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Fuel Metering

CI Engine

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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OBJECTIVES
The injection system of CI engine should fulfill
following objectives consistently & precisely:
• Meter the quantity of fuel demanded by the speed
of, & the load on the engine
• Distribute metered fuel equally among the cylinders
• Inject fuel at the correct time in the cycle
• Inject the fuel at correct rate
• Inject fuel with the spray pattern & atomization
demanded by the design of combustion chamber
• Begin & end the injection sharply without dribbling
or after-injection
Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.
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CI INJECTION SYSTEMS
 With diesel engines, fuel is sprayed directly into the cylinders
at the time combustion is intended to occur.
 Diesel fuel injection system operates at high pressure- on
the order of 100 MPa, for the following reasons:
1. the fuel pressure must be greater than the compression
pressure in order to inject the fuel into the cylinder at the
time combustion is to commence.
2. the fuel velocity relative to air, needs to be large so the
atomized droplets will be small enough for rapid
evaporation and ignition.

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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CI INJECTION SYSTEMS

q AIR INJECTION: Obsolete


q MODERN SYSTEMS:
Ø Individual Pomp System: A separate metering &
compression pump for each cylinder
Ø Distributor System: A single pump for compressing
the fuel & a dividing device for distributing the fuel to the
cylinder
Ø Common Rail System: A single pump for
compressing the fuel & a metering element for each
cylinder
Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.
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CI INJECTION SYSTEMS

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40 psi 40 psi 40 psi
er er er

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Common Rail System

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Common rail injector

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.
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Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.
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Pumping element

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Pumping element
 Give a constant start of injection for
various loads at constant speed.
 Injection will start at the same position of
the crankshaft
 Duration of injection will be maximum at
full load
 Hence it has a constant beginning and
variable ending of delivery

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Pumping element
 Start of injection is advanced as the
load is increased, while delivery ends
at a constant crank angle.
 So it has variable beginning and
constant ending
 Sometimes found at low-compression
SI oil engine

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Pumping element
 it has variable beginning and variable
ending
 Sometimes specified for small CI
automotive engine.

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Spray Development

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Spray Development
o At low pressure difference single drops are formed
o These merge into a stream as the up-stream pressure
is increased
o Further increase in pressure causes the stream to
break into spray
o ‘Breakup distance’ decreases- cone angle increases
as pressure difference increases until apex of the
cone practically coincides with the orifice
o Heavy fuels required a greater pressure difference to
reach this stage than do light fuels

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Spray Development
o Two velocities of the spray can be recognized:
• The spray-tip velocity
• The average individual-particle velocity
o Two type of penetration can be recognized:
• Penetration of the spray tip
• The average penetration of the individual-
particles
o Rate of penetration of the spray tip increases as the
penetration pressure increases although the
maximum penetration is virtually independent of the
injection pressure

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Spray Development
o High injection pressure cause fine atomization
o The dispersion of droplets, in any one cross section
of the spray, become more even:
1. As the distance increased from orifice to cross
section
2. As the air density is increased
3. As the oil viscosity is decreased
4. As the injection pressure is increased

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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CI Engine Nozzles
 Classification:
CI Engine
Nozzle

Closed
Nozzle

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Open Nozzle
o The simplest type of nozzle
o Disadvantages:
i. High injection pressure encountered at high
speeds
ii. Tendency of the nozzle to dribble between
injections
o If the pump is driven by the engine & the speed is
doubled, the velocity of the incompressible fluid
through the orifice will also double since the pump is
displacing fuel at double the original rate.
o Velocity of a fluid is proportional to √△p

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Closed Nozzle
o The oil is led to a pressure gallery that surrounds an
inclined surface of the plunger
o When the oil pressure is sufficient to lift the plunger
or needle against resistance of the spring, the full
injection pressure is exerted against the orifice
o Two styles of closed nozzles are available:
– Single-hole nozzle
– Multi-hole nozzle
o Valve Opening Pressure(VOP) & Valve Closing
Pressure(VCP) is different
o Values of VCP/VOP varies from 0.6 to 0.9 in
commercial nozzle

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Closed Nozzle

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 Pintle nozzle tends to give:
• Hollow conical spray
• Cone angle varies from 0-60o depending
upon the taper of the pintle
• Maintenance is reduced from carbon
formation on the nozzle face since
injection pressure is minimum
• Pintle also promote atomization at the
expense of penetration

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.
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FUEL METERING

SI ENGINE

Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.


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Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.
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Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.
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Military Institute of Science & Technology, ME Dept.
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