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Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A.

Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering

CE 400

Highway Engineering
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Design of Pavement
Pavement Basic Functions
1. it helps guide drivers by giving them a visual perspective of the horizontal and vertical alignment of the
traveled path
2. to support vehicle loads (to distribute the traffic load stresses to the soil (subgrade) at a magnitude that will
not shear or distort the soil)

Pavement Types
1. Flexible pavements
2. Rigid pavements
3. Composite pavements
4. Continuously reinforced pavements
5. Post-tensioned pavements
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Flexible Pavement
-is constructed with asphaltic cement and aggregates and usually consists of several layers, as shown

Subgrade- the lower layer which is the soil itself. The upper 6 to 8 inches of the subgrade is usually scarified
and blended to provide a uniform material before it is compacted to maximum density
Subbase- usually consists of crushed aggregate (rock). This material has better engineering properties (higher
modulus values) than the subgrade material in terms of its bearing capacity
Base- also often made of crushed aggregates (of a higher strength than those used in the subbase), which are
either unstabilized or stabilized with a cementing material. The cementing material can be portland cement,
lime fly ash, or asphaltic cement
Wearing surface- usually made of asphaltic concrete, which is a mixture of asphalt cement and aggregates. The
purpose of the wearing layer is to protect the base layer from wheel abrasion and to waterproof the entire
pavement structure. It also provides a skid-resistant surface that is important for safe vehicle stops
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Rigid Pavement
-is constructed with portland cement concrete (PCC) and aggregates, as shown

Subgrade- the lower layer which is the soil itself. The subgrade is usually scarified and blended to provide a
uniform material before it is compacted to maximum density
Base- is optional, depending on the engineering properties of the subgrade. If the subgrade soil is poor and
erodable, then it is advisable to use a base layer. However, if the soil has good engineering properties and drains
well, a base layer need not be used.
Wearing surface- is the portland cement concrete slab
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Principles for Flexible Pavement Design
-The primary function of the pavement structure is to reduce and distribute the surface stresses (contact tire
pressure) to an acceptable level at the subgrade (to a level that prevents permanent deformation). A flexible
pavement reduces the stresses by distributing the traffic wheel loads over greater and greater areas, through
the individual layers, until the stress at the subgrade is at an acceptably low level. The traffic loads are
transmitted to the subgrade by aggregate-to-aggregate particle contact. Confining pressures (lateral forces due
to material weight) in the subbase and base layers increase the bearing strength of these materials. A cone of
distributed loads reduces and spreads the stresses to the subgrade, as shown
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Procedures Methods
1. Asphalt Institute Method
2. National Stone Association Procedure
3. Shell Procedure
4. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide
5. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures
Factors considered in the Design of Pavement
1. Fatigue failures (cracking) which are the result of repeated loading caused by traffic passing over the
pavement
2. Temperature extremes
3. Moisture variation
4. Traffic loads
5. Material variations
6. Construction variations
Serviceability Concept
The pavement is said to be failed and requires rehabilitation or replacement if:
1. Cracking, rutting, or other surface distresses became visible
2. Quality of ride is poor
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Pavement Serviceability-Performance Concept was developed by Carey and
Irick [1962] to handle the question of pavement failure. Carey and Irick
considered pavement performance histories and noted that pavements
usually begin their service life in excellent condition and deteriorate as
traffic loading is applied in conjunction with prevailing environmental
conditions. The performance curve is the historical record of the
performance of the pavement. Pavement performance, at any point in time,
is known as the present serviceability index, or PSI.
The present serviceability index of a pavement can be measured and is
usually done by a panel of raters who drive over the pavement section and
rate the pavement performance on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the
smoothest ride. The accumulation of traffic loads causes the pavement to
deteriorate, and, as expected, the serviceability rating drops. At some point,
a terminal serviceability index (TSI) is reached and the pavement is in need
of rehabilitation or replacement. It has been found that new pavements
usually have an initial PSI rating of approximately 4.2 to 4.5. The point at
which pavements are considered to have failed (the TSI) varies by type of
highway. Highway facilities such as interstate highways or principal arterials
usually have TSIs of 2.5 or 3.0, whereas local roads can have TSIs of 2.0
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation
The AASHTO guide permits engineers to determine a structural number necessary to carry a designated traffic
loading.
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation Graphical Solution of the equation
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation Graphical Solution of the equation
Sec. 6.5.2.3. Development of the
Rigid Pavement Design Procedure
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation

𝑾𝟏𝟖 -the problem of handling mixed traffic loading is solved with the adoption of a standard 18- thousand-
pound–equivalent single-axle load or (with 1 kip = 1000 lb) an 18- kip–equivalent single-axle load: (ESAL).
The idea is to determine the impact of any axle load on the pavement in terms of the equivalent amount of
pavement impact that an 18-kip single-axle load would have. For example, if a 44-kip tandem-axle (double-
axle) load has 2.88 times the impact on pavement structure as an 18-kip single-axle load, 2.88 would be the
W18 value assigned to this tandem-axle load. The AASHO Road Test also found that the 18-kip– equivalent axle
load is a function of the terminal serviceability index of the pavement structure.
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation
𝒁𝑹 -Represents the probability that serviceability will be maintained
at adequate levels from a user’s point of view throughout the design
life of the facility. This factor estimates the likelihood that the
pavement will perform at or above the TSI level during the design
period, and takes into account the inherent uncertainty in design. The
equation uses the z-statistic, which is obtained from the cumulative
probabilities of the standard normal distribution (a normal
distribution with mean equal to 0 and variance equal to 1). In the
flexible-pavement-design nomograph, the probabilities (in percent)
are used directly (instead of ZR as in the case of the equation), and
these percent probabilities are denoted R, the reliability.
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation
Sec. 6.5.8. Design Reliability, R
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation
𝑺𝑶 -is the overall standard deviation, that takes into account the designers’ inability to accurately estimate the
variation in future 18-kip–equivalent axle loads, and the statistical error in the equations resulting from
variability in materials and construction practices. Typical values of So are on the order of 0.30 to 0.50.
𝑺𝑵-is the structural number, it represents the overall structural requirement needed to sustain the design’s
traffic loadings. The objective of the equation and the nomographis to determine a required structural number
for given axle loadings, reliability, overall standard deviation, change in PSI, and soil resilient modulus. There
are many pavement material combinations and thicknesses that will provide satisfactory pavement service life.
The following equation can be used to relate individual material types and thicknesses to the structural
number:

Drainage coefficients are used to modify the thickness of the lower pavement layers (base and subbase) to take
into account a material’s drainage characteristics. A value of 1.0 for a drainage coefficient represents a material
with good drainage characteristics (a sandy material). A soil such as clay does not drain very well and,
consequently, will have a lower drainage coefficient (less than 1.0) than a sandy material.
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation
Sec. 6.5.1.3 Structural Number (SN)
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation
Sec. 6.5.10 Drainage Requirements
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Traditional AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation
∆𝑷𝑺𝑰-is the amount of serviceability loss over the life of the pavement, it is determined during the pavement
design process. The engineer must decide on the final PSI level for a particular pavement. Loss of serviceability
is caused by pavement roughness, cracking, patching, and rutting. As pavement distress increases,
serviceability decreases. If the design is for a pavement with heavy traffic loads, such as an interstate highway,
then the serviceability loss may only be 1.2 (an initial PSI of 4.2 and a TSI of 3.0), whereas a low-volume road
can be allowed to deteriorate further, with a possible total serviceability loss of 2.7 or more.
𝑴𝑹 -the soil resilient modulus, is used to reflect the engineering properties of the subgrade (the soil). Each time
a vehicle passes over pavement, stresses are developed in the subgrade. After the load passes, the subgrade soil
relaxes and the stress is relieved. The resilient modulus test is used to determine the properties of the soil
under this repeated load. The resilient modulus can be determined by AASHTO test method T274 relating it to
the California Bearing Ratio (CBR, the ratio of the load-bearing capacity of the soil to the load-bearing capacity
of a high-quality aggregate, multiplied by 100) using the equation 𝑀𝑅 = 1500 𝑥 𝐶𝐵𝑅. NOTE: the coefficient
1500 is used for CBR<10.
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Sample Problem
A pavement is to be designed to last 10 years. The initial PSI is 4.2 and the TSI (the final PSI) is determined to be
2.5. The subgrade has a soil resilient modulus of 𝟏𝟓, 𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝐥𝒃/𝒊𝒏𝟐 . Reliability is 95% with an overall standard
deviation of 0.4. For design, the daily car, pickup truck, and light van traffic is 30,000, and the daily truck traffic
consists of 1000 passes of single-unit trucks with two single axles and 350 passes of tractor semi-trailer trucks
with single, tandem, and triple axles. The axle weights are
cars, pickups, light vans = two 2000-lb single axles
single-unit truck = 8000-lb steering, single axle
= 22,000-lb drive, single axle
tractor semi-trailer truck = 10,000-lb steering, single axle
= 16,000-lb drive, tandem axle
= 44,000-lb trailer, triple axle
𝑀2 and 𝑀3 are equal to 1.0 for the materials in the pavement structure.
Four inches of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) is to be used as the wearing
surface and 10 inches of crushed stone as the subbase. Determine the
thickness required for the base if soil cement is the material to be used.
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Sample Problem
A pavement is to be designed to last 10 years. The initial PSI is 4.2 and the TSI (the final PSI) is determined to be
2.5. The subgrade has a soil resilient modulus of 𝟏𝟓, 𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝐥𝒃/𝒊𝒏𝟐 . Reliability is 95% with an overall standard
deviation of 0.4. For design, the daily car, pickup truck, and light van traffic is 30,000, and the daily truck traffic
consists of 1000 passes of single-unit trucks with two single axles and 350 passes of tractor semi-trailer trucks
with single, tandem, and triple axles. The axle weights are
Solution:
1. SN=4 (assumed)
2. Find the 18-kip–equivalent single-axle load
cars, pickups, light vans = two 2000-lb single axles
18-kip-ESAL= 2(0.0002)= 0.0004
single-unit truck = 8000-lb steering, single axle
= 22,000-lb drive, single axle
18-kip-ESAL= (0.041+2.09)= 2.131
tractor semi-trailer truck = 10,000-lb steering, single axle
= 16,000-lb drive, tandem axle
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Sample Problem
A pavement is to be designed to last 10 years. The initial PSI is 4.2 and the TSI (the final PSI) is determined to be
2.5. The subgrade has a soil resilient modulus of 𝟏𝟓, 𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝐥𝒃/𝒊𝒏𝟐 . Reliability is 95% with an overall standard
deviation of 0.4. For design, the daily car, pickup truck, and light van traffic is 30,000, and the daily truck traffic
consists of 1000 passes of single-unit trucks with two single axles and 350 passes of tractor semi-trailer trucks
with single, tandem, and triple axles. The axle weights are
Solution:
1. SN=0.4 (assumed)
2. Find the 18-kip–equivalent single-axle load
cars, pickups, light vans = two 2000-lb single axles
18-kip-ESAL= 2(0.0002)= 0.0004
single-unit truck = 8000-lb steering, single axle
= 22,000-lb drive, single axle
18-kip-ESAL= (0.041+2.09)= 2.131
tractor semi-trailer truck = 10,000-lb steering, single axle
= 16,000-lb drive, tandem axle
= 44,000-lb trailer, triple axle
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Sample Problem
A pavement is to be designed to last 10 years. The initial PSI is 4.2 and the TSI (the final PSI) is determined to be
2.5. The subgrade has a soil resilient modulus of 𝟏𝟓, 𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝐥𝒃/𝒊𝒏𝟐 . Reliability is 95% with an overall standard
deviation of 0.4. For design, the daily car, pickup truck, and light van traffic is 30,000, and the daily truck traffic
consists of 1000 passes of single-unit trucks with two single axles and 350 passes of tractor semi-trailer trucks
with single, tandem, and triple axles. The axle weights are
Solution:
1. SN=0.4 (assumed)
2. Find the 18-kip–equivalent single-axle load
cars, pickups, light vans = two 2000-lb single axles
18-kip-ESAL= 2(0.0002)= 0.0004
single-unit truck = 8000-lb steering, single axle
= 22,000-lb drive, single axle
18-kip-ESAL= (0.041+2.09)= 2.131
tractor semi-trailer truck = 10,000-lb steering, single axle
= 16,000-lb drive, tandem axle
= 44,000-lb trailer, triple axle
18-kip-ESAL= (0.102+0.057+0.769)= 0.928
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Sample Problem
A pavement is to be designed to last 10 years. The initial PSI is 4.2 and the TSI (the final PSI) is determined to be
2.5. The subgrade has a soil resilient modulus of 𝟏𝟓, 𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝐥𝒃/𝒊𝒏𝟐 . Reliability is 95% with an overall standard
deviation of 0.4. For design, the daily car, pickup truck, and light van traffic is 30,000, and the daily truck traffic
consists of 1000 passes of single-unit trucks with two single axles and 350 passes of tractor semi-trailer trucks
with single, tandem, and triple axles. The axle weights are
Solution:
3. Find the daily traffic on this highway that produces an 18-kip ESAL
(0.0004 x 30,000 + 2.131 x 1000 + 0.928 x 350)= 2467.8 18-kip ESAL/ day
4. Find the Traffic (total axle accumulations) over the 10-year design period
(2467.8 18-kip ESAL/ day)(365 days/ 1 year)(10 years)=9,007,470 18-kip ESAL 𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑅 = 95%, 𝑍𝑅 = −1.645
5. Find ∆𝑃𝑆𝐼 ∆𝑃𝑆𝐼 = 4.2 − 2.5 = 1.7 𝑆𝑁 = 3.94 ≈ 4.00(𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑)
𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑆𝑁 = 3.94
6. Find SN using
Technological Institute of the Philippines Prepared by: Engr. Adams Royce A. Dionisio, RCE
938 Aurora Blvd., Cubao, Quezon City Structural Engineer
College of Engineering and Architecture
Department of Civil Engineering
Sample Problem
A pavement is to be designed to last 10 years. The initial PSI is 4.2 and the TSI (the final PSI) is determined to be
2.5. The subgrade has a soil resilient modulus of 𝟏𝟓, 𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝐥𝒃/𝒊𝒏𝟐 . Reliability is 95% with an overall standard
deviation of 0.4. For design, the daily car, pickup truck, and light van traffic is 30,000, and the daily truck traffic
consists of 1000 passes of single-unit trucks with two single axles and 350 passes of tractor semi-trailer trucks
with single, tandem, and triple axles. The axle weights are
Solution:
7. Find the thickness required for the base if soil cement is the material to
be used
𝑴𝟐 and 𝑴𝟑 are equal to 1.0 for the materials in the pavement structure.
Four inches of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) is to be used as the wearing
surface and 10 inches of crushed stone as the subbase.
𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑆𝑁 = 3.938059535

3.938059535 = 0.44 4 + 0.2 𝐷2 1.0 + 0.11(10)(1.0)


𝐷2 = 5.390297677 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠
𝑢𝑠𝑒 5.5 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘 𝑠𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒