρ
will be lesser than ρmax. Total depth= dmin+2.5”
OVER-REINFORCED OR COMPRESSION FAILURE
 A reinforced concrete beam that would fail by
crushing of concrete first rather than by yielding of
tension steel is called over-reinforced beam.
Concrete crushing is assumed to occur at extreme
concrete strain of 0.003. The stress in steel remains
less than yield stress, fy. The crushing of concrete
occurs suddenly and chunks of concrete in the
maximum compression region are blown off as the
load exceeds the ultimate capacity. The over-
reinforced or compression failure is a sudden failure
and without warning. A beam should never be
designed as over-reinforced. However, for the
analysis of accidental over-reinforced beam, the
capacity may be determined by formula derived.
 Extreme fibre concrete strain=0.003
“ “ “ stress =0.85 f’c
Stress in steel, fs <fy and єs<єy
As strain in steel is unknown, consider the strain
distribution diagram before failure.
єs / 0.003 =(d - c) / c
єs = 0.003(d-c)/c Єu=0.003
fs=Es. єs =0.003.Es.(d-c)/c
c
=0.003.Es(d-a/β1)/(a/β1) N.A
=0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a --- (I) d
C=0.85 f’c.b.a d-c
T=As.fs= As.0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a єs
Equate C =T
0.85 f’c.b.a= As.0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a
=(0.85 f’c.b.a2)/(0.003As.Es) =β1.d – a
=(0.85 f’c.b.a2)/(0.003As.Es) +a - β1.d =0
Put As= ρbd and multiply eqn by d, we get,
The only unknown in the equation is “a” and the eqn
can be solved to find the value of “a”. The nominal
moment capacity can now be determined.
Mn=C x la= 0.85 f’c.b.a (d-a/2).
Mu =ɸ .Mn
The value of ɸ = 0.65 for over-reinforced section.
 ACI Minimum Reinforcement. Same as discussed
before. ACI Code 10.5
 Selection of Steel Bars For Beams. The following
points should be kept in mind while selecting
number and size of bars for the given area of steel.
● As provided ≥ As required.
● There should be at least two bars, one in each
corner.
● Bars should be placed symmetrically.
● Minimum distance between bars should not be
less than bar diameter or 1”. ACI Code 7.6.1
● A smaller bar size, for given area, is preferable
because of ease of cutting, placing and crack
control.
● Steel should preferably be placed in a single layer but for heavier beams it
may be placed in two or three layers. In such cases, minimum clear distance
between layer should be equal to bar dia or 1” which ever is more. Bars in
each layer should be placed symmetrically and directly over the bar in lower
layer. ACI Code 7.6.2.
● When bars of different diameters are to be combined for detailing, the
difference between bar sizes should not be more than ⅛”-¼”.
● If more area of steel is required, steel bars may be bundled into say three bar
bundle or four bar bundle. ACI Code 7.6.6.
 Concrete Cover to Steel Reinforcement. A minimum
clear concrete cover to the outer most steel (may be
steel stirrup or tie) is required for following reasons.
● To protect the reinforcement from weather and
other effects, say from corrosion.
● To provide sufficient bond strength between steel
and concrete.
● To protect steel against fire, up to certain extent
and to improve fire rating of the structure.
● To reduce abrasion and wear of steel.
 ACI code 7.7 gives the clear concrete cover for
members under different conditions of placing.
 Steel bars in the beams should be placed 2½”- 3”
from the top or bottom surface to furnish at least
1½” clear concrete cover. See fig3.12 for details.
Fig.3.12 Requirements for Concrete Cover in Beams and Slabs
MINIMUM DEPTH OF BEAMS AND ONE WAY
SLABS FROM DEFLECTION CRITERIA.
 In order to keep the deflection within limits, we
have to find the deflection of the reinforced concrete
beam using code formulae (ACI Code 9.5.2.3) and
compare them with the allowable limits of table
9.5(b). If the deflection is more than allowable limit,
the section has to be revised.
 As an alternate, the depth of the beams and one
way slabs should be kept more than the limits
prescribed in ACI Code table 9.5(a).
 Span length. For members not built integrally with
support, span length shall be considered as clear
span + the depth of the member, but need not
exceed centre to centre distance between supports.
ACI Code 8.9.
ANALYSIS OF SINGLY REINFORCED SECTION
1. Calculate the depth of neutral axis assuming the
section as under - reinforced.
a = As.fy/(0.85 f’c.b)
c = a/β1 β1=0.85 for f’c≤ 4000 psi
2. Calculate the steel strain. Also calculate єt, if
different.
ϵs= 0.003(d-c)/c =0.003(β1d-a)/a
ϵt= 0.003(dt-c)/c =0.003(β1dt- a)/a
If єs ≥єy .The sec is under reinforced as assumed,
go to step no.3.
If єs < єy it will be a compression failure.
Recalculate the value of “a” from following eqn.
3. Determine the value of strength reduction factor, ɸ
depending upon the value of єt.
єt ≥ 0.005 ɸ=0.90
єt ≤ єy ɸ=0.65
0.002 < єt < 0.005 --- Use transition formula.
ɸ=0.65+{0.25/(0.005 - єy)}x(єt - єy)
ɸ = 0.483 +83.33 ϵt. ------- For grade 60 steel.
4. Calculate the flexural capacity , ɸ Mn, as under.
ɸ Mn= ɸ As. fy (d - a/2) For under reinforced sec.
ɸ Mn= ɸ 0.85 f’c.b.a (d - a/2) For compression
= ɸ As.fs.(d - a/2) controlled section
 Design of Lintels. They are provided over openings
for doors and windows in brick/block masonry walls
to support the weight of the wall above. The portion
of wall load is a 60o triangle as shown below. The
remaining load is supported by the arch action
within the wall. For design of lintel over wall of tw”,
Equivalent udl for B.M.=0.0058 ℓ.tw K/ft

Wall
0.866 ℓ

60oo
60 60oo
60

EXAMPLE
A simply supported reinforced concrete rectangular
beam has a clear span of 24 ft and is supported on
9 inch thick brick masonry wall as shown in figure. It
carries a brick tile roof weighing 130 psf. Service
live load = 60 psf. f’c=3000 psi and fy = 40,000 psi.
Design the interior beam B-1 for flexure only.
3 @ 10 ft

## Beams B-1 9” Brick

A masonry A
B-1
wall
24 ft Brick tile roof 24.75 ft

LINE PLAN
Brick Tile Roof

## Beam B-1 9” Wall

b
X - Section A _ A
ANY QUESTION ?
Thanks