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WHY HRM & Communication Management

• Executing a project requires resources, and

executing a project successfully requires the
optimal use of resources. Thereby, coordinating
and managing resources, including human
resources, is an integral part of project
execution. Individuals who play these roles
perform the responsibilities of the roles to
execute the project work. No Project is complete
with a dedicated work force called the Project

• The most crucial success factor in project

management is effective communications to all
stakeholders. Effective communication leads to
more successful projects and hence allowing
organizations to become high performers
Project Team Vs PM Team
A project team members usually belong to different
groups, functions and are assigned to activities for the
same project. A team can be divided into sub-
teams according to need. Usually project teams are
only used for a defined period of time

The Project Management Team is a subset of the

project team and is responsible for the project
management and leadership activities such as
initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, controlling,
and closing the various project phases. This group can
also be referred to as the core, executive, or
leadership team. (PMBOK Guide, Page 215)
Organisation Types

Functional Projectized
Organization Organization

Functional org…
• A functional organization is the most common type of the

• It works best in small organizations in which the different

sections are geographically close together and which provide
only a small number of goods and/or services.

• In a functional structure, the organization is broken into

different sections based upon specialty. For example, there
may be one area for sales, one for customer service and one
for the supervisors who deal with escalated problems.

• The project manager's role is to ensure smooth execution of

processes and projects; however, the functional manager has
the most power and makes the final decisions.
Advantages of Functional Organization
An advantage to the functional structure is the role of
the functional manager, which means there is only one
boss. This reduces or prevents conflicts of interest and
makes it easier to manage specialists:

• Clear line of authority

• Career development
• Comfortable and easy
• Technical expertise
• Flexible resource assignment
Disadvantages of functional org.

A disadvantage of this type of structure is that the project manager has limited
authority and a limited career path.

• No accountability over complete project

• No project emphasis
• Low coordination across function
• No customer focal point
• Low delegation of authority
• Work delays due to red tape
• Heavy politics
• Lack of a big picture view
Projectized Organization
• Projectized organization is a project focused organizational
structure where project manager has the
final authority over the project to make project decisions,
priorities, acquire and assign resources.

• A projectized organization refers specifically to an

organizational structure that has been set up in a manner
in which the project manager leads the group and in which
the project manager has the ultimate authority to make
any and all decisions involving the organization.

• In a projectized structure, all the work is looked at as a

project. The project manager has complete control, unlike
in the functional structure, and all team members report
directly to the project manager.
No Home
Project Organizations
(advantages and disadvantages)
• Advantages to the projectized structure include the
project manager's opportunity for career progression.
In addition, because good communication exists within
the project work, the team members tend to be more
committed to, and excel in, their responsibilities.

• The disadvantage of a projectized structure is that,

because the team breaks up and disperses after the
completion of the project, there are no long-term goals
or sense of job security for the rest of the workers
Matrix Organization
- It is used mainly in the management of large projects or product
development processes, drawing employees from different functional
disciplines for assignment to a team without removing them from their
respective positions.

- Matrix management is a type of organizational management in which people

with similar skills are pooled for work assignments.

- The matrix structure combines both the functional and projectized structures.
Each team member has two bosses; they report both to the functional manager
and the project manager.

- If the matrix is strong, the power resides more with the project manager.
- If the matrix is weak, the power resides more with the functional manager.

- The key is to find a balance in which the power is shared equally.

- Because of its complexity, this type of structure can lead to problems if it is not
used carefully and properly. Good communication is essential for success.

Two Bosses
Advantages of Matrix Structure
• Highly skilled and capable resources can be shared between the functional units
and projects, allowing more open communication lines which help in sharing the
valuable knowledge within the organization

• The matrix structure is more dynamic than the functional structure because it
allows employees to communicate more readily across the boundaries, creating a
good working and cooperative environment which helps in integrating the

• Employees can learn and widen their skills and knowledge areas by participating
in different kind of projects. The matrix structure provides a good environment for
professionals to learn and grow their career

• In functional departments employees are very skilled, and project teams can get
these highly skilled employees whenever their services are needed

• Since there is a sense of job security, employees tend to be loyal to the

organization and perform well, and hence the efficiency of a matrix organization is
Disadvantages of Matrix
• Two bosses, which adds confusion and may cause conflict. This usually happens in a
balanced matrix organization where both bosses have equal authority and power

• A conflict may arise between the project manager and the functional manager
regarding the authority and power

• If the priorities are not defined clearly, employees may be confused about their role
and responsibility, especially when they are assigned a task which is different from
what they were doing

• If any resource is scarce there might be competition to use it, which may cause hostility
within the workplace and could affect the operation.

• It is generally seen that matrix organizations have more managers than required, which
make overhead cost high

• In a matrix organization, workload tends to be high. Employees have to do their regular

work along with the additional project related work, which exhausts them. It is also
possible that the employee may ignore either his functional responsibilities or project
management responsibilities

• A matrix structure is expensive to maintain. Organizations have to pay extra to keep

resources because not all resources will be occupied at all times. Some resources are
needed only for a short duration.
Organizational Structures
• “Stake holders are the persons and Organisation, Sponsors,
performing Organisations and Public actively involved in the
Project or whose interests will be positively or negatively
impacted by the execution of the project or who may
impact the project”
Project Stakeholder Management Processes
• Identifying stakeholders: Identifying everyone involved in
the project or affected by it, and determining the best ways
to manage relationships with them.

• Planning stakeholder management: Determining

strategies to effectively engage stakeholders

• Managing stakeholder engagement: Communicating and

working with project stakeholders to satisfy their needs
and expectations, resolving issues, and fostering
engagement in project decisions and activities

• Controlling stakeholder engagement: Monitoring

stakeholder relationships and adjusting plans and
strategies for engaging stakeholders as needed
Identifying Stakeholders
• Internal project stakeholders generally include the project
sponsor, project team, support staff, and internal
customers for the project. Other internal stakeholders
include top management, functional managers, and
other project managers

• External project stakeholders include the project’s

customers (if they are external to the organization),
competitors, suppliers, and other external groups that are
potentially involved in the project or affected by it, such
as government officials and concerned citizens

Roles & Responsibilities
• Sponsor
• PM
• Customer
• Project team
• SMEs(Subject Matter Experts)
Project Sponsor
• Identifies reasons for the project / Expected outcome /
• Sets Time frames
• Helps in obtaining resources
• Remove barriers
• Clarify any role or responsibility issues
• Ensure that progress reviews occur after the schedule is
• Review the project team’s monthly report
• Keep the team focused on implementing the project
management process
• Participate in the project close-out
• Define and manage customer expectations
• Coordinate development of the project plan
• Monitor and control project work according to the
approved plan
• Communicate project status by preparing status
reports and conducting progress review meetings
• Establish and follow a change management process
• Lead the project team and resolve conflicts between
team members
• Maintain the project notebook
• Conducting project close-out activities
PM’s Skill
• Leadership
• Communications
• Organizing
• Negotiating
• Managing conflict
• Motivating
• Controlling
• Team building
• Planning
• Directing
• Problem solving
• Coaching
• Delegating
• Supporting
Project Team
• Identify work tasks
• Estimate the duration of work tasks
• Help prepare the project network diagram Honestly
report work status
• Keep the project manager informed on project issues
• Attend scheduled progress review meetings
• Raise issues important to the project’s success
• Keep their functional managers updated
• Participate in the project close-out
PM Teams
• Dedicated. All or a majority of the project team members are
assigned to work full-time on the project. The project team
may be collocated or virtual and usually reports directly to the
project manager. This is the simplest structure for project
manager, as the lines of authority are clear and team members
can focus on the project’s objectives

• Part-Time. Some projects are established as temporary

additional work, with the project manager and team members
working on the project while remaining in their existing
organizations and continuing to carry out their normal
functions. The functional managers maintain control over the
team members and the resources allocated to the project, and
the project manager is likely to continue performing other
management duties
• Partnership and virtual

• Provide a point of contact

• Fulfils responsibilities outlined in the statement of work
• Approve measurable success indicators, deliverables,
budget & schedule
• Work on Changes
• Closing
• Share lessons learned
Senior Management
• Implementation of PM process
• Assign project manager
• Approve project plan/changes
• Provide resources
• Lead continuous improvement efforts
• Establish priorities among projects
• Provide methods for performing work
• Approve close-out of project
• Help resolve issues and conflict
• Support the project manager
Classifying Stakeholders
• After identifying key project stakeholders, you can use
different classification models to determine an approach
for managing stakeholder relationships

• A Power/Interest grid can be used to group stakeholders

based on their level of authority (power) and their level
of concern (interest) for project outcomes
• Power / Influence grid
• Influence /Impact grid

Power/Interest Grid

Stakeholder Engagement Levels
• Unaware: Unaware of the project and its potential impacts
on them

• Resistant: Aware of the project yet resistant to change

• Neutral: Aware of the project yet neither supportive nor


• Supportive: Aware of the project and supportive of change

• Leading: Aware of the project

Tuckman (1965) summarized the results of over fifty studies into the following
initially four stage model( later it was converted in five stages by Jensen 1977):
Stage 1
Form Characterized by testing and independence
Stage II
Storm Characterized by intra team conflict
Stage III
Norm Characterized by the development of team Bruce Tuckman

Stage IV
Perform Characterized by functional role
effectiveness and interdependent
Stage V
Adjourn Characterized by releasing team
Influences that Help / Hurt Projects
Projects are more likely to succeed when project
managers influence people using:
 Expertise
 Knowledge
 Work challenge

Projects are more likely to fail when project managers

rely too heavily on:
 Authority
 Money
 Penalty

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project

30 Management Institute, USA]
Expectancy Theory
Employees who believe their efforts
will lead to effective performance and
who expect to be rewarded for their
accomplishments will remain
productive as reward meet their

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project

Management Institute, USA] 31
One of the most important functions of management is
to create willingness amongst the employees to perform
in the best of their abilities. Therefore the role of a
leader is to stimulate interest in performance of
employees in their jobs. The process of motivation
consists of three stages:-
 A felt need or drive
 A stimulus in which needs have to be aroused
 When needs are satisfied, the satisfaction or
accomplishment of goals.
Therefore, we can say that motivation is a psychological
phenomenon which means needs and wants of the
individuals have to be tackled
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]
Benefits of Motivation
• Puts human resources into action
• building willingness in employees to work. This will help the enterprise in
securing best possible utilization of resources.
• Improves level of efficiency of employees
• Increase in productivity
• Reducing cost of operations
• Improving overall efficiency
• Leads to achievement of organizational goals
• Best possible utilization of resources
• Co-operative work environment
• The employees are goal-directed and they act in a purposive manner
• Goals can be achieved if co-ordination and co-operation takes place
• Builds friendly relationship
• Monetary and non-monetary incentives,
• Promotion opportunities for employees,
• Disincentives for inefficient employees.
• Leads to stability of work force
• employee remain loyal like old is gold
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
• Intrinsic motivation causes people to
participate in an activity for their own enjoyment

• Extrinsic motivation causes people to do

something for a reward or to avoid a penalty

For example, I take piano lessons for intrinsic

motivation (I enjoy it) while others take them for
extrinsic motivation (to get a reward)

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project

34 Management Institute, USA]
Motivation Theories
• Motivation Theories = “What People Really Want”
• Relate how to motivate people
• Rewards is one big motivator
• Rewards have to aligned with what people want

• Main Theories:
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• McGregor’s Theory of X and Y
• Herzberg’s Theory
• David McClelland’s Theory of Needs
• ERG Theory

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1943
. This can be understood by understanding the hierarchy of
needs by manager. The needs of individual serves as a
driving force in human behaviour.

A satisfied need is no longer a motivator

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project Management Institute,
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
The needs have been classified into the following in order:
Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of an individual which
includes food, clothing, shelter, air, water, etc. These needs relate to the
survival and maintenance of human life.
Safety needs- These needs are also important for human beings.
Everybody wants job security, protection against danger, safety of
property, etc.
Social needs- These needs emerge from society. Man is a social animal.
These needs become important. For example- love, affection,
belongingness, friendship, conversation, etc.
Esteem needs- These needs relate to desire for self-respect, recognition
and respect from others. Esteem needs are of two types: internal
esteem needs (self- respect, confidence, competence, achievement
and freedom) and external esteem needs (recognition, power, status,
attention and admiration).
Self-actualization needs- These are the needs of the highest order and
these needs are found in those person whose previous four needs are
satisfied. This will include need for social service, meditation
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project Management Institute,
ERG Theory (1969)
Clayton Alderfer redefined Maslow theory of needs in his own
terms and recategorized into three simpler and broader classes
of needs:
• Existence needs- These include need for basic material
necessities. In short, it includes an individual’s physiological
and physical safety needs.

• Relatedness needs- These include the aspiration individual’s

have for maintaining significant interpersonal relationships
(be it with family, peers or superiors), getting public fame and
recognition. Maslow’s social needs and external component
of esteem needs fall under this class of need.

• Growth needs- These include need for self-development and

personal growth and advancement. Maslow’s self-
actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs
fall under this category[Ref:of need.
PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]
ERG Theory

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project

Management Institute, USA]
McGregor’s Theory X and Y
Douglas McGregor popularized the human relations
approach to management in the 1960s.
• Theory X: Assumes workers dislike and avoid work, so
managers must use coercion, threats, and various control
schemes to get workers to meet objectives.
• Theory Y: Assumes individuals consider work as natural as
play or rest and enjoy the satisfaction of esteem and self-
actualization needs.
Douglas McGregor’s Theory of X & Y (1960)

• All people fit into either of the two groups, X and Y

• Theory X Managers Believe:

• People need to be watched all the time.
• Employees are incapable, avoid responsibility, and avoid work wherever possible

• Theory Y Managers Believe:

• People are willing to work without supervision
• People want to achieve
• Employees can direct their own efforts

• PMI’s belief: Theory Y

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project Management Institute,
David McClelland’s Theory of Needs( 1961)

• People are most motivated by one of the three needs:


• People falling in different categories need to be managed differently

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project Management Institute,

David McClelland’s Theory of Needs (Cont’d…)

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project Management Institute,

Herzberg’s Theory (1959)
• Deals with hygiene factors and motivating agents

• Hygiene Factors
• Poor hygiene factors may destroy motivation, but improving them, under most
circumstances, will not improve motivation

• Examples:
• Working conditions
• Salary
• Personal life
• Relationships at work
• Security
• Status
-These factors cause dissatisfaction if not present but don’t motivate workers to do more
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project Management Institute,
Powers of Project Manager
• Formal (legitimate)
• Based on position
• Reward
• Stems from giving rewards
• Penalty (coercive)
• Comes from ability to penalize team members
• Expert
• Comes from being the technical or project management
• Referent
• Comes from another person liking you
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project
Management Institute, USA]
Powers of Project Manager
• The best forms of power are EXPERT & REWARD
• PENALTY is the worst choice
• FORMAL, REWARD, and PENALTY are powers derived
from the project manager’s position in the company
• EXPERT power is earned on your own

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project

Management Institute, USA]
Handling Multiple bosses
• Know Who Has the Most Power Over You
• Make Sure Your Bosses Are In Agreement
• Stay Out of the Middle
• Prioritize Your Tasks
• Get to Know Who You Are Working For
• Keep Your Cool

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition (C) Project

Management Institute, USA]
Plan Human Resource
Project HRM Overview
The process of identifying and documenting project roles,
responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, Plan HRM
and creating a staffing management plan.

The process of confirming human resource availability and Acquire

obtaining the team necessary to complete project Project
activities. Team

The process of improving competencies, team member Develop

interaction and overall team environment to enhance Project
project performance. Team

The process of tracking team member performance , Manage

providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing Project
changes to optimize project performance. Team
Plan Human Resource Management
• “The process of identifying and documenting project roles,
responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, and
creating a staffing management plan”
• Key Benefit: Establishes project roles and responsibilities,
project organization charts, and the staffing management plan
including the time table for staff acquisition and releases

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 50

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 51
Detailed Discussion:
Plan HR Management Process – Tools & Techniques (Cont’d…)

• Organization Charts and Position Descriptions

• Hierarchical Charts
• Work breakdown structure (WBS)
• Organizational breakdown structure (OBS)
• Resource breakdown structure (RBS)

• Matrix-based Charts
• Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
• Responsibility, Accountability, Consult, Inform (RACI) Chart

• Text-Oriented Charts
• Position Descriptions/JDs 52
Organization Chart & Position Descriptions

Breakdown of project deliverables. How project

Work Breakdown deliverables are broken down into work packages
Structure (WBS) provide a way of showing high-level areas of

Organizational OBS is arranged according to an organization's

Breakdown existing departments, units or teams with the project
activities or work packages listed under each
Structure (OBS) department.

Hierarchical list of resources related by category and

resource type that is used to facilitate planning and
Breakdown controlling of project work. Each descending level
Structure (RBS) represents an increasingly detailed description of the
It may contain resource until small enough to be used in conjunction
resource categories with WBS to allow the work to be planned,
other than human monitored and controlled.
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA]
Detailed Discussion:
Plan HR Management Process – Tools & Techniques (Cont’d…)

RAM is a grid that shows the project resources

assigned to each work package. It links activities to
resources in order to ensure that all work
components are assigned to an individual or team

Organization Chart & Position Descriptions

Organization Chart & Position Descriptions

Another variant can be LRC (Linear Responsibility Chart)

It focuses more on naming who is responsible for specified work

units at the lower levels of all levels in WBS. As compare to RACI,
it shows more of a degree of involvement.
Organization Chart & Position Descriptions
Staffing Management Plan

• Component (subset) of HR management plan

• Describes when and how project team will be acquired, and how
long will they be needed
• Contains (but not limited to):
• Staff acquisition
• Resource Calendars (histogram, a tool for visual representation of
resources to all parties to identify resource
optimization by adding resources or re-schedulization
• Staff release plan
• Training needs
• Recognition and Rewards
• Compliance, strategies with all applicable govt regulations & union contract
• Safety from all hazards beside part of risk register

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 57

Organization Chart & Position Descriptions

Resource Histogram is a tool that shows number of resources

required or assigned over time to a project .

 The vertical bars represent the number of people needed in each skill
category and by stacking the columns , the total number of resources
required for each period can be represented.

 This is a handy format to show various stakeholder groups resource

views for the project

 It can be used to compute the capacity shortages from planned versus

available resources.
Sample Resource Histogram

Information Technology Project

Management, Seventh Edition
A Simple Gantt Chart


Project HR and
Project HRM
o Project HRM include the processes that organize, manage and
lead the project team.
o The project team is comprised of the people with assigned roles
and responsibilities for completing the project.
o Project team members may have varied skill sets, may be
assigned full or part time, and may be added or removed from the
team as the project progresses.
o Project team members may also be referred as “project staff”.
o Although specific roles and responsibilities for project team
members are assigned, the involvement of all team members in
project planning and decision making is beneficial.
Project HRM
o Project HRM should consider and plan for the availability of or
competition of scarce resources.
o Team members can be from inside and outside the organization.
o Other projects may be competing for HR with same skill set.
o These factors can greatly affect project costs, risks schedules, and
quality .
Project Human Resource
Management Overview
Activity Resources

This process identifies the type, quantity and characteristics of

resources required to complete the activity which allows most
accurate cost and duration estimates. The inputs, tools and
techniques and outputs for this process are;
Develop Project Team

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 66

Develop Project Team Process
 It is the process of improving competencies, team member interaction, and overall team
environment to enhance project performance

 Key Benefit: It results in improved teamwork, enhanced people skills and competencies,
motivated employees, reduced staff turnover rates, and improved overall project performance

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 67

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 68
Detailed Discussion
Develop Project Team Process – Inputs (Cont’d…)

• Resource Calendars
• Time period during which each project team member is available to work on
the project

• Resource Calendars identify the times when people are available to work on
the project, based on which, we can see when they can participate in team
development activities

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 69

Detailed Discussion
Develop Project Team Process – Inputs (Cont’d…)

Resource Calendars
It documents the time periods that each project team member is
available to work on the project.

Creation a reliable schedule depends on having good

understanding of each person’s availability and schedule
constraints including;
- Time zones
- Working hours
- Vacation Time
- Local Holidays
- Commitments to other projects
[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA]
Detailed Discussion
Develop Project Team Process – Tools & Techniques (Cont’d…)

Team building activities

 Taking classes
(Likely More Independent) together
 Milestone parties
 Holiday and birthday
 Out side trips
 Creating WBS
 Getting every one
involved in some
(Likely More Interdependent) way in planning

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA]

Detailed Discussion
Develop Project Team Process – Tools & Techniques (Cont’d…)
 Ground Rules
• Rules for acceptable behavior

• Early commitment decreases misunderstandings and increase


• All team members have the responsibility of following and enforcing

the ground rules

• Examples:
• Honesty in communications
• Conflict resolution among team members
• When to inform the PM that he/she is having difficulty with an activity
• Meetings etiquettes
• Acceptable ways of interrupting
• Punctuality during meetings
• Authority of giving directions to vendors
• Speaking with higher authorities about the project

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 72

Detailed Discussion
Develop Project Team Process – Tools & Techniques (Cont’d…)

• Colocation
• Also called “tight matrix”

• Placing all (or most active) team members in the same physical

• Can include a team meeting room (or “war room”), notice boards,
schedule/sticky notes boards – for communication and sense of

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 73

Who Performs the Appraisal?
• Immediate Supervisor • Evaluation Teams
• Higher Management • Customers
• Self-Appraisals • “360° Appraisals”
• Peers (Co-Workers)

• Management by Objectives. MBO evaluates how well an employee has accomplished

objectives determined to be critical in job performance. This method aligns objectives with
quantitative measures such as sales, profits, zero-defect , units produced.

• 360 Degree Performance Multi-source Feedback which involves evaluation by all the
members of the organization that are in connection with the person in question including
himself, his peers, sub-ordinates, supervisors and even the external customers. It usually starts
off with self-evaluation but afterwards all relevant supervisors, peers and sub-ordinates
evaluate the person in question. This is a modern tool in performance

• Peer Appraisal Performance appraisal done by one’s fellow employees

• Team Performance Appraisal based on TQM concepts,

that recognizes team accomplishment rather than individual
The 360º Appraisal Interview


Other Superiors Other Superiors

Individual Staff
Peers Customers

Teams Teams

Manage Project Team

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 77

Manage Project Team Process-Critical Factors


Negotiation Leadership
Manage Project Team Process – ITTOs
• Inputs
• HR Management Plan
• Project Staff Assignments
• Team Performance Assessments
• Issue Log
• Work Performance Reports
• Organizational Process Assets

• Tools & Techniques

• Observations and Conversation
• Project Performance Appraisals
• Conflict Management
• Interpersonal Skills

• Outputs
• Change Requests
• Project Management Plan Updates
• Project Documents Updates
• Enterprise Environmental Factors Updates
• Organizational Process Assets Updates
Detailed Discussion
Manage Project Team – Inputs (Cont’d…)
• Issue Log
• Issues arise in the course of managing a project team.

• An issue log can be maintained to document and monitor who is responsible

for resolving issues by a target date

• Used to communicate issues on the project, assess the causes, their impact
on the project (scope/time/cost/risk) and corrective actions.

• Issues must be recorded

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 81

Detailed Discussion
Manage Project Team – Inputs (Cont’d…)
• Organizational Process Assets
• Certificates
• Newsletters
• Websites
• Bonus structures
• Other perks

[Ref: PMBoK 5th Edition by PMI, USA] 82

Project Performance Appraisals

Project Performance Appraisal Team Performance Assesment

 A technique of Manage project  A technique of Develop project
team process team process
 PM collect information from team  Is done by PM in order to evaluate
members’ supervisors as well as and improve effectiveness of team
other stakeholders and adjust the as a whole
project accordingly  Focus is on team performance not
 Focus is on individual on individual
Tools and Techniques: Conflict Management
• Methods of Conflict Management

• Withdrawal – Retreat or withdraw from actual or potential disagreement and conflict

• Smoothing – De-emphasize differences (avoiding areas of differences) and emphasize

(focus on) commonalties over issues (emphasizing areas of agreement).

• Compromising – Bargaining (trade) and searching for solutions which attempt to bring
some degree of satisfactions to the conflicting parties in a dispute. Characterized by a “give
and take” attitude.

• Forcing – Exerting one’s point of view at the expense of another party. characterized by
competitiveness (a win-lose solution to a conflict)

• Confrontation – Facing the conflict directly; address the disagreement and utilize a
problem solving approach whereby parties work through their disagreements
Tools and Techniques: Conflict Management
Conflict Reduced by:
Ground rules
Better Communication
Group norms
Proper Definition of rules

Result of successful conflict Management

Greater Productivity
 Good working relationship
Increased productivity
Better decision making
• Directing, telling others what to do
• Facilitating, PM coordinates the input of others
• Coaching, help other to achieve their goals
• Supporting, PM provide assistance along the way
• Autocratic (top-down approach), where PM has power to do whatever she or he want
• Consultative (bottom-up approach), PM obtains others opinion and act as servant leader
• Consultative-autocratic, solicit input from other but retain decision making authority
• Consensus, decisions based on group agreement to solve the problem
• Delegating, establish goals then gives sufficient authority to complete work
• Bureaucratic, focus on following procedures, observe specific regulations
• Charismatic, energize and encourage team performance
• Democratic / Participative, encourage participation in decision making then team own decisions
• Laissez-faire (“allow to act”), PM not directly involved in work, suitable for highly skilled team
• Analytical, depends on managers own technical knowledge and ability
• Driver, constantly giving directions, competitive attitude drive the team to win
• Influencing, emphasize team work, team building and team decision making