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Temperature-Dependent

Transient Capacitance in
InGaAs/InP-based Diodes
Kiril Simov and Tim Gfroerer
Davidson College
Mark Wanlass
NREL
Supported by the American Chemical Society
– Petroleum Research Fund
Motivation: Thermophotovoltaics

Thermal
Blackbody
Radiation
Radiation

Photovoltaic
Heat Blackbody Cell
Source Radiator
Experimental Setup
Computer with LabVIEW

Digital Scope
(5)
(Tektronix)

Capacitance (1)
meter (Boonton) (2)
(4) 77K Oxford
Temp Controller

Pulse Generator
Cryostat with sample
(3) Agilent
P-N Junction Depletion Layer with Bias

Depletion Layer

+
+ +
+
+ + - + - -
+ + +
+
+ + P + + - + N -
+ + +
- -
+ +
+ + + - +
+ +

Depletion Layer With Bias


Typical Capture Data –
Dependence on Pulse Length
Capacitance Change (a.u.)

Temp: 77K
Pulse Length:
0.1
10 s
30 s
100 s
200 s
0.01

1E-3

-200 0 200 400 600 800

Time (s)
Capture Analysis
Capture cross-section
Ln (Amplitude of Transient) (a.u.)

-3
blue = 109 s
1
-4
  vN D
avg=111 +/- 2 s 
-5

red=113 s
-6
T = 77K, Bias: Holes:  = 2.5 x 10-20 cm2
-0.1V steady state Electrons:  = 7.5 x 10-21 cm2
-7
-0.3V reverse bias

-8
0 200 400 600

Pulse Length (us)


Number of Traps
Capacitance Change (a.u.)

0.4
Temp: 77K
700s pulse
0.3 Exp Fit

Cfree
0.2
CT
NT  ND
0.1 C F
Ctrapped ~ 7 x 1015 cm-3
0.0

-400 0 400 800 1200 1600


Time (s)
Typical Escape data – Dependence
on Temperature
0

77K
-3 146K
Ln(  C ) (a.u.)

 = 123 s 156K

-6  = 33 s  = 51 s

-9

-100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Time(  s)
Escape Analysis
12
-Ea / kT
Escape Rate ~ A * e
Ln (Escape Rate) (s )
-1

10

Avg Ea: 0.30 +/- 0.02 eV ~ trap depth


8

Bias ~
6 0V
-1V
-2V

4
75 80 85 90 95
-1
Energy 1/kT (eV )
Conclusions
 A deep level has been detected
 The effective trap cross-section is ~10-20 cm2
 The trap concentration is ~ 1016 cm-3
 The depth of the level is ~ 0.30 eV
 Our results are consistent with sub-bandgap PL from
similar structures.
 Web links:
This talk:
http://webphysics.davidson.edu/faculty/thg/talks-posters/MAR-04.p
pt
PL poster:
http://webphysics.davidson.edu/faculty/thg/talks-posters/SESAPS-0
3.ppt
Device Structure

p+ layer
junction
n layer