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# WELCOME

## Super Critical Boiler

660 MW x 3 Unit
CONTENTS
• Importance of Efficiency
• What is Thermal cycle Efficiency
• How to Increase Cycle efficiency
• What is Super critical Boiler
• Sipat Super Critical Boiler
• Comparison of Super Critical Over
Sub Critical
QUEST FOR EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT

## • Since the time thermal power stations have been

engineered, there is a quest for efficiency
improvement.
• And supercritical parameters (Press. above
225Kg/cm2 and temperature above 374.15 ºC) is an
effort in that direction.
• The selected supercritical parameters for Sipat
Boiler are :
• Pressure : 256 kg/cm2
• Temperature : 540 º C SH and 568ºC RH
RANKINE CYCLE
• The Carnot Cycle is theoretically most efficient, but it is
having practical difficulties.
• For steam power plant, practical thermal cycle was
suggested by Rankine, called Ideal cycle or Rankine
T cycle.
T1 4 1 3-3’ – BFP raises pressure from p2 to p1
p1
3’-4 – Heating In feed heaters & eco
3’ 4 -1 – Heating In boiler
1-2 – Work done in Turbine from p1 to p2
T2 2
3 p2

S
THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF RANKINE CYCLE
Q -Q
1 2W Useful work
• η = ------- = --- = ----------------
Q 1 Q Heat supplied
Rejected Heat
• η =1- --------------------
Useful Heat
T -T 1 T 2 2

T 1 T
1

## • To achieve more efficiency T2 should be as low as

possible and T1 should be as high as possible
CRITICAL CONDITION
Definition
“CRITICAL” is a thermodynamic expression
describing the state of a substance
beyond which there is no clear distinction
between the liquid and gaseous phase.
• The critical pressure & temperature for
water are
• Pressure = 225.56 Kg / cm2
• Temperature = 374.15 C
WHAT IS SUPER CRITICAL
Cycle of Super critical boiler
operating above critical pressure

P2

## Pcr The Operating Pressure is more than

T
the critical pressure which results in an
P1 increase in Work output and thus
Efficiency

S
T-S Diagram for a Supercritical
Cycle
WHY SUPERCRITICAL PRESSURE
• The purpose of having high inlet steam pressure
for turbine can be inferred from Previous
deliberations.
• A Boiler operating at a pressure above critical
point is called ‘SUPERCRITICAL BOILER’
• A point where boiling water and dry saturated
lines meet so that associated latent heat is zero,
this point is called Critical Point and occurs at 225
kg/cm2 (abs) 374.15º C temperature.
SUPERCRITICAL BOILER
• Supercritical pressure boiler has no drum and heat
absorbing surface being, in effect, one continuous
tube, hence called ‘once through Supercritical
pressure boilers.’
• The water in boiler is pressurized by Boiler Feed
Pump, sensible heat is added in feed heaters,
economizer and furnace tubes, until water attains
saturation temperature and flashes instantaneously
to dry saturated steam and super heating
commences.
SH

DRUM RISERS
BFP HTR ECO
DOWN COMER

Boiler

SH
SEPERATOR

W/WALL
BFP HTR ECO

## ONCE THROUGH SYSTEM

TEMP
600 540’C 568’C
SUPER CRITICAL
500 BOILER CYCLE
400
WITH SH, RH &
Regeneration
300 of SIPAT 3 x 660 MW
200 Steam flow :2225 T/Hr
Steam temp : 540 ‘c
Steam Pres : 256 kg/cm2
100 RH pre : 51.6 Kg/cm2
RH Temp : 568’c
Feed water Temp : 291’c

ENTROPY
COMPARISION OF THERMAL CYCLE
EFFICIENCIES.

## • OPEN CYCLE EFFICIENCY - 14.68 %

• WITH CONDENSER - 26.2 %
• WITH SUPER HEAT – 30.75 TO 34.15 %
• WITH REHEAT - 34.2 TO 36.6 %
• WITH SUPER CRITICAL PARAMETERS-
36.0 TO 39.15 %
INCREASE IN PLANT EFFICIENCY by SUPER
CRITICAL PARAMETERS
Efficiency Increase
1.5
6
5 0.9
0.6
4 3.2
3 .

## 167 bar 250 bar

250 bar 250bar 250 bar
538/538’c 538/538
540/560’c 566/566 ‘c 580/600’c
Sipat Stage 1 3 X 660 MW Supercritical Boiler

## 1 Overall View of Sipat Supercritical Boiler

2 Flow diagram
3 Total Erection material Weight
4 Material Used in Supercritical Boiler
5 Steam Parameters
6 Pressure parts Erection sequence
7 Overall Site Erection and Commissioning Flow Chart
Overall View Of Sipat Boiler

2. Spirally wounded
evaporators for safe
1. Large Single Funace
and reliable evaporator

## 4. High Strength material

3. Proven and economic
application heating surface
arrangement
5. Economic and safe
low load and startup
6. Burner tilting for
system by circulating
reheater steam
pump
temperature control

## 8. Long life and high 7. Low Nox Tangential

Performance mills Burner
FLOW DIAGRAM OF SIPAT SUPER-CRITICAL BOILER
ECONOMIZE FUR. ROOF BP & EXT,d
FURNACE WALL
R WALL WALL
S/H S/H S/H
SEPARAT
OR.

- Horizontal - FUR.
- SIDE (SPIRAL & VERT.) - B/P. ROOF - - PLATEN - FINAL
- Pendant - FRONT & REAR (SPIRAL & ROOF
- B/P. FRONT & REAR
DIVISION

STORAGE TK
VERT.) - B/P SDIDE (R.L)
- EXT. FLOOR &
SIDE(R.L)

LT R/H HT R/H
(Coil)

B Y O T H ER
BLR WTR fill in from F/W HTR
No.8
- PLATEN - FINAL

B Y O T H ER D S
B Y O T H ER D S
HP IP GENERATO
TB TB R
LP

B Y O T H ER
TB

DS

B Y O T H ER
BWR
P

CW in
CONDENSO
R CW
SUMMARY OF TOTAL TONNAGE BOILER
( 660 MW)
TOTAL
SL ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION QTY MT
1 STRUCTURAL STEEL & BUILDING 6924
2 BOILER PROPER & ACESSORIES 7080
3 REFRACTORIES, INSULATION & CLADDING 1410
4 POWER CYCLE PIPING 3032
5 STEAM BLOWING SYSTEM 54
6 COAL FIRING SYSTEM 3273.00
7 DRAFT SYSTEM 5004
8 FUEL OIL & FIRING SYSTEM 80.00
9 MISCELLANEOUS 130
10 ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION 277
GRAND TOTAL OF SG & AUXILIARIES 27264
Pressure Parts Material

Material Oxidation
Section SIPAT Criteria,
Economizer Tube SA210C ℃
Spiral SA213T22 SA-210C 454
Evaporator
Tube Vertical SA213T22 SA-213T2 482
Primary SA213T23, T91
Super heater SA-213T12 552
Tube Secondary SA213T12, T23, T91
SA-213T22 593
Final SA213T23, T91, T92
Primary SA210C, T12, T23 SA-213T23 593
Reheater
Tube Final SA213T23, T91 SA-213T91 649
SUPER304H
Separator SA302C SA-T92 649
SH outlet SA335P91
RH outlet SA335P91
H
STEAM PARAMETERS UNDER BMCR CONDITION

SL DESCRIPTION

## 1 STEAM FLOW AT SUPER HEATER OUTLET (T/HR) 2225

3 PRESSURE AT SUPER HEATER OUTLET KG/CM2 (ABS) 256
4 PRESSURE AT HP TURBINE INLET KG/CM2 (ABS) 247
5 TEMPERATURE AT SUPERHEATER OUTLET (DEG C) 540
7 STEAM FLOW TO REHEATER T/HR 1742.6
8 STEAM FLOW TO REHEATER ( T/HR) 1754
5 STEAM PRESSURE AT HP TURBINE EXHAUST KG/CM2 51.6
6 STEAM TEMP AT HP TURBINE EXHAUST DEG C 306.3
STEAM TEMP AT REHEATER OUTLET DEG C 568
7 STEAM TEMP AT IP TURBINE INLET DEGC 565
8 FEED WATER TEMP AT ECONOMISER INLET 291.9
2. Site Erection of Pressure Part Flow Chart& Milestone

## Lift Upper Parts Adjustment&

& Riser Pipes Centering

Vertical Panel
Lifting
Ground
3/3/’05 9/16/’05 10/15/’06
Assembly

Structural Hanger Rods Bundle Ground Links & Fitting & Hydro Test
Steel (Milestone) Assembly Connections Welding HP Part

Spiral& Hopper
Ground ass’y Lifting

Hydro Test
IP/LP Part
(Milestone)
Connection
Lift Windbox
Duct
3. Overall Site Erection & Commissioning Flow Chart

## Structural Pressure Commercial

Hydro Test Operation
Steelwork Part

Refractorie
s
MS Piping Insulation

## Pipe Fuel Oil ACID First

Rack System Cleaning Fire Oil

## Duct Soot Steam

E,C&I
Support Blower Blow

## Draft Coal Firing Coal Fire Plant

System System & Synchronize Testing

Misc.
System
Evaporator Design For Sipat
Supercritical Boiler

## • The Distinctive Feature of supercritical

Boiler is it’s Spirally Wounded Evaporator
which helps in uniform heat distribution.

## However the Erection and Welding is

Complicated
2. Evaporator Wall Construction (1/3)

• Upper Part
Vertical Wall

• Lower Part
Spiral Wall
2. Evaporator Wall Construction (2/3)

## The inclination of tube can reduce the

number of evaporator wall tubes and
ensures a minimum waterwall flow to
protect waterwall tube from
overheating regardless of the unit size

## Spiral wall ensures an even

distribution of heat, and avoid higher
thermal stresses in waterwalls by
reducing the fluid temperature
differences in adjacent tubes
3. Evaporator Wall Construction (3/3)

Evaporator Wall

• Spiral wall

## Horizontal and vertical

buckstay with tension strip

• Vertical wall

Horizontal buckstay

## Spirally wound waterwall

Supercritical Boiler Technology
Spiral Wall Evaporator

## Configuration of Evaporator panel

Spiral wall outlet temp at BMCR (front wall)
Spiral wall : Vertical wall = 3 : 1
Supercritical Boiler Technology
Difference between Sub – and Super- critical boiler
Item Subcritical boiler Supercritical boiler Remark
Evaporator Vertical wall Spiral wall

## Non uniform in heat Uniform in heat

absorption at each tube absorption at each tube
Suitable for Base load Suitable for Variable load

Temp. distribution at
evaporator outlet

Heat distribution at
evaporator
Erection complication

## Erection of Spiral Wall and

Burner alignment with spiral is
very complicated

## Erection of spiral wall Erection of spiral wall and windbox

Supercritical Boilers

Panel

hopper panel

## Spiral wall burner opening panel

Other Features of Supercritical
Boiler
SIPAT Boiler Design
Start up & Low Load Recirculation System
1. Assure a minimum flow (normally 30%) thru
economizer and evaporator by mixing of
circulation flow (20%) and flow from BFP (10%)
at low load, eg, 10%.
2. No water losses from circulation system by
circulation pump

Application
1. Minimum once-thru load : 30%
2. Heat recuperation : Circulating Pump
3. No of separator : Two
storage tank : One
SIPAT Boiler Design
Tangential Firing System

Characteristics :
1. 40 Nos ( 4 corners x 10 levels) of Tangential firing Low NOx burner
2. Max. NOx Emission: 260 g/Gj (360 ppm)
3. Max. unburned carbon loss 1.5%
SIPAT Boiler Design
High performance mills
Characteristics :
1. Number of Installation: 10sets (Design Coal: 7sets,Worst Coal: 9sets operation)
2. Verticl Bowl Type
3. Static Classifier ( 70% fineness thru 200mesh)
4. Design Capacity: 81.5 Ton/hr
III.COMPARISON OF SUPER AND SUBCRITICAL

1.Itemwise comparison
1) Definition
2) Power Plant Efficiency
3) Design / Performance
4) Manufacturing / Erection
5) Operation
6) Maintenance

2. Technical Feature

## 3. Initial Capital Cost

4. Operation and Maintenance
1. Item wise comparison

## • SUPERCRITICAL (ONCE-THRU) • SUBCRITICAL (DRUM)

– Operating pressure:
– Operating pressure: below
• 1.Definition above critical point 225.5
critical point 225.5 kg/cm2g
kg/cm2g

## – Normal operation: circulation

– Lower load start-up
by pump assisted or natural
circulation:
circulation

through

## 2.Power Plant – Higher plant efficiency: – Lower plant efficiency:

Efficiency -Around 35%
-Around 39%
@ Press. x Temp (SH/RH) @ Press. x Temp (SH/RH)
256kg/cm2 x 169kg/cm2 x
540 ℃/568 ℃ 538 ℃/538 ℃
1.Itemwise comparison
• SUPERCRITICAL (ONCE-THRU) • SUBCRITICAL (DRUM)

## • 3.Design / – No fixed point of – Fixed point of evaporation

Performance evaporation to achieve can only achieve stable
stable thermodynamic thermodynamic performance
performance even with with a limited coal
a variety of coal characteristics.
characteristics.

## – Minor additional cost to – Base

• 4.Manufacturing
manufacturing and
/ Erection
erection

* Addition cost to
manufacture and erect
furnace wall only
- Manufacturing : 2~3%
- Erection : max. 5%
1.Itemwise comparison
• SUPERCRITICAL (ONCE-THRU) • SUBCRITICAL (DRUM)

## – Daily start and stop – Base load operation

5.Operation operation
– Stable operation
– Rapid load change
– Less sensitive to
– High operation flexibility disturbance

## – Reduce start-up time

– No difference : – Base
• 6.Maintenance
( based on the experience of
500MW Korean standard
units)
2. Technical

## Pressure versus load at sliding 1. Minimal variation of first stage

pressure operation shell temperature of the turbine
under varying load conditions
2. Technical
 Utilizing sliding pressure operation

## 2. Extended control range of 3. Improved overall power – plant

superheater and reheater steam heat rates considering boiler –
temperature turbine , feed water pump and other
auxiliaries.

4. Improved steam flow distribution ay lower loads in the superheater and reheater because
of the higher specific volume of the steam at lower pressures
3. Initial Capital Cost

## Supercritical plant = ( 1.02 – 1.03 ) x Sub-critical plant

Due to high pressure components in such as pressure part, Boiler Feed water
Pump, Pipings, feed water heaters and so on
4. Operation and Maintenence

##  No specific difference from Sub-critical boilers from

operation and maintenance philosophy
Same overhaul schedule as Sub-critical boilers
Site Activities
1. Preassembly -
Preassembly of Header with Terminal tubes
Preassembly of Intermediate header
Preassembly of Rear arch Panels
Preassembly of Roof tubes in back pass with Eco Hanger tubes
Preassembly of Burner
Preassembly of Hopper panels along with Buck stays

## 2. Complicated Field Welding

Spiral Wall butt weld joints including Burner and Hopper

## Attachment Welding with tube in spiral wall both from

outside and inside
3D Modeling View of SIPAT Stage-I

Thank You