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SCBA Training

Salem Fire Department


ISI Viking
Air pack Training
2008
Motivation & Introduction
• One of the most important safety items
– 1500 Leonardo da Vinci determines need for respiratory
protection
– To prevent injury and death due to exposure of airborne
contaminates
– Why must we (Fire Fighters) wear SCBA?
• Because OR-OSHA says so?
• 5 mil workers require respiratory protection
– $94 mil per year in respiratory related injuries
– Live longer & healthier (think retirement)
– Make it through the shift
History
• Alexander Humbolt
developed the first
self-contained
breathing apparatus
1795
History
• The Galibert breathing
apparatus was an early
oxygen rebreather
developed in 1864
History
• 1877-The Fayol
breathing apparatus
may have been the
first true pressure-
demand apparatus
History
• Also in 1877, the LaCour
apparatus was developed
in the United States
• Very few manufacturers of
apparatus prior to 1914, 1st
WW forced improvements
• Many departments
required beards at least 6
inches as late as 1910
Course Objectives
• OSHA respiratory Medical Questionnaire
• Identify 3 hazardous atmospheres
• Describe respiratory effects of heated gases
& O2 deficient atmospheres
• Explain toxic gases produced by ordinary
household items
• SCBA basic components
• When SCBA is ready for use
Course Objectives (Continued)

• SCBA limitations and user limitations


• Proper maintenance
• Don and Doff procedures
• SFD operational guidelines, CCC guidelines
and the Respiratory Protection Plan
Course Goals

• Identify all components of the SCBA


• Proper maintenance & restore to service
• Don and Doff
• Identify hazardous atmospheres and when
to wear SCBA
Course Goals (Continued)

• Know when unit is ready for service when


needed
• Limitations of SCBA and user
• Hazards of compressed air systems and
safety considerations
• Buddy breathing & other emergency exit
techniques
Requirements for
Wearing an SCBA

• Knowledge
– SFD Respiratory Protection Plan
• Established program to assist with proper use of
respirators
• Physical and Medical Requirements
– All employees required to wear a respirator will
complete medical evaluation form and submit to
follow up medical evaluation if necessary
Requirements for wearing an
SCBA
• Mental and Physical Agility
– Employees will be capable of working in
environments that require the use of a respirator
• Must be able to stand, bend, kneel, reach, lift, etc
• Cannot be claustrophobic
• Facial Features
– SFD will provide you with a mask that fits
– Facial hair will not be allowed between the
mask seal and the face
Limitations when wearing SCBA
• Limited visibility
– Fogging of mask
• Decreased ability to communicate
– Voice diaphragm & Voice Amplification
– Respiratory rate and volume
• Increased weight
– Approximately 30 pounds with Carbon Fiber Bottles
• Decreased mobility
– Knowledge of how to wear and adjust your SCBA will
assist with mobility issues
• 45 minutes of air
Types of breathing apparatus
• Open Circuit
– Most common in fire service
– Uses compressed air
– Exhaled air is vented outside
• Closed Circuit
– Uses compressed or liquid Oxygen
– Exhaled air is processed through a “rebreather”
– 30 min – 4 hours
6 Basic Components of the SCBA
• Air Cylinder Assembly
– Bottle
– Valve & Pressure gauge
• Back Frame
– Frame Assembly
– Straps
• Pneumatics
– Bottle & RIC connections
– Mask mounted regulator
– Buddy Breathing hose
6 Basic Components (contunued)
• EOSTI
– Alarm Bell
– Lights
• Gauge/PASS Console
– Radio Interface
– Voice Amplifier
– Controls
• Mask & HUD
Air Cylinder Assembly

• High pressure 2500


psi, approx. 47 cu ft
of air
– Carbon Fiber wrapped
aluminum cylinder
– Approximately 20
minutes of supplied air
– Valve & Pressure
Gauge
WARNING!!

• Do not fill SCBA Bottles until you have


received proper training
Backpack and Frame

• Ergonomic design
• Composite Pack frame
• Kevlar straps
Pneumatics

• Bottle & RIC connection


• Mask connection coupling
• Buddy Breathing
Buddy Breathing
• Quick disconnect couplings
• Located in back frame near
bottle valve
• 3’ tether w/ a male &
female connection
• Requires practice
• NEVER TAKE YOUR
MASK OFF TO ASSIST
• ALWAYS RESTORE HOSE
WITH THE SYSTEM
CHARGED WITH AIR
EOSTI (Low Air Alarm)
Alarm Sounds at ¼ Air Remaining

• Low Air Alarm Bell


– In Back Frame
• Heads up Display
lights
– In Mask
– Red light only
• Pressure Gauge
– On Shoulder harness
– Less that 12 on gauge
Pressure Gauge - Low Air Alarm

This gauge most accurate


• Should be within 200 PSI
of Tank Gauge
• LED display shows
pressure remaining in
cylinder ( 39 means 3900
psi )
Pressure Gauge & PASS
• Air activated PASS
• Manual PASS
• Hands Free Indicator
• Push to Talk Radio
button
• PASS alarm light
indicators
Facepiece
• CBRN Approved
• 3 sizes “S-M-L”
• Components
• Air Switch
• By-Pass Knob
• Voice Amp.
• Head net harness
• Polycarbonate visor
• Optically-corrected
• Scratch resistant
• Heads Up Display
Heads up Display ( HUD)
• Air Status
• Low battery
• PASS Pre-Alert
• Radio Transmit
• Low Air Alarm
(EOSTI)
Heads up Display ‘cont’
• 4 lights full to ¾
• 3 lights ¾ to ½
• 2 lights ( amber & red
only ) ½ to ¼
• 1 light ( red ) ¼ tank
& low air alarm
sounding
Heads up Display ‘cont’
• Pass Alarm in Pre-
Alert
– Alternating Red &
Green lights while in
Pre-Alert.

– Lights return to
Normal Air Status
when PASS goes into
Full-Alert
Daily Inspections of SCBA

• Tank Full
• Tank gauge indicates 2200 PSI or above
• 2500 PSI is a Full Cylinder
• Entire unit is clean
• All mask and backframe straps extended
• All hoses intact and connected
• Stored correctly
Weekly Inspections of SCBA per
NFPA 1404 and 1500

• Tank Full
• Tank gauge indicates above 2200 PSI
• 2500 PSI is a Full Cylinder
• Entire unit is clean
• All straps extended
• All hoses intact and connected
• Air Switch & Bypass operational
Weekly Inspection - Continued

• Charge the System


– Listen for 3 sounds to indicate proper function
• Air at the Mask regulator
• Short Alarm Bell
• PASS Alarm Chirps
• Check for leaks
– Watch & listen for Air leaking
• Operate the low pressure alarm
Weekly Inspections – Continued
– Check valve for
damage
– Gauge for pressure
– Inspect Cylinder
• Look for
Cracks,
Gouges, any
frayed
material, or
deep scratches
• Hydrostatic
test – required
every 5 years
for Carbon
Fiber cylinders
Weekly Inspections – Continued
– Hydrostatic test dates
Monthly Inspections of SCBA per
NFPA 1404 and 1500
• Same as weekly
– Check all components for deterioration &
damage
– Leaks
– Operation of all gauges and valves
– Proper pressure
• ALWAYS CLEAN UNIT IF NECESSARY
• ALWAYS TAG DAMAGED UNITS
Yearly Inspections of SCBA per
NFPA 1404 and 1500

• “Factory level” testing


– Flow testing conducted by certified SFD
personnel at Sta 1.
– All Maintenance will be performed by the Air
Pack Technicians
• To include changing of batteries as well
Repair and Maintenance

• Repair tags & Out of Service tags


– Name, date, user, vehicle #, nature of problem
– Green tags vs. red tags
• Out of service on while scene
– Locate SCBA so it won’t be used
Respiratory Hazards
IMMEDIATELY
DANGEROUS to LIFE or
HEALTH
IDLH
“The maximum concentration from
which, in the event of respirator
failure, one could escape within 30
minutes without experiencing any
escape-impairing or irreversible
health effects”
Elevated Temperatures
• Heated air can damage respiratory tract
– Moist heated air is worse
• Temperature exceeding 120F – 130F can
cause:
– Decreased BP
– Failure of the respiratory tract
– Severe respiratory edema
– Not reversible by providing fresh cool air
Smoke

• Smoke mostly combination of:


– Tar
– Carbon
– Dust
• Particles provide for the condensation of
gaseous products
• Some particles are irritating, some are lethal
Oxygen Deficiency
• The combustion process consumes O2
• Creates toxic gases that dilute or displaces O2
• Effects of O2 deficiency
– 21% - normal
– 19.5% - OK by OSHA
– 17% - Increased resp rate, reduced muscular
coordination
– 12% - Dizziness, headache, rapid fatigue
– 9% - Unconsciousness
– 6% - Death within a few minutes
Toxic Gases

• Some cause disease of lung tissue and


impair its function
• Some impair O2 carrying capacity of the
red blood cells
Common Gases – Carbon
Monoxide
• Causes more deaths
than any other product
of combustion
• Colorless, odorless
• Present at all fires
• Caused By Incomplete
combustion
• Combines with red
blood cells 200X more
readily than O2
Common Gases - Carbon
Monoxide
• Ppm % in air Symptoms
• 100 0.01 No symptoms
• 200 0.02 Mild Headache
• 400 0.04 Headache after 1 to 2 hr
• 800 0.08 Headache after 45 mins. Nausea, collapse,
unconscious after 2 hrs
• 1,000 0.10 Dangerous – unconsciousness after 1 hr
• 1,600 0.16 Headache, Dizziness, Nausea after 20mins
• 3,200 0.32 Headache, dizziness, Nausea after 5 to 10
mins. Unconsciousness after 30 mins.
• 6,400 0.64 Headache, dizziness, Nausea after 1 to 2
mins. Unconsciousness after 10 to 15
mins.
• 12,800 1.28 Immediate unconsciousness, Danger of
death in 1 to 3 mins
CO
Common Gases – Hydrogen
Chloride
• Intense irritation of
eyes & respiratory
tract
• Swelling of
respiratory tract
Common Gases – Hydrogen
Cyanide
• Rapid killer – quick &
painless
• Interferes with
exchange of O2 &
CO2
Common Gases – Carbon
Dioxide
• Colorless,
odorless
• End product of
combustion
• Stimulates the
respiratory system
Common Gasses – Carbon
Dioxide
• Ppm % in Air Symptoms
• 5,000 0.5 No symptoms
• 20,000 2.0 Breathing rate increases by 50
• 30,000 3.0 Breathing rate increases by 100%
• 50,000 5.0 Vomiting, Dizziness, Disorientation
after 30 mins
• 80,000 8.0 Headache, Vomiting, Dizziness,
Breathing difficult after short
exposure
• 100,000 10.0 Death in a few minutes
CO2
Common Gases – Nitrogen
Oxides
• 2 types present
– Nitrogen dioxide
(NO2)– most
dangerous
– Nitrogen oxide (NO)
– converts to NO2
with O2 & moisture
– Irritating effects in
nose & throat can be
tolerated even when a
lethal dose is inhaled
Common Gases – Phosgene
• Colorless & tasteless
• Produced when freon
contacts a flame
• Full toxic effect not
evident for several
hours
• Forms hydrochloric acid
in contact with water
• 6 ppm – coughing, eye
irritation
• 25 ppm – fatal
Chlorine
Ammonia
Methods of Donning and Doffing

• Individual Performance Standards


– 2.4.1A Donning #1
– 2.4.1B Donning in a Jump Seat
– 2.4.1C Changing SCBA Bottle
– 2.4.2B SCBA checks
Fit Test Methods

• What is the difference in a qualitative


and quantitative fit test
– A quantitative test is done with a machine,
such as the Port-a-count
• The machine used on the quantitative test
measures the ambient air and samples the air
inside the mask and measures the difference in
the two
Fit Test Methods (Continued)

• The qualitative test does not use a machine


but depends on individual reaction
– When doing a qualitative test a testing agent such
as irritant smoke is blown around the users mask.
If the user starts coughing it is an indication of a
poor fit
– A Banana Oil or Saccharine solution may be used
as a testing agent in which the user would be
alarmed to a poor fit if he or she could taste the
agent
Buddy Breathing

Practice, practice, practice


• If your lost and running low on air
– Notify your partner
– Utilize Controlled Breathing
– Connect to your partners Buddy Breathing hose
– Notify Command for immediate evacuation or
rescue
Controlled Breathing – Skip
Breathing
• CONTROLLED • SKIP BREATHING
BREATHING – Inhale-exhale-inhale-
– Normal inhalation inhale-exhale
through the nose – Normal breaths used to
– Forced exhales through extend use of
mouth remaining air while
– Decreases the amount keeping CO2 in lungs
of air consumed in proper balance
Emergency Escape

• Contact Command
• RIT
• Breathing Techniques
• Know where you are at all times
• Never remove your mask to help another
• Keep calm and THINK
How do you tell when it is ready
to use?
• Unit intact and clean
• All straps fully extended
• Air Cylinder is Full
• Face piece clean and in good repair
• You hear whoosh of air to regulator and alarm
sounds
• Bottle and regulator gauge reads full
• Pass device activates
Maintenance

• Clean or decon after every use


• Use a Mild soap solution on pack frame and
cylinder, IE; dishwashing soap – DO NOT
USE HARSH CLEANERS
• Clean facepiece with specific soap that is
provided
• Malfunctioning SCBA – send in for repair