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 Bhumika Bisen :- 04
 Gopal Taori :- 08
 Mayuri Agrawal :- 12
 Sakshi Kukde :- 24
 Shrushti Agrawal :- 30
•VENACULAR ARCHITECTURE
•TYPES OF CLIMATE
•LOCATION
•CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE OF CLOD AND CLOUDY
•MATERIAL AVAILABLE
•DESIGN CRITERIA
•LANDFORM
•ORIENTATION
•CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE
•CASE STUDY OF BHALYANI SETTLEMENT KULLU, HP
•CASE STUDY OF DRY STONE HOUSE
•CONCLUSION
•WEBLIOGRAPHY
•BIBLIOGRAPHY
EXAMPLE OF VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE
 The word vernacular
derive from
vernacules means
native.
 Vernacular
architecture is
an architectural style
that is designed based
on local needs,
availability of
construction materials
and reflecting local
traditions. TODA HUT
 Vernacular
architecture tends to
evolve over time to
reflect the
environmental,
cultural, technology
and historical context
in which it exists.
 Vernacular
architecture is the
simplest form for
addressing human
needs
Vernacular architecture can be broadly divided
into 3 categories.

KACHCHA PAKKA SEMIPAKKA

1.Building made of 1. Building made of


1. Combina
natural material material such as
tion of
such as mud , stone, brick, clay
kachcha
grass , bamboo, tiles, metal or
thatch or sticks. mortar and
2. Not made for 2. Expensive to pakka
endurance . construct
3. Requires 3. Does not requires
constant constant
maintenances and maintenances and
replacements replacements.
Kachcha
house Pakka house

Semi pakka house


A country is divided into
6 major climatic zones

1.Hot and dry climate


2.Warm and humid
climate
3. Cold and sunny climate
4.Cold and cloudy
climate
5.Composite climate
6. Moderate climate
• Northern part of
India experiences
cold and cloudy
climate
•Situated at high
altitude
•Intensity of solar
radiation is low
 Land slide, cloud burst , floods, forest fire
 Deep snow
 Strong wind
 Defrost
 Extreme wind cold
 High wind chill factor
LAND SLIDE

SNOW FALL
1 . SUMMER
 During day 20 degree C - 30 degree C
 During night 7 degree C – 27 degree C
2. WINTER
 During day 4 degree C - 8 degree C
 During night -3 degree C – 4 degree C
3. HUMIDITY
 70%-80%
 DEODAR WOOD
 STONE
 MUD
•Easily available
•Provide stability
•Insect and termites
resistance
TREE OF DEODAR
•Used in door , window,
shutter , roofs , beam
•Soft , easy to work
DOOR SEASONING

FURNITURE ROOFING
 Easilyavailable
 Good insulation
 Good binding properties
 Mud is filled into the planks
 Sun dried mud block are used
 Good insulator and
binder
 Either mud is filled
into the wooden
forms and rammed
 Alternatively sun
dried mud blocks are
used for walls
MUD BLOCKS

CONSTRUCTION WITH
MUD BLOCKS
 ORIENTATION
 CLIMATIC INFLUENCE
 LAND FORM
 OPEN SPACE AND BUILT FORM
 CULTURAL INFLUENCE
 PLANNING OF HOUSE
 SECTION OF HOUSE
 THE ATTIC
 OPENING SPACE
 FLOOR AND STAIR
 WOODEN BALCONY
 WALL PUNTURE
 WALL COURSE
• Building is
located in south
slope for better
access to solar
radiation
• Exposure to cold
wind can be
minimize by
locating the
building to leeward
side
•Building can be
clustered
together to
minimize
exposure to
cold winds
•Thus compact
planning is
preferred
•The rural people of himachal pradesh are traditionally
depend on agriculture and animal as prime economics
activities.
•The pattern and build form reflect the activities
•Ground floor – cattle
shed and storage area
•First floor – living
area along with
kitchen
•Low height of room
(2.1 to 2.4 meters)
•Inner wall thickness
is 4 inch
•Outer wall thickness
9 inch
• Plinth area is 5 meter by (13.8 + 0.45 meter)
• Small window size and low ceiling height
• Terrace is all round the building should have proper
slope for efficient drainage
 An intersecting part of the house is the attic
which used as a storage.
 The main function of the attic is to insulate the
house.
 It severs as an excellent storage space
•Small window size and low ceiling height
•Roof of building possess proper slope for efficient
drainage.
FLOOR

STAIR
CASE STUDY
•Dwelling of Bhalyani settlement at
Kullu , Himachal Pradesh
•Dry Stone Construction in
Himachal Pradesh
 To understand architectural planning
 To study the material
 To find architectural details
 Shelter to provide
thermal comfort
 Building should be
oriented to the
equator i.e toward
the south
 Settlement should
have compact
planning to reduce
heat loss
 Small size opening are
provided of timber or
glass shutter
 The opening on ground
floor is protected by
balcony above
 The first floor is protected
through the projection of
pitched roof
 No opening toward south
to avoid cool winter air
 Walls
made up of stone masonry and timber
having thickness of 40 to 50 cm
 Ground floor - Mud or cow dung
 First floor - timber planks
 Pitchedroof made up of timber and the
covering is done through slate made up of
stone.
S
 Introduction
 Description for Settlement
 Architecture Features
 Structural Detail
 Construction
• This addressing
building type has
been identified in
Himachal Pradesh,
a Northern part of
India
• This construction
style is nothing but
traditional housing
style
• The villages of the
districts Chamba,
Shimla, Kullu and
Kinnaur
• There is no local
name prevalent for
this building type and
these are generally
referred to as
'pattharkemakan'
• (a) Steep Slope
• (b)Comparatively Gentle
Slope
Large opening in wall for light and Use of bricks to accommodate
ventilation purpose. cupboards at the inside of the
wall

A dry stone structure with RC flat slab


Niche for cupboard seen from under construction. RC columns are
inside additionally used to support the longer
span.
1. Timber
2. Steel
3. Concrete
4. Stone masonry
 The typical plan dimensions of
these buildings are: lengths
between 8 and 12 meters, and
widths between 5 and 8
meters.
 The building has 2 to 3 storey
 The typical span of the
roofing/flooring system is 5
meters. The typical storey
height in such buildings is 2.5
meters.
 The buildings mostly have
solid RC slabs (115 to 150 mm
thick)
 The foundation is usually of
the same width as the wall
above (i.e. 500 mm).
Retrofitting measures for dry stone
houses
Wall section
 From this we conclude that construction
work is done by locally available material
 Deodar wood and stone as slate is used
 Traditional construction as per the local need
so it can be termed as the vernacular
architecture.
 https://www.slideshare.net/divya_binu/vern
acular-architecture-case-study-hp

 http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/wea
ther.php3?s=595725&cityname=Kullu-
Himachal-Pradesh-India

 www.slideshare.com
 Koenigsberger, O.H., Ingersoll, T.G., Mayhew,
A., Szokolay, S.V., Manual of Tropical Housing
and Building: Climatic Design, 1973, India:
Orient Longman
 Wood and stone the vernacular architecture
of himachal pradesh
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