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PRINCIPLES

UNDERLYING
TEACHING
TEACH 1- PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
• Teaching is a science as
it involves a systematic
process of instruction
guided by established
theories, principles, and
approaches to make
teaching effective.
PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING
TEACHING
I. Principle of Context
II. Principle of Focus
III. Principle of Socialization
IV. Principle of Individualization
V. Principle of Sequence
VI. Principle of Evaluation
I. PRINCIPLE OF CONTEXT
Educational management has
been considered as one interesting
subject particularly by the educators
who are aware of the need for
knowledge management. But when
one talks of knowledge management,
it becomes necessary to analyze the
meaning of the word knowledge from
the different perspectives:
(A) Fleming (1996) points to a
number of observations related to
context development. He stresses the
following:
•A collection of data is not
information
•A collection of information is not
knowledge
•A collection of knowledge is not
wisdom
•A collection of wisdom is not truth
CONTEXT
- refers to words just before
or after a certain word
sentence that helps make
clear what it means.
Fleming further summarizes such
observations by stressing that:
• Information relates to description,
definition, or perspective (what, who,
when, where);
• Knowledge comprises strategy,
practice, method, or approach (how);
and
• Wisdom embodies principle, insight,
moral, or archetype (why)
(B) According to Leus (2005), the
principle of context are categorized
into six levels.
a. Level 1 – Context consist of the
textbook only
• Predominantly verbal
• No problem solving experience
• Lacks dynamic appeal
• Limited verbal responses to verbal
stimuli
b. Level 2 – Context consists of
textbook together with a
collateral/supplemental
materials
• Wider in context
• More readings of expository
• Advocates more extensive reading
c. Level 3 – Context consist of non-
academic and current materials
(magazine articles, newspaper
clippings)
• Concrete, specific, actual, and
immediate
• Reality vs. theories
• Leads to extensive discussion
d. Level 4 – Context consists of
multi-sensory aids
• Effective when used as aid in
learning
• Related to contemplated
learning
• Ineffective if learner is passive
e. Level 5 – Context consists
of demonstration and
presentation by the experts.
• Concrete setting
• Learning beyond classroom
setting
e. Level 6 – Field experiences;
personal, social, community
understanding.
• Concrete, abundant, dynamic,
readily apprehended setting for
learning.
• Goes beyond verbalization
• Concrete and firsthand
experiences
I. PRINCIPLE OF FOCUS
Instruction can be effective if
there is a definite area of
concentration.
a. Level 1 – Focus established by
page assignment in textbook
• Uniform structure
• Learning without unity
• Memorization
I. PRINCIPLE OF FOCUS
b. Level 2 – Focus established
by announced topic together
with page or chapter
references.
• Insight and understanding
• Varied learning pattern
I. PRINCIPLE OF FOCUS
c. Level 3 – Focus established by
broad concepts to be
comprehend or problem to be
solved.
• Directed at the mental processes
of the learner
• More varied learning patterns
I. PRINCIPLE OF FOCUS
d. Level 4 – Focus established as a
concept or a problem to be
solved, a skill to be acquired to
carry an undertaking.
• Flexibility
• Acquisition of more facts and
information
I. PRINCIPLE OF SOCIALIZATION
Classroom learning offers a
socio-cultural phenomenon – a
social process that encompasses
the ways of thinking, interacting,
and problem solving. The
classroom is also viewed as a
conventionalized setting in
which rule-bound interaction
takes place between the learner
and the teacher.
I. PRINCIPLE OF SOCIALIZATION
Such interaction is
influenced by the physical
set-up, the beliefs and values
of the learner’s standards of
classroom management that
eventually leads to
understanding of role
expectations within the group
from lesson formats.
Leus asserts that effectiveness of
instruction depends upon the
social setting in which it is done.
a. Level 1 – Social pattern
characterized by submission
• Rudimentary level of socialization
• No group function
• Teacher-controlled
b. Level 2 – Social pattern
characterized by
contribution.
• Sympathetic and positive
discipline
• Freedom
• Lacks authority
c. Level 3 – Social pattern
characterized by
cooperation
• Goes beyond friendliness
and sympathy
• Teacher is an organizer
• Positive team spirit
I. PRINCIPLE OF
INDIVIDUALIZATION
The effectiveness of
instruction must progress
in terms of the learners
own purposes, aptitudes,
abilities, and experimental
procedures.
Scale of Application
1. Individualization through
different performance in uniform
tasks
2. Individualization through
homogeneous grouping
3. Individualization through
contract plan
I. PRINCIPLE OF SEQUENCE
Successful instructions depend
on the effective ordering of a
series of learning tasks.
Sequence is a movement from
meaningless to emergence of
meaning, from immediate toward
remote, from concrete toward
symbolic, form the crude to the
discriminating. Hence, sequence
is a process of transformation.
Scale of Application
1. Sequence through logical
succession of blocks of content
(lesson and courses)
2. Sequence through knitting
learning/lesson/course
together by introductions,
preview, pretests, reviews.
Scale of Application
3. Sequence organized in terms of
readiness
4. Sequence organized in terms of
lines emerging meanings.
Scale of Application
3. Sequence organized in terms of
readiness
4. Sequence organized in terms of
lines emerging meanings.
4. Individualization through
individual instruction
5. Individualization through large
units with optional-related
activity
6. Individualization through
individual undertakings,
stemming from and contributing
to the joint undertaking of the
group learners
I. PRINCIPLE OF EVALUATION
Evaluation is a component
of effective instruction. It is
necessary to determine
whether objectives of
instruction have been carried
out and learning or
understanding of lesson has
taken place.
It is only by knowing the
effectiveness of instruction that
teachers can determine the value
or worth of the lesson as well as
the specific procedure that go
with the teaching-learning
process. It will also involve a
type of evaluation that requires
analysis of other factors that
make up the educational system.
Types of Evaluation
1. Diagnostic Evaluation – This is
the+ evaluation done at the
beginning of the unit or course to
determine the different levels to
where the students can be
grouped whether slow, average,
or fast.
2. Formative Evaluation – Intended
to improve the delivery of
instruction in the classroom. This is
the phase of evaluation where
what the teacher does in the course
of his teaching and what he is to do
next are given focus. In other
words, this is a process of quality
control.
It is designed to examine
whatever deficiencies there are in
the process of instruction so that
necessary adjustment can be made
for successful results. Teacher
therefore, evaluates where the plan
for the day is succeeding or carried
out as planned. A short test after the
lesson proper is an example to find
out how well the learners have
absorbed the lesson.
3. Summative Evaluation – From the
word itself, this phase of evaluation
calls for “summing up” all
pertinent data related to the
performance of the individual
learners. At the end of the year,
the final ratings of the students
will quantify how much learning is
achieved to merit a promotion.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH
Answer the following questions:
• 1. Differentiate the six levels of the
principle of context.
• 2. Discuss the strategy in catering
individualization.
• 3. Explain the five stages of sequence?
• 3. Why do we consider Evaluation as a
component of effective instruction?
• 4. Discuss the types of evaluation.
• 4.