Sei sulla pagina 1di 41

ANALYZING

MATTER
WHAT IS MATTER?

Matter is everything around us that has mass


and occupies space.
Living things and non-living things are matter.

Non-living Things Living Things


Air, water, wood and Insect, birds and
soil human beings.

Not matter : Heat, Light and Sound


Showing that matter has mass and
occupies space

Two balance balloon

P
Pin Q

Air leaks P
from the
balloon The balloon
filled with air Q
is heavier
THE STATES OF MATTER (The
Particle Theory of Matter)
Matter is made up of very small (tiny) and discrete
particles which we call atoms, ions and molecules.
Matter exists in three states. They are either solids,
liquids or gases.

Showing that matter is made up of particles.


Potassium
manganate
(Vll)
Potassium
Water manganate
(Vll) solution
Atom

Atoms are the smallest particles of any


element.
All atoms of a given element is identical
Each element consists of a particular type of
atom and is different from the atoms of other
elements.
For example, the smallest particles in gold
and iron are gold atoms and iron atoms
Molecule
A molecule is small group of atoms which are
chemically joined together.
A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms
H2, N2, O2, Br2, HCl, CO
A polyatomic molecule contains more than two
atoms
O3, H2O, NH3, CH4

H2 H2O NH3 CH4


Molecules

Same type of Different types


atoms of atoms
Examples : Examples:
Nitrogen N2 Carbon
dioxide CO2
Oxygen O2
Ammonia NH3
Hydrogen H2
Water H2O
Ions
An ion is a charged particle formed from an
atom or group of atoms by the loss or gain of
electrons
A positive ion (cation) is formed when an
atom loses electrons
A negative ion (anion) is formed when an
atom gain electrons
An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net
positive or negative charge.
cation – ion with a positive charge
If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons
it becomes a cation.

11 protons 11 protons
Na 11 electrons Na+ 10 electrons

anion – ion with a negative charge


If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons
it becomes an anion.
17 protons
17 protons Cl-
Cl 17 electrons
18 electrons
Particles

Atoms Ions Molecules

Ionic
Covalent
Metal Noble Gases Compounds Non metal
compound
-Iron -Neon Sodium ion & -oxygen, O2
-H2O
-Copper -Argon Chloride ion in - Sulphur, S8
- CO2
Sodium chloride
Matter can be classified as elements and
compounds
An element is a substance that cannot be
broken down into simpler substances
physically or chemically. All the atoms of
the same element are the same
A compound is usually made up of two or
more elements which are chemically
bonded together
Matter

Elements Compounds

Metals and noble Covalent Ionic


Non-metals
Gases compound Compound
(molecules)
(atomic particles) (molecules) (ions)
Kinetic Theory Of Matter
The Kinetic Theory of Matter explains the
forces between molecules and the movement
of particles in matter.
The movement of particles in different matter
is not same, depends on the temperature and
attraction force between the particles.
If the temperature is increased the kinetic
energy of particles also increase.
Kinetic Theory of Matter
All matter is made up of tiny, discrete
particles
These particles are always in constant
random motions
As the temperature rises, the kinetic
energy of particles increases and the
particles start to move faster.
Particles of different physical states
arrange themselves in different patterns.
Matter is made up of discrete and tiny
particles that occupy space

The
The particles always
The particles collide with Kinetic vibrating and moving
each other and bounce off Theory of about randomly
in all direction Matter

The particles obtain higher kinetic energy and move in more


rapid when the temperature of the matter increases
Diffusion (to show the existence
and movement of particles
The process by which particles
move freely to fill up any available
space is called diffusion
In diffusion, the particles move
from a region of higher
concentration to a region of lower
concentration
Since particles are too small to be
seen, diffusion is one of the methods
which indirectly show that matter is
made up of tiny and discrete particles
Diffusion occurs in gases, liquids and
solids
The speed of diffusion is fastest in the
gaseous state and slowest in the solid
state. This because particles in gases
move the fastest
The speed of diffusion also depends
on :
(a) Temperature – The higher the
temperature, the faster the particles
move and hence the faster the
diffusion
(b) The mass of particles, especially
in gases. The smaller the mass, the
faster the particles move & the faster
the speed of diffusion.
The arrangement of particles in matter
Solids Liquids Gases

•The particles are •The particles are •The particles are


arranged closely arranged closely further apart and
and there are very but there is more there is a lot of
little space between space between the space between the
the particles. particles. particles.

•Has a fixed volume, •Has a definite •Has no definite


a fixed shape and volume, but not volume and shape.
cannot compressed. definite shape and Can be compressed
difficult to with ease.
compress.
The movement of particles in matter

Solids Liquids Gases

•The particles •The particles are •The particle are


are held closely further apart and widely space and
together by very vibrate but not in move randomly in all
directions at high
strong forces. fixed positions.
speed.
•They can only •They move •Collisions between
vibrate from randomly and the gas particles take
side to side and collision between place more
spin around these particles frequently than
their. take place collision particles of
frequently. liquids.
Changes in the state of matter
Matter changes their physical state when
there are changes in the temperature and
pressure.
The changes in the physical state of
matter can be done by changing the
temperature of matter
Matter of any state absorbs heat energy
when heated and releases energy when
cooled.
Change of the state Explanation
of matter
Melting The process where a solid changes into a liquid
at a particular temperature & pressure

Boiling The process where a liquid changes into a gas at


a particular temperature & pressure

Freezing The process where a liquid changes into a solid


at a particular temperature & pressure

Condensation The process where a gas changes into a liquid at


a particular temperature & pressure

Sublimation The process where a solid changes into a gas


without going through the liquid state at a
particular temperature & pressure
Melting Boiling

Freezing Condensation
Sublimation

Sublimation
Boiling Point & Melting Point

The constant temperature at which a pure


solid changes into a liquid at a given
pressure is called its melting point.
The constant temperature at which a pure
liquid changes into a gas at a given
pressure is called its boiling point.
Different substances have different melting
points & boiling points
Boiling Point & Melting Point

The melting point and boiling point for a


pure substance are always constant.
The presence of impurities in a substance
will cause its
(a) boiling point to rise
(b) melting point to fall
To determine the
melting and
freezing points of
naphthalene /
acetamide
Apparatus : Materials :
Boiling tube, 250 cm3
beaker,
Naphthalene,
thermometer, water
tripod stand, retort
stand and clamp,
bunsen burner,
stopwatch, conical
flask,
wire gauze
Procedures
1. Fill one third of a boiling tube with
naphthalene and put a thermometer into
it.
2. Suspend the boiling tube in a beaker half
filled with water. Be sure the level of
naphthalene in the boiling tube is below
the level of water in the beaker.
3. Slowly heat the water until the
temperature reaches 60°C. Stir the
naphthalene slowly with thermometer
4. Record the temperature and the states of
naphthalene at half-minute intervals until
the temperature of naphthalene reaches
90°C
Thermometer

Boiling tube

Naphthalene
Water
5. Remove the boiling tube from the water
bath. Dry the outer surface of boiling tube
and quickly put it into a conical flask. Stir the
naphthalene continuously

6. Record the temperature and the state of


naphthalene at half-minute intervals until the
temperature drops to 60°C

7. Record your result as shown in the table


Thermometer

Boiling tube

Conical flask

Naphthalene
Heating of naphthalene Cooling of naphthalene

Time Tempe State Time Tempe State


(min) rature (min) rature
( °C) ( °C)
Interpreting Data
1. Plot a graph of temperature against time
for the heating and cooling of
naphthalene

2. Label your graphs to show where


naphthalene is a solid, liquid or present in
both states

3. From the graph determine the melting


and freezing point of naphthalene
Change in the state of matter in term of kinetic
theory of matter
Temperature 0C

Boiling Point Gases


S T
100

Melting point liquid


Q R
75
solid

0 Time/Minute

Heating curve of acetamide


Section of the Physical Energy & temperature change
heating curve state
At point P Solid Particles are orderly packed and held
tightly together. Particles are vibrating
and rotating about in their fixed
position

Between points Solid Particles absorb heat. This causes the


P and Q particles to gain more kinetic energy
and to vibrate faster. The temperature
rises

At point Q Solid and Particles absorb heat. The attraction


Liquid forces between particles are overcome
and the particles begin to breakaway
from one another to form a liquid.
Substance start to melt.
Section of the Physical Energy & temperature change
heating curve state

Between point Q Solid and During melting, the temperature remains


and R liquid constant because all the heat absorbed
by the particles is used to overcome the
forces of attraction between particles.
The kinetic energy remains unchanged.
The fixed temperature is called the
melting point.
At point R Liquid The particles are not orderly packed,
they are vibrating, rotating and sliding
over one another.
From point R to Liquid The heat is absorbed and the particles
S gain more kinetic energy and move
faster. The temperature of the particles
increases.
Section of the Physical Energy & temperature change
heating curve state

At point S Liquid and The heat is absorbed, the particles


gas have enough energy to overcome the
forces of attraction. The substance
start to boil.
Between point S Liquid and During boiling, the temperature remain
and T gas constant because all the heat
absorbed is used to overcome the
forces of attraction between particles.
The kinetic energy of particles remain
unchanged. The constant temperature
is called the boiling point.
At point T Gas The particles are far apart and move
rapidly and freely.
Between point T Gas Heat is absorbed. Particles gain more
and U kinetic energy. Temperature rises.
Change in the state of matter in term of kinetic
theory of matter
Temperature 0C

K Gases

M
100 L liquid
Boiling Point
solid
75
N O

P
Melting point

0 Time/Minute

Cooling curve of acetamide


Section of the Physical Energy & temperature change
heating curve state

At point K Gas The particles are far apart, moving


rapidly and freely in all directions.
Between point K Gas Particles loses heat to the surrounding.
and L Gas particles loses kinetic energy and
move slower. The temperature drops.
At point L Gas and The particles move so slowly and they
Liquid start to get closer until touching each
other to form liquid. Start to
condensed.
Between point L Liquid Heat is given out during condensation.
and M The rate of heat loss to the
surrounding while cooling occurs is
exactly balanced by the rate of heat
released while condensation occurs.
Kinetic energy unchanged. Boiling
Point.
Section of the Physical Energy & temperature change
heating curve state

At point M Liquid The particles close to each other,


vibrating, rotating and sliding over
each other.
From point M to Liquid Particles loses heat to the
N surroundings. This cause the particles
to lose kinetic energy and move
slower. Temperature drops.
At point N Liquid and The particles move so slowly to take
solid up fixed and orderly positions as in the
solid state. Start to freeze.
Section of the Physical Energy & temperature change
heating curve state

Between points Liquid and During freezing, heat is given off. The
N and O solid rate of heat loss to the surroundings
while cooling occurs is exactly
balanced by the rate of heat released
while freezing occurs. The temperature
and the kinetic energy remains
constant. Freezing point.
At point O Solid The particles are closely packed in an
orderly arrangement, vibrating and
rotating at their fixed positions.
Between points Solid Particles loses heat. This causes the
O and P particles to lose kinetic energy and to
move more slowly. The temperature
drops.