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After 1872, Philippine conditions went from bad to worse, the
deportation of Filipino leaders to Spanish penal colonies, the
persecution of the intellectuals, and the abuses of the Spanish
masters continued unabated.
The Filipino exiles of 1872 and many patriotic students abroad
met in Hong Kong, Singapore, Barcelona, Madrid, Paris, London,
and other foreign cities, inspired by a common cause, they banded
together and consecrated themselves to the work of promoting the
welfare and happiness of their fatherland. Aggressively but
peacefully, by means of their writings and speeches, they crusaded
for reforms to rectify the evils of the Spanish colonial system.
The peaceful campaign for reforms was known in Philippine
history as the “Propaganda Movement”. It began in 1872, when
Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were executed at the Luneta and
ended in 1896 when Rizal was exiled to Dapitan.
-THE MARTYRDOM OF Gom-Bur-Za, instead of
frightening the Filipino patriots, made them
more determined to fight the evils of Spanish
- At the time of execution, leading the march
was Francisco Saldua, with a smile on his
lips for he thought he would be given pardon,
next is Father Gomez, Father Zamora and
Father Burgos.
“Dear father, I know very well that a leaf of a tree does not
move without the will of the Creator; inasmuch as he asks
that I die in this place, may His will be done.”
– Father Gomez
“Gentlemen, I forgive you, and may God forgive you like I
do…But what crime Have I committed? Is it possible that I
should die this way? My God, is there no more justice on
earth?”. – Father Burgos
- The illustrados, led by Dr.Jose Rizal, M.H. del Pilar, and
Graciano Lopez Jaena, organized the Propaganda Movement
which was a peaceful crusade for reforms.
- These Patriots were called Propagandist because they waged
their movement by means of pen and tongue to expose the
defects of Spanish rule in the Philippines and the urgency of
reforms to remedy them.
• Equality of Filipinos and the Spaniards before the law
• Assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of
• Restoration of Philippine representation in the Cortes, the
law making body of Spain
• Filipinization of Philippine parishes
• Individual liberties for the Filipinos
The members were from the middle class families representing the group of
Filipino Intelegencia.
• Jose Rizal: the greatest novelist of the movement
 • He wrote his poetical masterpiece entitled Mi Ultimo Adios (My Last
Farewell), Noli Me Tangere (1887), El Filibusterismo (1891)
• Marcelo H. Del Pilar of Bulacan
• a lawyer and journalist, beloved by the masses for his eloquent Tagalog and
fearless defense of the poor against friar abuses.
• Graciano Lopez Jaena
• the greatest orator of the Propaganda Movement
Mariano Ponce, medical student and biographical writer;
Juan Luna and Felix Ressurreccion Hidalgo, master of the
brush; Dr. Pedro A. Paterno, lawyer and man of letters;
Antonio Luna, Pharmacist and Essayist; Pedro Serrano
Laktaw, teacher-tutor of Prince Alfonso de bouron (later king
Alfonso XIII of Spain); Jose Ma. Panganiban, Linguists and
Essayist; Fernando Canon, Engineer and Musician; Jose
Alejandrino, Engineer and Political writer; Isabelo delos
Reyes, Folklorist, newspaperman, and scholar; and
Dominador Gomez, physician and orator.
• The official organ/magazine/newspaper of
the Propaganda Movement
• Graciano Lopez Jaena served as founder
and the first editor
• The first issue was published in Barcelona
Spain on February 15, 1889
• The focus on the article was more on
demands for social and political reforms in
the Philippines.
• The subjects of most articles were attacks
against the friars and the abusive Spanish
colonial officials.
La Solidaridad was printed in
Barcelona from February 15 to
October 31, 1889 until last issue on
November 15,1895. On December
1889, M.H. del Pilar replaced Jaena
as its editor, remaining as such until
the demise of La Solidaridad on
November 15, 1895, after an
existence of seven years.
“Our aspirations are modest, very modest. Our program aside from being
simple, is clear: to combat reaction, to stop all retrogressive steps, to extol and
adopt liberal ideas, to defend progress; in a word, to be a propagandist, above all,
of democratic ideas in order to make these supreme in all nations here and across
the seas. The aims, therefore, of La Solidaridad are described as to collect, to
gather, libertarian ideas, which are, manifested daily in the field of politics, science,
art, literature, commerce, agriculture and industry. We shall also discuss all
problems relating to the general interest of the nation and seek solutions to those
problems in high-level and democratic manner. With regard to the Philippines, since
she needs the most help, not being represented in the Cortes, we shall pay
particular attention to the defense of her democratic rights, the accomplishment of
which is our patriotic duty. That nation of eight million souls, should not , must not
be the exclusive preserve of theocracy and traditionalism.”
• To work for political and social reforms peacefully
• To present the sad conditions in the Philippines so that
Spain can remedy them
• To oppose the evil influences of reaction and outmoded
beliefs and practices
• To advocate liberal ideas and progress
• To champion the just aspirations of the Filipinos to life,
democracy and happiness





Filipinas Dentro De Cien Anos
We know their present. Now what will their future be?
Will the Philippine Islands continue to be a Spanish
colony, and if so, what kind of colony? Will they become a
province of Spain, with or without autonomy? And to
reach this stage, what kind of sacrifices will have to be
made? Will they be separated from the mother country to
live independently, to fall into the hands of other nations,
or to ally themselves with neighboring powers?
Sobre La Indolencia De Los Filipinas 4) the system of education offered by the
LAONG LAAN colonizers was impractical as it was mainly about
This logical essay is a proof of the national repetitive prayers and had nothing to do with
hero’s historical scholarship. The essay rationally agricultural and industrial technology;
countered the accusations by Spaniards that
5) the Spaniards were a bad example as
Filipinos were indolent during the Spanish reign. It
was published in La Solidaridad in five consecutive negligent officials would come in late and leave
issues on July (15 and 31), August (1 and 31) and early in their offices and Spanish women were
September 1, 1890. always followed by servants;
Rizal explained the alleged Filipino indolence 6) gambling like cockfights was established,
by pointing to these factors: promoted, and explicitly practiced by Spanish
1) the Galleon Trade destroyed the previous links of government officials and friars themselves
the Philippines with other countries in Asia and the especially during feast days;
Middle East, thereby eradicating small local
businesses and handicraft industries; 7) the crooked system of religion discouraged the
2) the Spanish forced labor compelled the Filipinos natives to work hard by teaching that it is easier
to work in shipyards, roads, and other public works, for a poor man to enter heaven; and
thus abandoning their agricultural farms and 8) the very high taxes were discouraging as big
industries; part of natives’ earnings would only go to the
3) many Filipinos became landless and wanderers officials and friars.
because Spain did not defend them against pirates
and foreign invaders;
- The Propaganda Movement failed, but the ideas of freedom
and justice which it sowed paved the ground for the Philippine
Revolution that the Katipunan and Andres Bonifacio began in
the hills of Balintawak in August 1896.
1. Lack of unity among the propagandists (The conflicts
between Lopez Jaena - del Pilar, and Rizal - del
2. Lack of funds
3. No strong leader aside from Rizal
4. Spanish government did not agree to any of its
While living in Hong Kong, Rizal conceived the idea of establishing
a civic association composed of Filipinos. He called it the Liga Filipina
(Philippine League). He wrote its constitution with the help of Jose Ma.
Basa, an exile of 1872. After finishing the constitution, he returned to
• Unus instar Omnium (One like All)
• Founded by Jose Rizal on July 03, 1892 at Ilaya Street in Tondo
• The constitution was written in Hong Kong with the help of Jose
Ma. Basa
Shortly after arriving in Manila on June 26, 1892,
Rizal conferred with Governor General Despujol. He
succeeded in obtaining a pardon for his family, but
failed to secure sanction for his project to establish
a Filipino colony in Borneo.
On the night of July 3, 1892, Rizal founded the
Liga Filipina (Philippine League) in a house at Ilaya
Street, Tondo.
The Constitution states:
• Union of the Philippine Archipelago into a
compact, strong and homogeneous body.
• Mutual protection of the members
• Defense against all violence and injustice
• Encouragement of education, agriculture and
• Study and application of reforms
The motto of the Liga Filipina was Unus Instar
The officers were as follows: Ambrosio Salvador,
president; Agustin de la Rosa, fiscal; Bonidacio
Arevalo, treasurer and Deodato Arellano, secretary.
Among the members were Andres Bonifacio,
Apolinario Mabini, Mamerito Natividad, Ambrosio
Rianzares Bautista, Moises Salvador, Jose A. Dizon,
Domingo Franco, Timoteo Paez, Arcadio del Rosario,
Numeriano Andrano, Timoteo Lanuza and Doroteo
The Arrest of Jose Rizal
• July 7, 1892: Gen. Eulogio Despujol ordered
Rizal’s arrest and imprisonment at Fort Santiago
• July 15: He was put into exile in Dapitan
• This marked the fall of the La Liga Filipina
• Some members, led by Apolinario Mabini, tried to
revive the league but he failed because many members,
including Andres Bonifacio, believed that it was useless to
expect reforms from the corrupt Spaniards.
Rizal’s exile to Dapitan proved to be the swan song of the
Propaganda Movement. The Liga Filipina collapsed. The radical
Andres Bonifacio and other radical members separated from it, for
they were disenchanted by the peaceful campaign. The conservative
Liga members, including Domingo Franco, Numeriano Andriano,
Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista. Timoteo Paez and Apolinario Mabini,
organized themselves into a new group called Los Compromisaros
because each member pledged or promised to contribute money for
the financial aid of the Propaganda Movement in Spain.
For some months, the Compromisarios sent funds to
M.H del Pilar in Madrid for the continued printing of La
Solidaridad. But time came when many members of the
Compromisarios stopped paying their contributions so that
the flow of funds to Spain ceased. And for lack of funds, La
Solidaridad died out after its last issue on November 15,
The Founding of the Katipunan
With the demise of La Solidaridad, the Propaganda
Movement came to a futile end.
Andres Bonifacio, a member of the Liga Filipina , did not
join the Compromisarios who were conservative
intellectuals and affluent merchants because he was both
poor and a man of action and radical views. He firmly
believed that the happiness and welfare of the Filipino
people could not be achieved by peaceful requests for
reforms, but by violent revolution.