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G.H.

PATEL COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC :- KETTLE TYPE REBOILER FOR AROMATIC
SEPARATION
NAME :- HET THANKI 160110105059
PINKAL VACHHANI 160110105060
DHAVAL VASOYA 160110105061
ARPAN VIRANI 160110105062
SETU VISAVADIYA 160110105063

SUBJECT :- PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN-I


BRANCH :- CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
GUIDED BY :- PROF. HARESH K. DAVE
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INTRODUCTION
 Kettle reboilers are very simple and reliable. They may require pumping of
the column bottoms liquid into the kettle, or there may be sufficient liquid
head to deliver the liquid into the re boiler.

 In this reboiler type, steam flows through the tube bundle and exits as
condensate. The liquid from the bottom of the tower, commonly called
the bottoms, flows through the shell side.

 There is a retaining wall or overflow weir separating the tube bundle from the
reboiler section where the residual re boiled liquid (called the bottoms product)
is withdrawn, so that the tube bundle is kept covered with liquid and reduce the
amount of low-boiling compounds in the bottoms product.
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 Vapor leaving the kettle type reboiler is always in equilibrium with liquid.
In this heating surface is immersed in pool of water. Hence perfect pool
boiling takes place.

 In pool boiling maximum value of heat exchanger value is obtained.

 In kettle type reboiler fluid side pressure drop is negligible, hence it is


preferred with vacuum distillation column.

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WORKING
 Liquid flows out of the tower into the bottom of the
reboiler’s shell.
 The liquid is partially vaporized.
 The domed top section of the reboiler separates the
vapor and the liquid.
 The vapor flows back to the tower through the riser
line. This is the column’s stripping vapor or heat
source.
 The liquid overflows the baffle. The baffle is set high
enough to keep the tubes submerged. This liquid is the
bottoms product.
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6fO3o-BGZw
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DESIGN STEPS OF REBOILER
STEP:1
Calculation of heat duty: General design starts by energy balance around
distillation column.
• ∅𝐵 =𝐻𝐷 𝐷 + 𝐻𝑊 𝑊 − 𝐻𝐹 𝐹 + ∅𝐶 + ∅𝐿 ……………………(1)
Where, ∅𝐵 = Heat duty of reboiler, KW
𝐻𝐷 =Enthalpy of distillate, KJ/mol
D= Molar flowrate od distillate. Kmol/s
𝐻𝑊 = Enthalpy of residue, KJ/mol
W= Molar flowrate of residue, Kmol/s
𝐻𝐹 =Enthalpy of feed , KJ/mol
F= Molar flowrate of feed, Kmol/s
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∅𝐶 = Heat duty of condenser, kW
∅𝐿 = Heat duty of distillation system, Kw

If duty is provided then it can be calculated as:


∅𝐵 =𝑚𝑣 𝜆* 1.05…………………..(2)

where 𝑚𝑣 = Vapourization rate, Kg/s


here considering 5% heat loss in the surrounding.

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STEP:2
Fix the value of mean temperature difference Δ𝑇𝑚 . It should be less
than and close to critical temperature drop. Average temperature of
heating medium:
𝑡ℎ = Δ𝑇𝑚 + 𝑡𝐵 …………………………….(3)

STEP:3
Select suitable heating medium.

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STEP:4
Based on energy balance, find the mass flowrate pf heating medium. If
temperature is less than 180 C, then saturated steam can be used as
heating medium.
𝑞𝐵 =𝑚𝑠 𝜆𝑠 ………………………..(4)

Where, 𝜆𝑠 = Latent heat of vapourization, kJ/Kg.


𝑚𝑠 = Mass flowrate of steam required, kg/s.

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STEP:5
To get the first estimate of heat transfer area, assume the value of overall
heat transfer coefficient(Table:6.7). Find heat transfer area based on
assumed values.
𝜃𝑡
A= = 𝐴𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑑 =𝑁𝑡 𝜋𝑑0 𝐿…………………………..(5)
𝑈0 Δ𝑇𝑚

STEP:6
Fix the value of outside diameter 𝑑0 and tube length. Find number of tubes
𝑁𝑡 . Decide the tube arrangement. Generally for reboilers 1inch tube are
used.

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STEP:7
Calculate shell outside boiling coefficient by Mostinski equation:
∅ 0.7 𝑝 𝑝 𝑝
ℎ𝑜 =ℎ𝑛𝐵 =0.104𝑝𝑐0.69 𝐵 [ 1.8( )^0.17 + 4( )^1.2 + 10( )^10]…….(6)
𝐴 𝑝𝑐 𝑝𝑐 𝑝𝑐

Where, ℎ𝑜 =ℎ𝑛𝐵 =Shell side nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient


∅𝐵
= Heat flux of reboiler
𝐴
𝑝𝑐 = Critical pressure of component
p= Operating pressure of reboiler
The above equation is used for single component system.

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STEP:8
Calculate tube side heat transfer coefficient(ℎሖ 𝑖 ):

 If saturated steam is used as heating medium, then calculation for


ℎሖ 𝑖 is not required. Value is 6000 W/𝑚2 ˚C can be safely used. This
also includes fouling resistance.

 If hot oil is used as heating medium, then ℎሖ 𝑖 is calculate by forced


convention correlation.

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STEP:9
Calculate overall heat transfer coefficient(𝑈0 ) as mentioned earlier.

STEP:10
Calculate the heat transfer area required.

STEP:11
Calculate % excess heat transfer area. It should be in between 10-20%.
If not, then change the number of tubes par tube length. Repeat the
calculation until % excess area is in the desired range.

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STEP:12
Based on final and last value of heat transfer required area provided,
calculate actual heat transfer flux.
∅𝐵
Actual heat flux=
𝐴𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑑

STEP:13

Actual heat flux<0.7( )
𝐴

Where ( )=
Critical heat flux. It is heat flux corresponding to critical
𝐴
temperature drop. This condition must be satisfied. Critical heat flux can
be estimated by modified Zuber’s equation.

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∅ 𝑃𝑡 𝜆𝑣
𝐾𝑏
= 𝜎𝑔 𝜌𝐿 − 𝜌𝑉 𝜌𝑉2 ^0.25
𝐴 𝑑𝑜 𝑁𝑡

Where , = Critical heat flux , W/𝑚2
𝐴
𝐾𝑏 = Constant . 0.44 for square pitch & 0.41 for triangular pitch
arrangement.
𝑃𝑡 = Tube pitch (mm)
𝑑𝑜 = Tube outside diameter, (mm)
𝑁𝑡 = Total number of tubes in bundle.
𝜆𝑣 = Latent heat of vaporization, J/kg
𝜌𝑣 = Vapour density (kg/𝑚3 )
𝜌𝐿 = Liquid density (kg/𝑚3 )
𝜎𝑔 = Liqid surface tension (N/m)

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STEP:14
Find the shell inside diameter. Shell inside diameter of kettle type
reboiler should be greater of following two values.

 Shell ID=Liquid level + 0.15 to 0.25 m


Liquid level in kettle type reboiler= Tube bundle diameter + 50 to
100 mm.

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STEP:15
Check the liquid entrainment. To avoid the excessive entrainment. To
avoid excess entrainment, vapour velocity at liquid surface should be
less than 𝑣𝑚𝑎𝑥 .
𝜌𝐿 −𝜌𝑉
𝑣𝑚𝑎𝑥 = { }^1/2
𝜌𝐿
Where,
𝑣𝑚𝑎𝑥 = Maximum permissible vapour velocity (m/s)
𝜌𝐿 = Density of liquid phase (kg/𝑚3 )
𝜌𝑣 = Density of liquid phase(kg/𝑚3 )

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Actual vapor velocity at liquid surface.
𝑚ሶ 𝑣
ൗ𝜌𝑣
v=
𝐿𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎

Liquid surface area=L*x


where L=tube length
x=Width of liquid level

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SPECIFICATIONS
 Proper reboiler operation is vital to effective distillation. In a typical
classical distillation column, all the vapor driving the separation comes
from the reboiler.
 The reboiler receives a liquid stream from the column bottom and may
partially or completely vaporize that stream. Steam usually provides the
heat required for the vaporization.

APPLICATIONS
 The high level of vaporization makes it prone to fouling, and these
reboilers are expensive due to their large shell size and maintenance.
.
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ADVANTAGES
 Very stable in operation.
 No limit to turn - down; an over-sized boiler presents few operational problems.
 Differential expansion can be readily accommodated.
 The required elevation for the base of the column is less than for a vertical
thermosyphon.
 The separation efficiency of the boiler approaches one theoretical stage.
 Low heat transfer coefficients.
 High capital costs (large shell(.
 High vaporization rates (80%).
 Low pressure drop.
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DISADVANTAGES
 Large inventory of boiling liquid.
 Large plot area.
 Expensive shell.
 Mechanical cleaning of the process side can only be done by
removing the bundle, and then generally only if square pitch tube
layout is used.
 Not suitable for fouling fluids.
 Not suitable for heat sensitive materials as it has higher residence
time.

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OPERATING PROBLEMS
When liquid level falls below the top of the bundle, unflooded tubes heat
vapor rather than liquid. Heat transfer suffers as the heat transfer coefficient
is lower in vapor than in liquid. It will also lead to higher temperature on the
exposed tubes, leading to metal over-heating. It is important to ensure that the
tubes are always flooded by liquid set by the overflow weir.

 Sufficient disengagement space need to be provided above the tube bundle


to remove any entrained liquid droplets. Demisters can be used to improve
disengagement.

 Poor liquid distribution in kettle reboiler will also results in problems as


previously described.
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REFRENCES
 Introduction to Process Engineering and Design by S B Thakore and
B I Bhatt, Tata McGraw Hill, 1st Edition, 2007.
 Brownell and Young, Process Vessel Design, Wiley Eastern, 1977.
 M. S. Peters and K. D. Timmerhaus, Plant Design and Economics for
Chemical Engineers, 4 th ed., McGraw - Hill, New York, 1991.
 TEMA Standards.
 Don W. Green, Robert H. Perry, Perry's Chemical Engineers'
Handbook, 8th Edn., McGraw -Hill, New York, 2008

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