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Design of flexure

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4 visualizzazioni66 pagineDesign of flexure

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AND DESIGN OF

REINFORCED

CONCRETE BEAMS

FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS

ASSUMPTIONS REGARDING FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR

Following assumptions are considered to simplify the

flexural behaviour of beams, to study the basic

concepts and to derive the basic formulae for

analysis and design.

Plane section remains plane after bending. This may

not be exactly true closer to ultimate condition.

There exist a perfect bond between concrete and

steel and hence the strain in steel is exactly equal to

strain in surrounding concrete. This assumption may

not be exactly satisfied after cracking.

Hooks law is applicable. The stresses in concrete

FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS

and steel may be estimated from corresponding

strain using stress strain curve and modulus of

elasticity.

The external forces acting at any cross section are

balanced by the internal resistive forces. This

condition remains valid up to failure of structure.

After the appearance of first hairline or visible crack,

the concrete strength in tension is neglected.

The stress strain relationship of concrete and steel

are simplified to study the complex interaction of two

materials in reinforced concrete member, particularly

closer to the collapse when the materials are in their

inelastic ranges.

Concrete is assumed to be crushed at strain of 0.003

NOTATIONS

As = Area of steel on tension side

b = width of compression face of the beam

d = Distance of centroid of tension steel from

extreme compression fibre

h = total depth of member

f’c = specified compressive strength of concrete

fc = Allowable stress in concrete, f’c/FOS

fy = Yield strength of steel

fs = Allowable stress in steel, fy/FOS

jd = lever arm between comp and tensile force

kd = depth of neutral axis from extreme comp fibre

ϵc .ϵs =Strain in concrete / steel ϵcu =0.003

ρ = steel ratio =As/bd

Cc/T = Resultant compressive /tensile force

fct = tensile stress in concrete ≤ fcr

BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED

Consider the reinforced concrete beam shown in

CONCRETE BEAM

fig. 3.2 (a). When the load on such a beam is

gradually Increased from zero to the magnitude that

will cause the beam to fail, several different stages

of behaviour can be clearly distinguished.

At low loads, as long as the maximum tensile stress

in concrete is smaller than the modulus of rupture,

the entire concrete is effective in resisting stresses,

in compression on one side and in tension on the

other. In addition, the reinforcement, deforming the

same amount as the adjacent concrete is also

subject to tensile stresses. At this stage, all stresses

are small and proportional to strain. Distribution of

Fig. 3.2 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam under Increasing Loads

strains and stresses in concrete and steel over the

depth of the section is shown in fig. 3.2 (c)

When the load is further increased, the tensile

strength of concrete is soon reached and tension

cracks develop. These cracks propagate upwards

or close to the level of neutral plane, which in turn

shifts upward with progressive cracking. The

general shape and distribution of these tension

cracks is shown in fig. 3.2 (d). The width of these

cracks is very small (hair line cracks) and not

objectionable from view point or appearance. At a

cracked section, say at section a-a the concrete

does not transmit any tensile stress and the steel is

called upon to resist entire tension. At moderate

loads, if the concrete stress does not exceed approx

Fig. 3.2 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam under Increasing Loads

f’c/2, the stress and strain continue to be closely

proportional. The distribution of strains and stresses

at or near a cracked section is that shown in fig. (e).

When the load is still further increased, the stress

and strain rise correspondingly and are no longer

proportional. The nonlinear relation between

stresses and strains is that given by the concrete

stress strain curve. Fig.3.2 (f) shows the distribution

of strains and stresses close to ultimate load.

When the load carrying capacity of the beam is

reached, failure can be caused in one of the two

ways. If relatively moderate amount of steel is used,

at some value of load, the steel will reach its

yield point. At that stress, the reinforcement yields

suddenly and stretches a large amount ( see stress

strain curve of steel) and the tension cracks in the

concrete widen visibly and propagate upward, with

simultaneous significant deflection of beam. When

this happens, the strain in the remaining

compression zone of the concrete increase to such

a degree that crushing of concrete occurs causing

“secondary compression failure” at a load only

slightly larger than that which caused the steel to

yield. Such yield failure is gradual and is preceded

by visible sign of distress, such as widening and

lengthening of cracks and marked increase in

deflection.

If large amount of reinforcement is used, the

compressive strength of concrete may be exhausted

before steel starts yielding. Concrete will fail by

crushing when strain becomes large enough to

disrupt the integrity of concrete – normally in the

range of 0.003 - 0.004. Compression failure of

concrete is sudden, of an almost explosive nature

and without warning. For this reason it is always

desirable to proportion a beam such that if

overloaded, failure should be initiated by yielding of

steel and not by crushing of concrete.

Stresses Elastic and Section uncracked

As long as tensile stresses in the concrete beam is

smaller than modulus of rupture, no tension crack

develops and stress strain distribution is as in elastic

homogeneous beam. The only difference is the

presence of another material, i.e. the steel

reinforcement.

For equal strain in steel and surrounding concrete

the following can be written:

ϵs = ϵc

fs/Es = fc/Ec

fs = (Es/Ec).fc = n.fc

This means that, before cracking of concrete, the

steel stress is equal to the stress in adjoining

concrete multiplied by the modular ratio. If steel

area is to be replaced with an equivalent concrete

area, an additional concrete area equal to (n-1)As is

to be used.

One can take account of this fact in calculation by

replacing the actual steel and concrete cross

section with a fictitious section thought of as

consisting of concrete only and is called as

“transformed section”. In this “transformed section”

the actual area of steel is replaced with an

equivalent concrete area equal to n.As located at

the level of the steel. Fig.3.3 shows the uncracked

transformed area of the beam.

Once transformed section is obtained, the usual

method of analysis of elastic homogeneous beam

apply. The section properties like location of neutral

axis, moment of inertia, section modulus are

calculated and stresses are computed as usual.

Fig. 3.3 Uncracked Transformed Section

EXAMPLE-1

EXAMPLE-1

A rectangular reinforced concrete beam has a

width b = 10”, total depth, h = 25” and effective

depth d = 23”. It is reinforced with 3#8 bars on the

tension side. f’c= 4000 psi, fy = 60000 psi.

Assuming the section as uncracked, determine the

stresses caused by a bending moment of 45 kip ft.

b =10”

d = 23” h = 25”

3# 8

● ● ●

STRESSES ELASTIC AND SECTION CRACKED

Consider a reinforced concrete beam subject to

gradually increasing load. When the tensile stress fct

exceeds the modulus of rupture, cracks are formed.

If the concrete compressive stress is less than

approx ½f’c and the steel stress has not reached

the yield point, both materials continue to behave

elastically. This situation generally occurs in

structures under normal service condition and

loads. The stress strain under such conditions is as

shown below.

To compute the stresses and strain, transformed

section as shown in fig.3.5 can be used. To

determine the location of neutral axis, the moment

of tension area about the axis is equated to the

moment of the compression area i.e.

b(kd)2/2 – n.As (d - kd) = 0 -------- (eqn 1)

Having obtained kd by solving this quadratic eqn,

moment of inertia and other properties of

transformed section can be obtained.

Fig 3.5 Cracked transformed section of beam section

The value of k can also be found from the strain

diagram as under,

From similar triangles ABC and ADE,

B ϵc C

ϵs/ϵc =(d-kd)/kd =(1-k)/k

ϵs= (1-k)/k. ϵc kd

C=T A

d

½fc.b.kd = As. fs=ρbd.єsEs d-kd

½ϵc.Ec.bkd =ρbd.[(1-k)/k].ϵc.Es E ϵ D

s

½k = nρ(1-k)/k

2

Strain Diagram

k +2nρk -2nρ = 0

k =√[ (ρn)2+2ρn]-ρn

Minimum reinforcement in beams

If the flexural strength of the cracked section is less

than the moment that produced cracking of the

previously uncracked section, the beam will fail

immediately without warning of distress upon

formation of first flexural crack. To prevent such

failure, ACI Code 10.5.1 requires certain minimum

reinforcement to be provided in beams. The amount

of steel should not be less than:

Asmin = 3(√f’c/fy) bw.d ≥ (200/fy) bw.d

For a statically determinate T beam with flange in

tension, Asmin shall not be less than;

Asmin = (6√f’c/fy).bw.d

Permissible stresses in concrete and steel

The following maximum permissible stresses will be

used in concrete and steel while using working

stress method.

Maximum extreme fibre stress in comp= 0.45 f’c

Maximum extreme fibre stress in tension = 6√f’c

Permissible stress in grade 40 steel= 20,000 psi

“ “ “ “ 60 “ “ = 24,000 psi

fs for # 3 bar in one way slabs of less than 12 ft span

= 0.5 fy

Design Value of Factor k

In design problems, the area of steel is not known.

The depth of the neutral axis may be calculated by

● Assuming simultaneous occurrence of maximum

permissible concrete and steel stresses.

● Using maximum allowed steel ratio.

In the first case, under reinforced behaviour is

ensured by the code. The code specifies suitable

value for allowable stresses considering the under

reinforced behaviour, which means that yielding of

steel should occur before crushing of concrete.

Simultaneous Failure of Concrete and Steel

●The strain diagram is used to calculate the value

of k, assuming that maximum permissible concrete

strain(ϵc) is reached when steel reaches the permissible

strain(ϵs).

єc C

B

kd

N.A N.A A

d

d - kd

As

D

ϵs

E

ϵc/kd = ϵs/(d-kd)

ϵc(d-kd) = ϵs.kd

fc(d-kd)/Ec = fs.kd/Es (ϵ = f / E)

fc(d-kd) = fs.kd/n (n=Es/Ec)

fc.d=fc.kd+fs.kd/n=kd(fc+fs/n)

fc=k(n.fc+fs)/n

k=n.fc/(n.fc+fs)

Using selected steel ratio. The maximum steel

ratio permitted by ACI Code is given below. A

steel ratio(ρ) equal to ρmax or a fraction of ρmax

but greater than ρmin is selected. The value of

“k” is then calculated using expression already

developed.

ρmax = 0.318xβ1xf’c/fy

k=√[(ρn)2 +2ρn] – ρn

Value of “k” calculated corresponds to max possible depth of N.A. and

may conservatively be used.

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE-2

A rectangular reinforced concrete beam has a

width b = 10”, total depth, h = 25” and effective

depth d = 23”. It is reinforced with 3#8 bars on the

tension side. f’c= 4000 psi, fy = 60000 psi.

Determine the stresses caused by a bending

moment of 90 kip ft.

b =10”

d = 23” h = 25”

3# 8

● ● ●

Comparison of Result of Example 1 and 2

FLEXURAL STRENGTH

It is also important to predict the ultimate strength of

the beam so that an appropriate margin of safety

can be assured by making this strength larger than

the largest load that can be expected during lifetime

of the structure. At or near the ultimate loads,

stresses are no longer proportional to strain.

Fig.3.6 represents the distribution of internal

stresses and strains when the beam is about to fail.

Beam will fail either by tension yielding of steel

(fs=fy) or by crushing of concrete at outer

compression fibre (єu=0.003). In addition to these

two criteria, it is not really necessary to know the

Fig 3.6 Stress and Strain Distribution at Ultimate Load

exact shape of stress distribution. It is important to

know, for a given distance “c” of the neutral axis, the

total resultant force “C” and its vertical location i.e.

distance from the outer compression fibre.

In a rect beam, the area under compression is “b.c”

and total compression force C = fav.b.c. The fav that

can be developed depends on cylinder strength f’c.

if fav= α f’c, then C = α.f’c.b.c. For a given distance

“c” to the neutral axis, the location of “C” can be

defined as some fraction β of this distance.

From extensive testing, it has been found that;

α = 0.72 for f’c ≤4000 psi and decreases by 0.04 for every 1000 psi above 4000

up to 8000 psi and for f’c > 8000 psi, α =0.56

β= 0.425 for f’c ≤ 4000 psi and decreases by 0.025

for every 1000 psi above 4000 up to 8000 psi and

for f’c>8000 psi, β = 0.325

EQUIVALENT RECTANGULAR STRESS DISTR.

In 1937, C.S. Whitney, proposed the replacement of

stress distribution by an equivalent rect. stress

distribution at ultimate load as shown in fig.3.8.

From fig.3.8,

C=α.f’c.c.b=Ƴ.f’c.a.b from which Ƴ=α.c/a

with a=β1.c, this gives Ƴ=α/ β1.

Stress intensity factor Ƴ, is independent of f’c and

can be taken as 0.85.(ACI Code 10.2.7.1)

C = 0.85 f’c.a.b

If location of force “C” is to remain same then,

β.c=a/2 or a=2 β.c and with c=a/β1 gives us

β1=2β and according to ACI Code 10.2.7.3

β1=0.85-0.05(f’c-4000)/1000 and 0.65≤β1≤0.85

The equivalent rect stress distribution can be used

for deriving the equations. The failure criteria is

same i.e. yielding of steel at fs=fy and crushing of

concrete at єu=0.003.(ACI Code 10.2.3)

Balanced strain condition.

A balanced strain condition exist at a cross section

when steel strain is equal to єy when the strain in

concrete simultaneously reaches єu=0.003. ACI

code 10.3.2. From similar triangles,

c/d = єu/(єu+ єy) єu

c = єu.d/(єu+ єy) ----- (I)

c

for equilibrium, T= C

As.fy=ρb.b.d.fy=0.85f’c.a.b d

=0.85f’c. β1c.b

put value of c from (I) above,

ρb= 0.85 β1.f’c/fy.(єu/ єu+ єy) єy

For Es= 29x106 psi and єu= 0.003, we get

ρb= 0.85 β1.f’c/fy.(87000/87000+ fy)

At the final stage, when the steel is yielding and the

concrete is about to be crushed, we may calculate

the depth of N.A. from compression face.

C=T

0.85 f’c.b.a = As.fy

a = As.fy/(0.85 f’c.b) -------- (I)

Taking moment about resultant force C, the nominal

flexural strength Mn of the section,

Mn = T.la=As.fy (d - a/2) ---------- (II)

if moment is taken about tension steel,

Mn =C.la=0.85 f’c.b.a.(d-a/2)

Putting value of “a” in (II) from (I), We get,

Mn=ρbd2 fy(1 - 0.59ρfy/f’c)

Types of Sections Based on Flexural Behaviour

The sections may be classified into three types

depending upon how much ductility is provided by

them. The strength reduction factor ɸ, is accordingly

different for these types of sections.

Tension Controlled Section. The section in which

the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is

equal to or greater than 0.005, when the

corresponding concrete strain in compression just

reaches a strain of 0.003. ACI Code 10.3.4

Let dt= depth of steel closest to tension face from

the compression face.

And ϵt= strain in steel closest to tension face on

outer side of bar.

ϵt/0.003 = (dt-c)/c Єu=0.003

ϵt= 0.003 (dt-c)/c

c

If this strain is greater than

or equal to 0.005, the section dt

dt-c

is tension controlled.

єt

0.003 (dt-c)/c ≥ 0.005

0.003 {(dt/c)-1} ≥ 0.005

0.003dt/c ≥0.005+0.003

dt/c ≥8/3 or

c/dt ≤ 3/8

The net tensile strain does not include strain due to

prestress, creep, shrinkage or temperature.

Compression Controlled Section. Sections where

net tensile strain in extreme tension steel is less

than or equal to its yield strain, ϵy, when the

concrete strain in compression just reaches a strain

of 0.003. ϵy may be taken equal to 0.002 for grade

60 steel.

0.003(dt-c)/c ≤ ϵy

c/dt ≥ 0.003/(ϵy +0.003) ≥ 0.60

Transition Section. When the tensile strain in

extreme tension steel is between the limiting values

for compression controlled and tension controlled

sections, the section behaves as a transition

between the two types of sections. The ɸ factor in

such cases is varied linearly for smooth transition

from compression controlled to tension controlled

section.

For member with ties,

ɸ=0.65+{0.25/(0.005-єy)}x(єt-єy)

the value of ɸ must be between 0.65 and 0.90

For grade 60 steel the equation can be simplified as

follows.

ɸ = 0.65 +(ϵt-0.002) 83.33

= 0.483 + 83.33 ϵt

MAXIMUM STEEL RATIO

To make sure that every flexural member fails by

yielding of steel by sufficient warning before failure,

ACI Code 10.3.5 require that if axial load on the

member is less than 0.1f’c.Ag, the net tensile strain

at nominal strength should not be less than 0.004

i.e. ϵst ≥ 0.004 which means

0.003 (dt-c)/c ≥ 0.004

(dt/c)-1 ≥4/3 or dt/c ≥7/3 or

c/dt≤3/7 a/dt≤ β1x3/7 ----- (i)

For singly reinforced beams with one layer of steel

reinforcement, dt=d

For C = T, 0.85 f’c.b.a=As.fy=ρb.d.fy

ρ = 0.85(f’c/fy).a/d=0.85(f’c/fy).β1.3/7

ρmax=0.364 β1.f’c/fy

equal to 0.005 to give some margin against the

possibility of being below the strain limit of 0.004,

while steel bars are selected. Also, due to reduced

factor of safety at a strain of 0.004, no considerable

economy is obtained. The maximum steel ratio for

singly reinforced section with limiting strain of 0.005

may be found as under;

єt ≥ 0.005 (from strain diagram)

0.003x(dt-c)/c ≥ 0.005

(dt/c) -1 ≥ 5/3, dt/c ≥ 8/3

(c/dt) ≤ ⅜ or (a/dt) ≤ β1. ⅜

For singly reinforced beam with one layer of

steel, dt=d

ρ=.085(f’c/fy).(a/d)

≤ 0.85β1x⅜xf’c/fy

section

Net tensile Strain and c/dt Ratio

UNDER – REINFORCED OR TENSION FAILURE.

In a reinforced concrete beam, the failure that is

initiated by yielding of tension steel is known as

tension failure and the section is called under –

reinforced section. It is further divided into a tension

controlled section and transition section. The

capacity of such a section is derived below.

● Maximum strain in concrete = 0.003

● Extreme fibre concrete stress = 0.85 f’c

● Stress in steel = fy

Refer to figure

C = T »0.85 f’c.b.a = As.fy

a C

a= As.fy/(0.85 f’c.b) ---(I)

The nominal moment capacity

d d-a/2

of beam can be determined

from steel strength and not

T

from concrete strength.

Mn=As.fy(d - a/2) ---(II) Stress and force diagram

put value of “a” from (I) in (II)

Mn=As.fy{d-As.fy/(2x0.85 f’c.b)} ---- (III)

put As=ρ.b.d in eqn (III), we get

Mn= ρ.b.d.fy {d- ρ.b.d .fy/(1.7 f’c.b)}

Mn = ρ.b.d2.fy{1.0.59ρ.fy/f’c} ----- (IV)

For perfect and most economical design, Mu=ɸ.Mn.

Where ɸ= Strength (capacity) reduction factor and

its value is 0.90 when tensile steel strain is ≥0.005.

Minimum depth of rectangular section. It may be

determined by calculating the moment of resistance

when ϵt=0.005. It is also approx valid for ϵt=0.004.

At ϵt ≥ 0.005, a= ⅜β1.d

Mu= ɸMn=0.9x0.85 f’c.b.a(d-a/2)

=0.765 f’c.b(0.375 β1.d){d-(0.375 β1.d/2}

For f’c ≤ 4000 psi, β1=0.85

=0.205 f’c.b.d2

dmin=√Mu/(0.205 f’c.b).

If effective depth of beam is selected ≥dmin, the

beam will behave as under-reinforced section and ρ

will be lesser than ρmax. Total depth= dmin+2.5”

OVER-REINFORCED OR COMPRESSION FAILURE

A reinforced concrete beam that would fail by

crushing of concrete first rather than by yielding of

tension steel is called over-reinforced beam.

Concrete crushing is assumed to occur at extreme

concrete strain of 0.003. The stress in steel remains

less than yield stress, fy. The crushing of concrete

occurs suddenly and chunks of concrete in the

maximum compression region are blown off as the

load exceeds the ultimate capacity. The over-

reinforced or compression failure is a sudden failure

and without warning. A beam should never be

designed as over-reinforced. However, for the

analysis of accidental over-reinforced beam, the

capacity may be determined by formula derived.

Extreme fibre concrete strain=0.003

“ “ “ stress =0.85 f’c

Stress in steel, fs <fy and єs<єy

As strain in steel is unknown, consider the strain

distribution diagram before failure.

єs / 0.003 =(d - c) / c

єs = 0.003(d-c)/c Єu=0.003

fs=Es. єs =0.003.Es.(d-c)/c

c

=0.003.Es(d-a/β1)/(a/β1) N.A

=0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a --- (I) d

C=0.85 f’c.b.a d-c

T=As.fs= As.0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a єs

Equate C =T

0.85 f’c.b.a= As.0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a

=(0.85 f’c.b.a2)/(0.003As.Es) =β1.d – a

=(0.85 f’c.b.a2)/(0.003As.Es) +a - β1.d =0

Put As= ρbd and multiply eqn by d, we get,

{0.85 f’c/(0.003Es.ρ)}a2+ad - β1.d2=0 (Es=29x106)

{0.85 f’c/(87000.ρ)}a2+ad - β1.d2=0

The only unknown in the equation is “a” and the eqn

can be solved to find the value of “a”. The nominal

moment capacity can now be determined.

Mn=C x la= 0.85 f’c.b.a (d-a/2).

Mu =ɸ .Mn

The value of ɸ = 0.65 for over-reinforced section.

ACI Minimum Reinforcement. Same as discussed

before. ACI Code 10.5

Selection of Steel Bars For Beams. The following

points should be kept in mind while selecting

number and size of bars for the given area of steel.

● As provided ≥ As required.

● There should be at least two bars, one in each

corner.

● Bars should be placed symmetrically.

● Minimum distance between bars should not be

less than bar diameter or 1”. ACI Code 7.6.1

● A smaller bar size, for given area, is preferable

because of ease of cutting, placing and crack

control.

● Steel should preferably be placed in a single layer but for heavier beams it

may be placed in two or three layers. In such cases, minimum clear distance

between layer should be equal to bar dia or 1” which ever is more. Bars in

each layer should be placed symmetrically and directly over the bar in lower

layer. ACI Code 7.6.2.

● When bars of different diameters are to be combined for detailing, the

difference between bar sizes should not be more than ⅛”-¼”.

● If more area of steel is required, steel bars may be bundled into say three bar

bundle or four bar bundle. ACI Code 7.6.6.

Concrete Cover to Steel Reinforcement. A minimum

clear concrete cover to the outer most steel (may be

steel stirrup or tie) is required for following reasons.

● To protect the reinforcement from weather and

other effects, say from corrosion.

● To provide sufficient bond strength between steel

and concrete.

● To protect steel against fire, up to certain extent

and to improve fire rating of the structure.

● To reduce abrasion and wear of steel.

ACI code 7.7 gives the clear concrete cover for

members under different conditions of placing.

Steel bars in the beams should be placed 2½”- 3”

from the top or bottom surface to furnish at least

1½” clear concrete cover. See fig3.12 for details.

Fig.3.12 Requirements for Concrete Cover in Beams and Slabs

MINIMUM DEPTH OF BEAMS AND ONE WAY

SLABS FROM DEFLECTION CRITERIA.

In order to keep the deflection within limits, we

have to find the deflection of the reinforced concrete

beam using code formulae (ACI Code 9.5.2.3) and

compare them with the allowable limits of table

9.5(b). If the deflection is more than allowable limit,

the section has to be revised.

As an alternate, the depth of the beams and one

way slabs should be kept more than the limits

prescribed in ACI Code table 9.5(a).

Span length. For members not built integrally with

support, span length shall be considered as clear

span + the depth of the member, but need not

exceed centre to centre distance between supports.

ACI Code 8.9.

ANALYSIS OF SINGLY REINFORCED SECTION

1. Calculate the depth of neutral axis assuming the

section as under - reinforced.

a = As.fy/(0.85 f’c.b)

c = a/β1 β1=0.85 for f’c≤ 4000 psi

2. Calculate the steel strain. Also calculate єt, if

different.

ϵs= 0.003(d-c)/c =0.003(β1d-a)/a

ϵt= 0.003(dt-c)/c =0.003(β1dt- a)/a

If єs ≥єy .The sec is under reinforced as assumed,

go to step no.3.

If єs < єy it will be a compression failure.

Recalculate the value of “a” from following eqn.

{0.85 f’c/(87000.ρ)}a2+ad - β1.d2=0

3. Determine the value of strength reduction factor, ɸ

depending upon the value of єt.

єt ≥ 0.005 ɸ=0.90

єt ≤ єy ɸ=0.65

0.002 < єt < 0.005 --- Use transition formula.

ɸ=0.65+{0.25/(0.005 - єy)}x(єt - єy)

ɸ = 0.483 +83.33 ϵt. ------- For grade 60 steel.

4. Calculate the flexural capacity , ɸ Mn, as under.

ɸ Mn= ɸ As. fy (d - a/2) For under reinforced sec.

ɸ Mn= ɸ 0.85 f’c.b.a (d - a/2) For compression

= ɸ As.fs.(d - a/2) controlled section

Design of Lintels. They are provided over openings

for doors and windows in brick/block masonry walls

to support the weight of the wall above. The portion

of wall load is a 60o triangle as shown below. The

remaining load is supported by the arch action

within the wall. For design of lintel over wall of tw”,

Equivalent udl for B.M.=0.0058 ℓ.tw K/ft

Wall

0.866 ℓ

60oo

60 60oo

60

ℓ

EXAMPLE

A simply supported reinforced concrete rectangular

beam has a clear span of 24 ft and is supported on

9 inch thick brick masonry wall as shown in figure. It

carries a brick tile roof weighing 130 psf. Service

live load = 60 psf. f’c=3000 psi and fy = 40,000 psi.

Design the interior beam B-1 for flexure only.

3 @ 10 ft

A masonry A

B-1

wall

24 ft Brick tile roof 24.75 ft

LINE PLAN

Brick Tile Roof

b

X - Section A _ A

ANY QUESTION ?

Thanks

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